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Table of Contents

Cover Page
Foreword
Abbreviations
Synopsis
Preliminary title Of the general definitions of rights and the promulgation of the laws
    Chapter I Of law and customs
    Chapter II Of the publication of the laws
    Chapter III Of the effects of laws
    Chapter IV Of the application and construction of laws
    Chapter V Of the repeal of laws
Book I Of persons
    Title I Of the distinction of persons, and the privation of certain civil rights in certain cases
      Chapter I Of the distinction of persons established by nature
      Chapter II Of the distinctions of persons which are established by law
    Title II Of domicil and the manner of changing the same
    Title III Of absent persons
      Chapter I Of the curatorship of absent persons
      Chapter II Of the putting into provisional possession the heirs of the absentee
      Chapter III Of the effects of absence upon the eventual rights which may belong to the absentee
      Chapter IV Of the effects of absence respecting marriage
      Chapter V Of the care of minor children whose father has disappeared
    Title IV Of husband and wife
      Chapter I On marriage
      Chapter II How marriages may be contracted or made
      Chapter III Of the nullity of marriages
      Chapter IV Of the respective rights and duties of married persons
      Chapter V Of the dissolution of marriages
      Chapter VI Of second marriages
    Title V Of the separation from bed and board
      Chapter I Of the causes of separation from bed and board
      Chapter II Of the proceedings on separation from bed and board
      Chapter III Of the provisional proceedings to which a suit for separation may give occasion
      Chapter IV Of objections to the action of separation from bed and board
      Chapter V Of the effects of separation from bed and board
    Title VI Of master and servant
      Chapter I Of the several sorts of servants
      Chapter II Of free servants
      Chapter III Of slaves
    Title VII Of father and child
      Chapter I Of children in general
      Chapter II Of legitimate children
        Section I Of legitimacy resulting from marriage
        Section II Of the manner of proving the legitimate filiation
      Chapter III Of illegitimate children
        Section I Of legitimation
        Section II Of the acknowledgment of illegitimate children
      Chapter IV Of adoption
      Chapter V Of paternal authority
        Section I Of the duties of parents towards their legitimate children, and of the duties of legitimate children towards their parents
        Section II Of the duties of parents towards their natural children, and of the duties of natural children towards their parents
    Title VIII Of minors, of their tutorship, curatorship and emancipation
      Chapter I Of tutorship
        Section I General dispositions
        Section II Of tutorship by nature
        Section III Of tutorship by will
        Section IV Of the tutorship by the effect of the law
        Section V Of dative tutorship
        Section VI Of the under tutor
        Section VII Of the causes which dispense or excuse from the tutorship
        Section VIII Of incapacity for, exclusion from and deprivation of the tutorship
        Section IX Of the administration of the tutor
      Chapter II Of the curatorship of minors
      Chapter III Of emancipation
    Title IX Of persons insane, idiots, and other persons incapable of administering their estate
      Chapter I Of the interdiction and curatorship of persons incapable of administering their estate, whether on account of insanity or of some other infirmity
      Chapter II Of the other persons to whom curators are appointed
    Title X Of communities or corporations
      Chapter I Of the nature of communities or corporations, of their use and kind
      Chapter II Of the rights and privileges of communities or corporations and of their incapacities
      Chapter III Of the dissolution of communities or corporations
Book II Of things and of the different modifications of property
    Title I Of things or estates
      Chapter I Of the distinction of things or estates
      Chapter II Of immoveables
      Chapter III Of moveables
      Chapter IV Of estates considered in their relation to those who possess them
    Title II Of absolute ownership
      Chapter I Universal principles
      Chapter II Of the right of accession to what is produced by the thing
      Chapter III Of the right of accession to what unites or incorporates itself to the thing
        Section I Of the right of accession concerning immoveables
        Section II Of the right of accession concerning moveable things
    Title III Of usufruct, use and habitation
      Chapter I Of usufruct
        Section I General definitions
        Section II Of the rights of the usufructuary
        Section III Of the obligations of the usufructuary
        Section IV Of the obligations of the owner
        Section V How usufruct expires
      Chapter II Of the use and habitation
    Title IV Of predial services or services of land
      Chapter I General principles
      Chapter II Of services which originate from the natural situation of the place
      Chapter III Of services imposed by law
        Section I Of walls, fences, and ditches in common
        Section II Of the distance and of the intermediary works required for certain buildings
        Section III Of lights on the property of a neighbor
        Section IV Of the manner of carrying off rain from the roof
        Section V Of the right of passage
      Chapter IV Of services established by the act of man
        Section I Of the different kinds of services which may be established by the act of man
        Section II How services are acquired
        Section III Of the rights of the proprietor of the estate to which the service is due
        Section IV How Services are extinguished
Book III Of the different manners of acquiring the property of things
    Preliminary title General dispositions
    Title I Of successions
      Chapter I Of the different sorts of successions and heirs
      Chapter II Of legal successions
        Section I General rules
        Section II Of the succession of descendants
        Section III Of the succession of ascendants
        Section IV Of the succession of collaterals
      Chapter III Of irregular successions
      Chapter IV In what manner successions are opened
      Chapter V Of the incapacity and unworthiness of the heirs
      Chapter VI In what manner a succession is accepted and how it is renounced
        Section I Of the acceptance pure and simple
        Section II Of the acceptance of a succession with the benefit of an inventory
      Chapter VII Of the administration of vacant estates and estates ab intestato
      Chapter VIII Of partition among heirs and of the collation of goods
        Section I Of the nature of partition and in what manner it is made
        Section II Of the collation of goods
        Section III Of the payment of debts
        Section IV Of the effect of partition and of its rescision
    Title II Of donations inter vivos (between living persons) and mortis causa (in prospect of death)
      Chapter I General dispositions
      Chapter II Of the capacity necessary for disposing of and receiving by donation inter vivos or mortis causa
      Chapter III Of the portion disposable, and of its reduction in case of excess
        Section I Of the disposable portion and the legitime
        Section II Of the reduction of dispositions inter vivos or mortis causa; of the manner in which it is made and of its effects
      Chapter IV Of dispositions reprobated by the law in donations inter vivos and mortis causa
      Chapter V Of donations inter vivos (between living)
        Section I Of the irrevocability of donations inter vivos
        Section II Of the form of donations inter vivos
        Section III Of the exceptions to the rule of the irrevocability of donations inter vivos
      Chapter VI Of dispositions mortis causa (in the prospect of death)
        Section I Of testament or codicil
        Section II Of the form of testaments and codicils
        Section III Of testamentary dispositions
        Section IV Of the institution of heir and of disinherison
        Section V Of legacies
        Section VI Of the opening and the proof of wills, and of testamentary executions
        Section VII Of the revocation of testaments and codicils and of their caducity
        Section VIII Of the interpretation of testamentary dispositions
      Chapter VII Of partitions made by parents among their descendants
      Chapter VIII Of donations made by marriage contract to the husband or wife, and to the children to be born of the marriage
      Chapter IX Of donations between married persons, either by marriage contract, or during the marriage
    Title III Of contracts and of conventional obligations in general
      Chapter I Preliminary dispositions
      Chapter II Of the conditions essential to the validity of agreements
        Section I Of consent
        Section II Of the capability of the parties contracting
        Section III Of the object and the matter of contracts
        Section IV Of the cause
      Chapter III Of the effect of obligations
        Section I General dispositions
        Section II Of the obligation of giving
        Section III Of the obligations of doing or of not doing
        Section IV Of the damages resulting from the non execution of the obligation
        Section V Of the interpretation of the agreements
        Section VI Of the effect of agreements with regard to persons not parties to them
      Chapter IV Of the different kinds of obligations
        Section I Of conditional obligations
          § 1 Of the condition in general and of its different kinds
          § 2 Of the suspensive condition
          § 3 Of the dissolving condition
        Section II Of obligations to be performed at a certain term
        Section III Of the alternative obligations
        Section IV Of obligations in solido or jointly and severally
          § 1 Of the obligation in solido between creditors
          § 2 Of the obligation in solido on the part of debtors
        Section V Of obligations divisible and indivisible
          § 1 Of the effects of a divisible obligation
          § 2 Of the effect of the indivisible obligation
        Section VI Of obligations with penal clauses
      Chapter V Of the extinction of obligations
        Section I Of payment
          § 1 Of payment in general
          § 2 Of payment with subrogation
          § 3 Of the imputation of payments
          § 4 Of tenders of payment, and consignment
          § 5 Of the surrender of property
        Section II Of novation
        Section III Of the remission of the debt
        Section IV Of compensation
        Section V Of confusion
        Section VI Of the loss of the thing due
        Section VII Of the action of nullity or of rescission of agreements
      Chapter VI Of the proof of obligations and of that of payment
        Section I Of the literal proof
          § 1 Of the authentic title
          § 2 Of the acts under private signature
          § 3 Of copies of titles
          § 4 Of recognitive and confirmative acts
        Section II Of testimonial proof
        Section III Of presumptions
          § 1 Of presumptions established by law
          § 2 Of presumption not established by law
        Section IV Of the confession of the party
        Section V Of the proof by oath
    Title IV Of engagements formed without agreements, or of quasi contracts and quasi offences
      Section I Of the quasi contract
      Section II Of quasi crimes or offences
    Title V Of marriage contract
      Chapter I General dispositions
      Chapter II Of the various kinds of matrimonial agreements
        Section I Of donations made in consideration of marriage
        Section II Of dowry or marriage portion
        Section III Of paraphernalia or extra dotal effects
        Section IV Of the partnership or community of acquests or gains
      Chapter III Of the separation of property
    Title VI Of sale
      Chapter I Of the nature and form of the contract of sale, and of the manner in which it is to be performed
      Chapter II Of persons capable of buying and selling, and of things which may be sold
      Chapter III Of the obligations of the seller
        Section I Of the tradition or delivery of the thing sold
        Section II Of the warranty, in case of eviction of the thing sold
        Section III Of the warranty of the defects of the thing sold or of the redhibitory vices
      Chapter IV Of the obligations of the buyer
      Chapter V Of the nullity and rescissions of the sale
        Section I Of the power or right of redemption
        Section II Of the rescission of sales on account of lesion
      Chapter VI Of sales by cant or auction
      Chapter VII Of the assignment or transfer of debts and other incorporeal rights
    Title VII Of exchange
    Title VIII Of letting and hiring
      Chapter I Of the several species of contracts for letting and hiring
      Chapter II Of the contract for letting out things
        Section I Of the form and duration of leases
        Section II Of the obligations of the lessor
        Section III Of the obligations of the lessee
        Section IV Of the dissolution of leases
      Chapter III Of the letting out of labour or industry
        Section I Of the hiring of servants and workmen
        Section II Of carriers and watermen
        Section III Of plots for buildings and other works
    Title IX Of partnership
      Chapter I General dispositions
      Chapter II Of the various kinds of partnerships
      Chapter III Of the obligations of partners towards each other, and towards third persons
        Section I Of the obligations of partners towards each other
        Section II Of the obligations of partners towards third persons
      Chapter IV Of the different manners in which partnerships end
    Title X Of loan
      Chapter I Of the loan for use or commodatum
        Section I Of the nature of the loan for use
        Section II Of the engagements of the borrower for use
        Section III Of the engagements of the lender for use
      Chapter II Of the loan for consumption or mutuum
        Section I Of the nature of the loan for consumption
        Section II Of the obligations of the lender for consumption
        Section III Of the engagements of the borrower for consumption
      Chapter III Of loan on interest
    Title XI Of deposit and sequestration
      Chapter I Of deposit in general and of its divers kinds
      Chapter II Of the deposit properly so called
        Section I Of the nature and essence of the contract of deposit
        Section II Of the obligations of the depository
        Section III Of the obligations of him by whom the deposit has been made
        Section IV Of the necessary deposit
      Chapter III Of sequestration
        Section I Of its different species
        Section II Of the conventional sequestration
        Section III Of the judicial sequestration or deposit
    Title XII Of aleatory contracts
    Title XIII Of mandate or commission
      Chapter I Of the nature of proxies, mandates and commissions
      Chapter II What persons may be appointed attornies in fact
      Chapter III Of the obligations of a person acting under a power of attorney
      Chapter IV Of the obligations of the principal who acts by his attorney in fact
      Chapter V How the procuration expires
    Title XIV Of suretyship
      Chapter I Of the nature and extent of suretyship
      Chapter II Of the effects of suretyship
        Section I Of the effects of suretyship between the creditor and the surety
        Section II Of the effects of suretyship between the debtor and the surety
        Section III Respecting the effects of suretyship between the sureties
      Chapter III Of the extinction of suretyship
      Chapter IV Of the legal and judicial sureties
    Title XV Of transactions
    Title XVI Of respite
    Title XVII Of compromises or arbitration
    Title XVIII Of pledge
    Title XIX Of privileges and mortgages
      Chapter I Of the nature of a mortgage and of its several sorts
      Chapter II Who may mortgage and what thing may be mortgaged
      Chapter III Of the effects of mortgage
        Section I Of the effects of mortgage with regard to the debtor
        Section II Of the effects of mortgages against third possessors and of the action of mortgage
        Section III Of the registering of mortgages and of the register kept for that purpose
      Chapter IV Of the order of privileges and mortgages
        Section I Of the preference and order of privileges
      Chapter V How privileges or mortgages expire or are extinguished
    Title XX Of occupancy, possession and prescription
      Chapter I Of occupancy
      Chapter II Of possession
      Chapter III Of prescription
        Section I Of the possession required to establish prescription
        Section II Of the causes which suspend or interrupt prescriptions
        Section III Of the several species of prescription
    Title XXI Of the title by judgment or seizure
Index
Manuscript index
Manuscript index Part 2

CHAPTER III - OF THE PORTION DISPOSABLE, AND OF ITS REDUCTION IN CASE OF EXCESS

 

SECTION I - OF THE DISPOSABLE PORTION AND THE LEGITIME

Art. 19. Donations either between inter vivos or mortis causa, cannot exceed the fifth part of the property of the disposer, if he leaves at his decease, one or more legitimate children or descendants born or to be born.

Art. 20. Donations either inter vivos or mortis causa, cannot exceed one third part of the property, if the disposer having no children, leave one or several legitimate ascendants in the direct line.

Art. 21. Where there are no legitimate ascendants or descendants, donations inter vivos or mortis causa, may be made to the whole amount of the property of the disposer.

Art. 22. That portion of the property of which the law forbids the disposal to the prejudice of the descendants or ascendants, is called the legitime.
That portion is four fifths of the property in favor of the legitimate children or descendants coming to the succession of their ascendants; and of two thirds of the property in favor of legitimate ascendants coming to the succession of their descendants.
In these two cases the legitimate descendants and ascendants are called forced heirs, because it does not depend upon the disposer to deprive them of the portion reserved to them by law, in the succession, without a just cause for disinheriting them.

Art. 23. If the disposition made by donation inter vivos or mortis causa, be of an usufruct, or of an annuity, the value of which exceeds the portion disposable, the heirs in favor of whom the law makes a reservation, have the option either to execute the disposition, or to relinquish their right of ownership to the disposable portion.

Art. 24. The value in full ownership of property alienated either on the charge of an annuity or the capital being sunk, or with the reservation of an usufruct, to one of those who succeed to the inheritance in the direct descending line, shall be imputed on the disposable portion, and the surplus if any there be, shall be brought in the succession, but this imputation, and this collation cannot be demanded by any of the others succeeding to the inheritance in the direct descending line, who have consented to those alienations.

Art. 25. The disposable quantum may be given in whole or in part, by an act inter vivos or mortis causa, to one or more of the disposer's children, or successible descendants to the prejudice of his other children or successible descendants, without its being liable to be brought in the succession by the donee or legatee, provided the disposition be made expressly under the title of advantage or extra part.
The declaration setting forth that the donation or legacy is under the title of advantage or extra part, may be made either by the act containing the disposition, or posteriorly by an instrument executed before a notary public in presence of two witnesses.

 

SECTION II - OF THE REDUCTION OF DISPOSITIONS INTER VIVOS OR MORTIS CAUSA; OF THE MANNER IN WHICH IT IS MADE AND OF ITS EFFECTS

Art. 26. Any disposition, whether inter vivos or mortis causa, exceeding the quantum of which a person may legally dispose, to the prejudice of the forced heirs, is not null, but only reducible to that quantum.

Art. 27. A donation inter vivos exceeding the quantum disposable retains all its effect during the life of the donor.

Art. 28. On the death of the donor or testator, the reduction of the donation whether inter vivos or mortis causa, can be sued for only by those in whose favor the law reserves the legitime or legal portion, or by their heirs or assigns: neither the donees, legatees nor creditors of the deceased can require that reduction nor avail themselves of it.

Art. 29. To determine the reduction of which the donations either inter vivos or mortis causa may be susceptible, an aggregate is formed of all the property belonging to the donor or testator at the time of his decease; to that is ficticiously added the property disposed of by donation inter vivos in the state in which it was at the period of the donation, and its value at the time of the donor's decease.  On that property is calculated, after the deduction of the debts, what is the quantum he might have disposed of, regard being had to the quantity of the heirs he has left, whether ascendants or descendants.

Art. 30. Donation inter vivos can never be reduced until the value of all the property comprised in donations on account of death, be exhausted; and when there is occasion for that reduction, it shall be made by beginning with the last donation, and thus successively ascending from the last to the oldest.

Art. 31. If the donation inter vivos liable to be reduced, was made to one of those who succeed to any part of the estate, the latter is authorised to retain of the property given, the value of the portion that would belong to him as heir, in the property not disposable, if it be of the same nature.

Art. 32. When the value of donations inter vivos exceeds or equals the quantum disposable, all dispositions mortis causa are without effect.

Art. 33. When the dispositions mortis causa exceeds either the disposable quantum, or the portion of that quantum, that remains after the deduction of the value of the donations inter vivos, the reduction shall be made at one marc in the livre (five per cent.) without any distinction between universal dispositions and particular ones.

Art. 34. Nevertheless in case the testator has expressly declared that he intended that any particular legacy should be paid preferably to the others, that preference shall take place and the legacy that is the object of it, shall not be reduced, if the value of the others does not fall short of the legal reservation.

Art. 35. The donee restores the proceeds of what exceeds the disposable portion, only from the day of the donor's decease, if the demand of the reduction was made within the year; otherwise from the day of the demand.

Art. 36. Immoveable property that is brought in the succession, through the effect of reduction, is brought in it without any charge of debts or mortgages created by the donee.

Art. 37. The action of reduction or reclaim may be brought by the heirs against third persons holding said immoveable property which has been alienated by the donee, in the same manner and order that it may be bro't against the donee himself, but after the execution of the property of said donee.

Art. 38. If the donee has successively sold several objects of real estate liable to an action of reclaim, that action must be brought against third persons holding the property, according to the order of their purchases, beginning from the first, and ascending in succession from the last to the oldest.

 

CHAPTER IV - OF DISPOSITIONS REPROBATED BY THE LAW IN DONATIONS INTER VIVOS AND MORTIS CAUSA

Art. 39. In all dispositions inter vivos and mortis causa the impossible conditions, those which are contrary to the laws, or to morals, are reputed not written.

Art. 40. Substitution and fidei commissa are and remain prohibited.
Every disposition by which the donee, the heir or legatee, is charged to the preserve for or to return a thing to a third person, is null, even with regard to the donee, the heir instituted or the legatee.
By means of what is contained in this article, there will be no longer occasion for the trebillianick portion in use by the civil law, that is for the portion of the property of the testator which the instituted heir had a right to retain when he was charged with a fidei commissa or fiduciary bequest.

Art. 41. The disposition by which a stranger is called to take the gift, the inheritance, or the legacy in case the donee, the heir, or the legatee does not take it, shall not be considered a substitution, and shall be valid.

Art. 42. The same shall be observed as to the disposition inter vivos or mortis causa, by which the usufruct is given to one and the naked property to the other.

< Previous | Next >© Manuscript notes copyright 1968 by Louis V. de la Vergne.
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