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Louisiana Civil Code
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Table of Contents
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Preliminary Title (Art. 1 to 23)
    Chapter 1 General Principles (Art. 1 to 8)
    Chapter 2 Interpretation of Laws (Art. 9 to 13)
    Chapter 3 Conflict of Laws (Art. 14 to 23)
Book I Of Persons (Art. 24 to 399)
    Title I Natural and Juridical Persons (Art. 24 to 37)
    Title II Domicile (Art. 38 to 46)
    Title III Absent Persons (Art. 47 to 85)
      Chapter 1 Curatorship of the Property of Absent Persons (Art. 47 to 53)
      Chapter 2 Declaration of Death (Art. 54 to 85)
    Title IV Husband and Wife (Art. 86 to 101)
      Chapter 1 Marriage: General Principles (Art. 86 to 93)
      Chapter 2 Nullity of Marriage (Art. 94 to 97)
      Chapter 3 Incidents and Effects of Marriage (Art. 98 to 100)
      Chapter 4 Termination of Marriage (Art. 101)
    Title V Divorce (Art. 102 to 161)
      Chapter 1 The Divorce Action (Art. 102 to 110)
      Chapter 2 Provisional and Incidental Proceedings (Art. 111 to 158)
        Section 1 Spousal Support (Art. 111 to 120)
        Section 2 Claim for Contributions to Education or Training (Art. 121 to 130)
        Section 3 Child Custody (Art. 131 to 140)
        Section 4 Child Support (Art. 141 to 150)
        Section 5 Provisional and Incidental Proceedings in Actions of Nullity (Art. 151 to 158)
      Chapter 3 Effects of Divorce (Art. 159 to 161)
    Title VI Of Master and Servant (Art. 162 to 177)
    Title VII Parent and Child (Art. 178 to 245)
      Chapter 1 Filiation (Art. 178 to 183)
      Chapter 2 Filiation by Proof of Maternity or Paternity (Art. 184 to 198)
        Section 1 Proof of Maternity (Art. 184)
        Section 2 Proof of Paternity (Art. 185 to 198)
          Subsection A The Presumption of Paternity of Husband; Disavowal of Paternity; Contestation; Establishment of Paternity (Art. 185 to 194)
          Subsection B Presumption of Paternity by Subsequent Marriage and Acknowledgment (Art. 195)
          Subsection C Other Methods of Establishing Paternity (Art. 196 to 198)
      Chapter 3 Filiation by Adoption (Art. 199 to 214)
        Section 1 Effect of Adoption (Art. 199)
        Section 2 Adoption of Minors (Art. 200 to 211)
        Section 3 Adoption of Adults (Art. 212 to 214)
      Chapter 4 Filiation of Children by Assisted Reproductive Technology [Reserved]
      Chapter 5 Of Parental Authority (Art. 215 to 245)
        Section 1 Of the Duties of Parents towards their Legitimate Children, and of the Duties of Legitimate Children towards their Parents (Art. 215 to 237)
        Section 2 Of the Duties of Parents toward their Illegitimate Children, and of the Duties of Illegitimate Children toward their Parents (Art. 238 to 245)
    Title VIII Of Minors, of their Tutorship and Emancipation (Art. 246 to 688)
      Chapter 1 Of Tutorship (Art. 246 to 364)
        Section 1 General Dispositions (Art. 246 to 249)
        Section 2 Of Tutorship by Nature (Art. 250 to 256)
        Section 3 Of the Tutorship by Will (Art. 257 to 262)
        Section 4 Of the Tutorship by the Effect of the Law (Art. 263 to 269)
        Section 5 Of Dative Tutorship (Art. 270 to 272)
        Section 6 Of the Undertutor (Art. 273 to 280)
        Section 7 Of Family Meetings (Art. 281 to 291)
        Section 8 Of the Causes which Dispense or Excuse from the Tutorship (Art. 292 to 301)
        Section 9 Of the Incapacity For, the Exclusion From, and Deprivation of the Tutorship (Art. 302 to 306)
        Section 10 Of the Appointment, Recognition, or Confirmation of Tutors, of the Persons Whose Duty it is to Cause Tutors to be Appointed and of the Liability of Such Persons (Art. 307 to 335)
        Section 11 Of the Administration of the Tutor (Art. 336 to 353)
        Section 12 Of Continuing or Permanent Tutorship of Mentally Retarded Persons (Art. 354 to 364)
      Chapter 2 Emancipation (Art. 365 to 388)
    Title IX Persons Unable to Care for their Persons or Property (Art. 389 to 399)
      Chapter 1 Grounds for Interdiction (Art. 389 to 391)
      Chapter 2 General Duties of Curators and Undercurators (Art. 392 to 393)
      Chapter 3 Effects of Interdiction (Art. 394 to 396)
      Chapter 4 Modification and Termination of Interdiction (Art. 397 to 398)
      Chapter 5 Responsibility for Wrongful Filing of Interdiction Petition (Art. 399)
    Title X Of Corporations [Repealed]
Book II Things and the Different Modifications of Ownership (Art. 448 to 869)
    Title I Things (Art. 448 to 476)
      Chapter 1 Division of Things (Art. 448 to 475)
        Section 1 General Principles (Art. 448 to 461)
        Section 2 Immovables (Art. 462 to 470)
        Section 3 Movables (Art. 471 to 475)
      Chapter 2 Rights in Things (Art. 476)
    Title II Ownership (Art. 477 to 532)
      Chapter 1 General Principles (Art. 477 to 482)
      Chapter 2 Right of Accession (Art. 483 to 516)
        Section 1 Ownership of Fruits (Art. 483 to 489)
        Section 2 Accession in Relation to Immovables (Art. 490 to 506)
        Section 3 Accession in Relation to Movables (Art. 507 to 516)
      Chapter 3 Transfer of Ownership by Agreement (Art. 517 to 525)
      Chapter 4 Protection of Ownership (Art. 526 to 532)
    Title III Personal Servitudes (Art. 533 to 645)
      Chapter 1 Kinds of Servitudes (Art. 533 to 534)
      Chapter 2 Usufruct (Art. 535 to 629)
        Section 1 General Principles (Art. 535 to 549)
        Section 2 Rights of the Usufructuary (Art. 550 to 569)
        Section 3 Obligations of the Usufructuary (Art. 570 to 602)
        Section 4 Rights and Obligations of the Naked Owner (Art. 603 to 606)
        Section 5 Termination of Usufruct (Art. 607 to 629)
      Chapter 3 Habitation (Art. 630 to 638)
      Chapter 4 Rights of Use (Art. 639 to 645)
    Title IV Predial Servitudes (Art. 646 to 774)
      Chapter 1 General Principles (Art. 646 to 654)
      Chapter 2 Natural Servitudes (Art. 655 to 658)
      Chapter 3 Legal Servitudes (Art. 659 to 696)
        Section 1 Limitations on Ownership (Art. 659 to 672)
        Section 2 Common Enclosures (Art. 673 to 688)
        Section 3 Right of Passage (Art. 689 to 696)
      Chapter 4 Conventional or Voluntary Servitudes (Art. 697 to 774)
        Section 1 Kinds of Conventional Servitudes (Art. 697 to 707)
        Section 2 Establishment of Predial Servitudes by Title (Art. 708 to 734)
        Section 3 Acquisition of Conventional Servitudes for the Dominant Estate (Art. 735 to 743)
        Section 4 Rights of the Owner of the Dominant Estate (Art. 744 to 750)
        Section 5 Extinction of Predial Servitudes (Art. 751 to 774)
    Title V Building Restrictions (Art. 775 to 783)
    Title VI Boundaries (Art. 784 to 796)
      Chapter 1 General Principles (Art. 784 to 791)
      Chapter 2 Effect of Titles, Prescription, or Possession (Art. 792 to 796)
    Title VII Ownership in Indivision (Art. 797 to 869)
Book III Of the Different Modes of Acquiring the Ownership of Things (Art. 870 to 3514)
    Preliminary Title General Dispositions (Art. 870)
    Title I Of Successions (Art. 871 to 1466)
      Chapter 1 Of the Different Sorts of Successions and Successors (Art. 871 to 879)
      Chapter 2 Of Intestate Succession (Art. 880 to 901)
      Chapter 3 Of the Rights of the State (Art. 902 to 933)
      Chapter 4 Commencement of Succession (Art. 934 to 938)
      Chapter 5 Loss of Succession Rights (Art. 939 to 946)
      Chapter 6 Acceptance and Renunciation of Successions (Art. 947 to 1074)
        Section 1 General Principles (Art. 947 to 956)
        Section 2 Acceptance (Art. 957 to 962)
        Section 3 Renunciation (Art. 963 to 966)
        Section 4 Acceptance of Succession by Creditors (Art. 967 to 1074)
      Chapter 7 Of the Seals, and of the Affixing and Raising of the Same [Repealed] (Art. 1075 to 1094)
      Chapter 8 Of the Administration of Vacant and Intestate Successions (Art. 1095 to 1219)
        Section 1 General Dispositions (Art. 1095 to 1100)
        Section 2 Of the Inventory of Vacant and Intestate Successions Subject to Administration [Repealed] (Art. 1101 to 1112)
        Section 3 Of the Appointment of Curators to Successions, and of the Security they are Bound to Give [Repealed] (Art. 1113 to 1132)
        Section 4 Of the Duties and Powers of Curators of Vacant Successions and of Absent Heirs (Art. 1133 to 1157)
        Section 5 Of the Causes for which a Curator of a Succession may be Dismissed or Superseded [Repealed] (Art. 1158 to 1161)
        Section 6 Of the Sale of the Effects and of the Settlement of Successions Administered by Curators (Art. 1162 to 1190)
        Section 7 Of the Account to be rendered by the Curators and the Commission Due to them (Art. 1191 to 1209)
        Section 8 Of the Appointment of Counsel of Absent Heirs, and of their Duties [Repealed] (Art. 1210 to 1219)
      Chapter 9 Of the Successions of Persons Domiciliated Out of the State, and of the Tax Due by Foreign Heirs, Legatees and Donees [Repealed] (Art. 1220 to 1223)
        Section 1 Of the Successions of Persons Domiciliated Out of the State [Repealed] (Art. 1220)
        Section 2 Of the Tax Due by Foreign Heirs, Legatees and Donees [Repealed] (Art. 1221 to 1223)
      Chapter 10 Of Successions Administered by Syndics [Repealed] (Art. 1224 to 1226)
      Chapter 11 Of Collations (Art. 1227 to 1288)
        Section 1 What Collation is, and by Whom It is Due (Art. 1227 to1241)
        Section 2 To Whom the Collation is Due, and What Things are Subject to It (Art. 1242 to 1250)
        Section 3 How Collations are Made (Art. 1251 to 1288)
      Chapter 12 Of the Partition of Successions (Art. 1289 to 1414)
        Section 1 Of the Nature of Partition, and of its Several Kinds (Art. 1289 to 1306)
        Section 2 Among What Persons Partition Can be Sued For (Art. 1307 to 1321)
        Section 3 In What Manner the Judicial Partition is Made (Art. 1322 to 1346)
        Section 4 How the Recorder of the Parish or the Notary is Bound to Proceed in the Judicial Partition (Art. 1347 to 1381)
        Section 5 Of the Effect of Partition (Art. 1382 to 1383)
        Section 6 Of the Warranty of Partition (Art. 1384 to 1396)
        Section 7 Of the Rescission of Partition (Art. 1397 to 1414)
      Chapter 13 Payment of the Debts of an Estate (Art. 1415 to 1466)
        Section 1 General Dispositions Introduction (Art. 1415)
        Section 2 Rights of Creditors (Art. 1416 to 1419)
        Section 3 Responsibility of Successors among Themselves (Art. 1420 to 1466)
    Title II Donations (Art. 1467 to 1755)
      Chapter 1 General Dispositions (Art. 1467 to 1469)
      Chapter 2 Of the Capacity Necessary for Disposing and Receiving by Donation Inter Vivos or Mortis Causa (Art. 1470 to 1492)
      Chapter 3 The Disposable Portion and its Reduction in Case of Excess (Art. 1493 to 1518)
      Chapter 4 Of Dispositions Reprobated by Law in Donations Inter Vivos and Mortis Causa (Art. 1519 to 1522)
      Chapter 5 Donations Inter Vivos (art. 1523 to 1569.1)
        Section 1 General Dispositions (Art. 1523 to 1540)
        Section 2 Of the Form of Donations Inter Vivos (Art. 1541 to 1555)
        Section 3 Exceptions to the Rule of the Irrevocability of Donations Inter Vivos (Art. 1556 to 1569.1)
      Chapter 6 Dispositions Mortis Causa (Art. 1570 to 1723)
        Section 1 Testaments Generally (Art. 1570 to 1573)
        Section 2 Forms of Testaments (Art. 1574 to 1580.1)
        Section 3 Of the Competence of Witnesses and of Certain Designations in Testaments (Art. 1581 to 1583)
        Section 4 Testamentary Dispositions (Art. 1584 to 1604)
        Section 5 Probate of Testaments (Art. 1605)
        Section 6 Revocation of Testaments and Legacies (Art. 1606 to 1610.1)
        Section 7 Rules for the Interpretation of Legacies (Art. 1611 to 1616)
        Section 8 Disinherison (Art. 1617 to 1723)
      Chapter 7 Of Partitions Made by Parents and Other Ascendants among their Descendants (Art. 1724 to 1733)
      Chapter 8 Of Donations Inter Vivos Made in Contemplation of Marriage by Third Persons (Art. 1734 to 1743)
        Section 1 In General (Art. 1734 to 1736)
        Section 2 Donations of Present Property (Art. 1737)
        Section 3 Donations of Property to be Left at Death (Art. 1738 to 1743)
      Chapter 9 Of Interspousal Donations Inter Vivos (Art. 1744 to 1755)
    Title III Obligations in General (Art. 1756 to 1905)
      Chapter 1 General Principles (Art. 1756 to 1759)
      Chapter 2 Natural Obligations (Art. 1760 to 1762)
      Chapter 3 Kinds of Obligations (Art. 1763 to 1820)
        Section 1 Real Obligations (Art. 1763 to 1764)
        Section 2 Strictly Personal and Heritable Obligations (Art. 1765 to 1766)
        Section 3 Conditional Obligations (Art. 1767 to 1776)
        Section 4 Obligations with a Term (Art. 1777 to 1785)
        Section 5 Obligations with Multiple Persons (Art. 1786 to 1806)
        Section 6 Conjunctive and Alternative Obligations (Art. 1807 to 1814)
        Section 7 Divisible and Indivisible Obligations (Art. 1815 to 1820)
      Chapter 4 Transfer of Obligations (Art. 1821 to 1830)
        Section 1 Assumption of Obligations (Art. 1821 to 1824)
        Section 2 Subrogation (Art. 1825 to 1830)
      Chapter 5 Proof of Obligations (Art. 1831 to 1853)
      Chapter 6 Extinction of Obligations (Art. 1854 to 1905)
        Section 1 Performance (Art. 1854 to 1872)
          Subsection A Imputation of Payment (Art. 1864 to 1868)
          Subsection B Tender and Deposit (Art. 1869 to 1872)
        Section 2 Impossibility of Performance (Art. 1873 to 1878)
        Section 3 Novation (Art. 1879 to 1887)
        Section 4 Remission of Debt (Art. 1888 to 1892)
        Section 5 Compensation (Art. 1893 to 1902)
        Section 6 Confusion (Art. 1903 to 1905)
    Title IV Conventional Obligations or Contracts (Art. 1906 to 2291)
      Chapter 1 General Principles (Art. 1906 to 1917)
      Chapter 2 Contractual Capacity and Exceptions (Art. 1918 to 1926)
      Chapter 3 Consent (Art. 1927 to 1947)
      Chapter 4 Vices of Consent (Art. 1948 to 1965)
        Section 1 Error (Art. 1948 to 1952)
        Section 2 Fraud (Art. 1953 to 1958)
        Section 3 Duress (Art. 1959 to 1964)
        Section 4 Lesion (Art. 1965)
      Chapter 5 Cause (Art. 1966 to 1970)
      Chapter 6 Object and Matter of Contracts (Art. 1971 to 1977)
      Chapter 7 Third Party Beneficiary (Art. 1978 to 1982)
      Chapter 8 Effects of Conventional Obligations (Art. 1983 to 2012)
        Section 1 General Effects of Contracts (Art. 1983 to 1985)
        Section 2 Specific Performance (Art. 1986 to 1988)
        Section 3 Putting in Default (Art. 1989 to 1993)
        Section 4 Damages (Art. 1994 to 2004)
        Section 5 Stipulated Damages (Art. 2005 to 2012)
      Chapter 9 Dissolution (Art. 2013 to 2024)
      Chapter 10 Simulation (Art. 2025 to 2028)
      Chapter 11 Nullity (Art. 2029 to 2035)
      Chapter 12 Revocatory Action and Oblique Action (Art. 2036 to 2044)
        Section 1 Revocatory Action (Art. 2036 to 2043)
        Section 2 Oblique Action (Art. 2044)
      Chapter 13 Interpretation of Contracts (Art. 2045 to 2291)
    Title V Obligations Arising without Agreement (Art. 2292 to 2324.2)
      Chapter 1 Management of Affairs (Negotiorum Gestio) (Art. 2292 to 2297)
      Chapter 2 Enrichment without Cause (Art. 2298 to 2314)
        Section 1 General Principles (Art. 2298)
        Section 2 Payment of a Thing not owed (Art. 2299 to 2314)
      Chapter 3 Of Offenses and Quasi Offenses (Art. 2315 to 2324.2)
    Title VI Matrimonial Regimes (Art. 2325 to 2437)
      Chapter 1 General Principles (Art. 2325 to 2333)
      Chapter 2 The Legal Regime of Community of Acquets and Gains (Art. 2334 to 2369.8)
        Section 1 General Dispositions (Art. 2334 to 2345)
        Section 2 Management of Community Property (Art. 2346 to 2355.1)
        Section 3 Termination of the Community (Art. 2356 to 2369.8)
      Chapter 3 Separation of Property Regime (Art. 2370 to 2431)
      Chapter 4 Marital Portion (Art. 2432 to 2437)
    Title VII Sale (Art. 2438 to 2659)
      Chapter 1 Of the Nature and Form of the Contract of Sale (Art. 2438 to 2446)
      Chapter 2 Of Persons Capable of Buying and Selling (Art. 2447)
      Chapter 3 Of Things Which May be Sold (Art. 2448 to 2455)
      Chapter 4 How the Contract of Sale is to be Perfected (Art. 2456 to 2463)
      Chapter 5 Of the Price of the Contract of Sale (Art. 2464 to 2466)
      Chapter 6 At Whose Risk the Thing is, After the Sale is Completed (Art. 2467 to 2473)
      Chapter 7 Of the Obligations of the Seller (Art. 2474 to 2499)
      Chapter 8 Eviction (Art. 2500 to 2519)
      Chapter 9 Redhibition (Art. 2520 to 2548)
      Chapter 10 Of the Obligations of the Buyer (Art. 2549 to 2566)
      Chapter 11 Of the Sale with a Right of Redemption (Art. 2567 to 2588)
      Chapter 12 Rescission for Lesion beyond Moiety (Art. 2589 to 2600)
      Chapter 13 Sales of Movables (Art. 2601 to 2619)
      Chapter 14 Agreements Preparatory to the Sale (Art. 2620 to 2641)
        Section 1 Option (Art. 2620 to 2622)
        Section 2 Contract to Sell (Art. 2623 to 2624)
        Section 3 Right of First Refusal (Art. 2625 to 2626)
        Section 4 Effects (Art. 2627 to 2641)
      Chapter 15 Assignment of Rights (Art. 2642 to 2654)
      Chapter 16 Of the Giving in Payment (Art. 2655 to 2659)
    Title VIII Of Exchange (Art. 2660 to 2667)
    Title IX Lease (Art. 2668 to 2777)
      Chapter 1 General Provisions (Art. 2668 to 2672)
      Chapter 2 Essential Elements (Art. 2673 to 2681)
        Section 1 The Thing (Art. 2673 to 2674)
        Section 2 The Rent (Art. 2675 to 2677)
        Section 3 The Term (Art. 2678 to 2680)
        Section 4 Form (Art. 2681)
      Chapter 3 The Obligations of the Lessor and the Lessee (Art. 2682 to 2713)
        Section 1 Principal Obligations (Art. 2682 to 2683)
        Section 2 Delivery (Art. 2684 to 2685)
        Section 3 Use of the Thing by the Lessee (Art. 2686 to 2689)
        Section 4 Alterations, Repairs, and Additions (Art. 2690 to 2695)
        Section 5 Lessor's Warranties (Art. 2696 to 2702)
          Subsection 1 Warranty against Vices or Defects (Art. 2696 to 2699)
          Subsection 2 Warranty of Peaceful Possession (Art. 2700 to 2702)
        Section 6 Payment of Rent (Art. 2703 to 2706)
        Section 7 Lessor's Security Rights (Art. 2707 to 2710)
        Section 8 Transfer of Interest by the Lessor or the Lessee (Art. 2711 to 2713)
      Chapter 4 Termination and Dissolution (Art. 2714 to 2744)
        Section 1 Rules Applicable to All Leases (Art. 2714 to 2719)
        Section 2 Leases with a Fixed Term (Art. 2720 to 2726)
        Section 3 Leases with Indeterminate Term (Art. 2727 to 2744)
      Chapter 5 Of the Letting Out of Labor or Industry (Art. 2745 to 2777)
        Section 1 Of the Hiring of Servants and Laborers (Art. 2746 to 2750)
        Section 2 Of Carriers and Watermen (Art. 2751 to 2755)
        Section 3 Of Constructing Buildings According to Plots, and Other Works by the Job, and of Furnishing Materials (Art. 2756 to 2777)
    Title X Annuities (Art. 2778 to 2800)
      Chapter 1 Annuity Contract (Art. 2778 to 2786)
      Chapter 2 Annuity Charge (Art. 2787 to 2800)
    Title XI Partnership (Art. 2801 to 2848)
      Chapter 1 General Principles (Art. 2801 to 2807)
      Chapter 2 Obligations and Rights of Partners toward Each Other and toward the Partnership (Art. 2808 to 2813)
      Chapter 3 Relations of the Partnership and the Partners with Third Persons (Art. 2814 to 2817)
      Chapter 4 Cessation of Membership (Art. 2818 to 2825)
        Section 1 Causes of Cessation (Art. 2818 to 2822)
        Section 2 Effects of Cessation of Membership and Rights of the Former Partner (Art. 2823 to 2825)
      Chapter 5 Termination of a Partnership (Art. 2826 to 2831)
        Section 1 Causes of Termination (Art. 2826 to 2829)
        Section 2 Effects of Termination of Partnership and Rights of Former Partners (Art. 2830 to 2831)
      Chapter 6 Dissolution, Liquidation, and Division of Assets (Art. 2832 to 2835)
      Chapter 7 Partnership In Commendam (Art. 2836 to 2890)
    Title XII Loan (Art. 2891 to 2925)
      Chapter 1 Loan for Use (Commodatum) (Art. 2891 to 2903)
      Chapter 2 Loan for Consumption (Mutuum) (Art. 2904 to 2912)
      Chapter 3 Loan on Interest (Art. 2913 to 2925)
    Title XIII Deposit and Sequestration (Art. 2926 to 2951)
      Chapter 1 Deposit (Art. 2926 to 2940)
      Chapter 2 Deposit with Innkeepers (Art. 2941 to 2945)
      Chapter 3 Conventional Sequestration (Art. 2946 to 2948)
      Chapter 4 Judicial Sequestration (Art. 2949 to 2951)
    Title XIV Of Aleatory Contracts (Art. 2982 to 2984)
    Title XV Representation and Mandate (Art. 2985 to 3034)
      Chapter 1 Representation (Art. 2985 to 2988)
      Chapter 2 Mandate (Art. 2989 to 3034)
        Section 1 General Principles (Art. 2989 to 3000)
        Section 2 Relations between the Principal and the Mandatary (Art. 3001 to 3015)
        Section 3 Relations between the Principal, the Mandatary, and Third Persons (Art. 3016 to 3023)
          Subsection A Relations between the Mandatary and Third Persons (Art. 3016 to 3019)
          Subsection B Relations between the Principal and Third Persons (Art. 3020 to 3023)
        Section 4 Termination of the Mandate and of the Authority of the Mandatary (Art. 3024 to 3034)
    Title XVI Suretyship (Art. 3035 to 3070)
      Chapter 1 Nature and Extent of Suretyship (Art. 3035 to 3040)
      Chapter 2 Kinds of Suretyship (Art. 3041 to 3044)
      Chapter 3 The Effects of Suretyship between the Surety and Creditor (Art. 3045 to 3046)
      Chapter 4 The Effects of Suretyship between the Surety and Principal Obligor (Art. 3047 to 3054)
      Chapter 5 The Effects of Suretyship among Several Sureties (Art. 3055 to 3057)
      Chapter 6 Termination or Extinction of Suretyship (Art. 3058 to 3062)
      Chapter 7 Legal Suretyship (Art. 3063 to 3070)
    Title XVII Compromise (Art. 3071 to 3083)
    Title XVIII Of Respite (Art. 3084 to 3098)
    Title XIX Of Arbitration (Art. 3099 to 3132)
    Title XX Of Pledge (Art. 3133 to 3181)
      Chapter 1 General Provisions (Art. 3136 to 3153)
      Chapter 2 Of Pawn (Art. 3154 to 3175)
      Chapter 3 Of Antichresis (Art. 3176 to 3181)
    Title XXI Of Privileges (Art. 3182 to 3277)
      Chapter 1 General Provisions (Art. 3182 to 3185)
      Chapter 2 Of the Several Kinds of Privileges (Art. 3186 to 3189)
      Chapter 3 Of Privileges on Movables (Art. 3190 to 3248)
        Section 1 Of General Privileges on Movables (Art. 3191 to 3215)
          §1 Of Funeral Charges (Art. 3192 to 3194)
          §2 Of Law Charges (Art. 3195 to 3198)
          §3 Of Expenses during the Last Sickness (Art. 3199 to 3204)
          §4 Of the Wages of Servants (Art. 3205 to 3207)
          §5 Of Supplies of Provisions (Art. 3208 to 3213)
          §6 Of the Privilege of Clerks (Art. 3214 to 3215)
        Section 2 Of the Privileges on Particular Movables (Art. 3216 to 3236)
          §1 Of the Privilege of the Lessor (Art. 3218 to 3219)
          §2 Of the Privilege of the Creditor on the Thing Pledged (Art. 3220 to 3221)
          §3 Of the Privilege of a Depositor (Art. 3222 to 3223)
          §4 Of Expenses Incurred for the Preservation of the Thing (Art. 3224 to 3226)
          §5 Of the Privilege of the Vendor of Movable Effects (Art. 3227 to 3231)
          §6 Of the Privilege of the Innkeeper on the Effects of the Traveler (Art. 3232 to 3236)
        Section 3 Of the Privilege on Ships and Merchandise (Art. 3237 to 3248)
      Chapter 4 Of Privileges on Immovables (Art. 3249 to 3251)
      Chapter 5 Of Privileges which Embrace both Movables and Immovables (Art. 3252 to 3253)
      Chapter 6 Of the Order in which Privileged Creditors are to be Paid (Art. 3254 to 3270)
      Chapter 7 How Privileges are Preserved and Recorded (Art. 3271 to 3276)
      Chapter 8 Of the Manner in which Privileges are Extinguished (Art. 3277)
    Title XXII Mortgages (Art. 3278 to 3337)
      Chapter 1 General Provisions (Art. 3278 to 3286)
      Chapter 2 Conventional Mortgages (Art. 3287 to 3298)
      Chapter 3 Judicial and Legal Mortgages (Art. 3299 to 3306)
      Chapter 4 The Effect and Rank of Mortgages (Art. 3307 to 3314)
      Chapter 5 Third Possessors (Art. 3315 to 3318)
      Chapter 6 Extinction of Mortgages (Art. 3319)
      Chapter 7 Inscription of Mortgages and Privileges (Art. 3320 to 3337)
    Title XXII-A Of Registry (Art. 3338 to 3411)
      Chapter 1 General Provisions (Art. 3338 to 3353)
      Chapter 2 Mortgage Records (Art. 3354 to 3411)
        Section 1 General Provisions (Art. 3354 to 3356)
        Section 2 Method and Duration of Recordation (Art. 3357 to 3365)
        Section 3 Cancellation (Art. 3366 to 3411)
    Title XXIII Occupancy and Possession (Art. 3412 to 3444)
      Chapter 1 Occupancy (Art. 3412 to 3420)
      Chapter 2 Possession (Art. 3421 to 3444)
        Section 1 Notion and Kinds of Possession (Art. 3421 to 3423)
        Section 2 Acquisition, Exercise, Retention, and Loss of Possession (Art. 3424 to 3434)
        Section 3 Vices of Possession (Art. 3435 to 3436)
        Section 4 Precarious Possession (Art. 3437 to 3440)
        Section 5 Transfer, Tacking, and Proof of Possession (Art. 3441 to 3444)
    Title XXIV Prescription (Art. 3445 to 3505)
      Chapter 1 General Principles (Art. 3445 to 3461)
        Section 1 Prescription (Art. 3445 to 3457)
        Section 2 Peremption (Art. 3458 to 3461)
      Chapter 2 Interruption and Suspension of Prescription (Art. 3462 to 3472)
        Section 1 Interruption of Prescription (Art. 3462 to 3466)
        Section 2 Suspension of Prescription (Art. 3467 to 3472)
      Chapter 3 Acquisitive Prescription (Art. 3473 to 3491)
        Section 1 Immovables: Prescription of Ten Years in Good Faith and Under Just Title (Art. 3473 to 3485)
        Section 2 Immovables: Prescription of Thirty Years (Art. 3486 to 3488)
        Section 3 Movables: Acquisitive Prescription of Three Years or Ten Years (Art. 3489 to 3491)
      Chapter 4 Liberative Prescription (Art. 3492 to 3505)
        Section 1 One Year Prescription (Art. 3492 to 3493)
        Section 1-A Two Year Prescription (Art. 3493.10)
        Section 2 Three Year Prescription (Art. 3494 to 3496.1)
        Section 3 Five Year Prescription (Art. 3497 to 3498)
        Section 4 Ten Year Prescription (Art. 3499 to 3501.1)
        Section 5 Thirty Year Prescription (Art. 3502)
        Section 6 Interruption and Suspension of Liberative Prescription (Art. 3503 to 3505)
    Title XXV Of the Signification of Sundry Terms of Law Employed in this Code (Art. 3506 to 3514)
Book IV Conflict of Laws (Art. 3515 to 3556)
    Title I General Provisions (Art. 3515 to 3518)
    Title II Status (Art. 3519 to 3522)
    Title III Marital Property (Art. 3523 to 3527)
    Title IV Successions (Art. 3528 to 3534)
    Title V Real Rights (Art. 3535 to 3536)
    Title VI Conventional Obligations (Art. 3537 to 3541)
    Title VII Delictual and Quasi-Delictual Obligations (Art. 3542 to 3548)
    Title VIII Liberative Prescription (Art. 3549 to 3556)


Art. 1831. A party who demands performance of an obligation must prove the existence of the obligation.

A party who asserts that an obligation is null, or that it has been modified or extinguished, must prove the facts or acts giving rise to the nullity, modification, or extinction. [Acts 1984, No. 331, §1, eff. Jan. 1, 1985]

Art. 1832. When the law requires a contract to be in written form, the contract may not be proved by testimony or by presumption, unless the written instrument has been destroyed, lost, or stolen. [Acts 1984, No. 331, §1, eff. Jan. 1, 1985]

Art. 1833. A. An authentic act is a writing executed before a notary public or other officer authorized to perform that function, in the presence of two witnesses, and signed by each party who executed it, by each witness, and by each notary public before whom it was executed. The typed or hand-printed name of each person shall be placed in a legible form immediately beneath the signature of each person signing the act.

B. To be an authentic act, the writing need not be executed at one time or place, or before the same notary public or in the presence of the same witnesses, provided that each party who executes it does so before a notary public or other officer authorized to perform that function, and in the presence of two witnesses and each party, each witness, and each notary public signs it. The failure to include the typed or hand-printed name of each person signing the act shall not affect the validity or authenticity of the act.

C. If a party is unable or does not know how to sign his name, the notary public must cause him to affix his mark to the writing. [Acts 1984, No. 331, §1, eff. Jan. 1, 1985; Acts 2003, No. 965, §1, eff. Jan. 1, 2005]

Art. 1834. An act that fails to be authentic because of the lack of competence or capacity of the notary public, or because of a defect of form, may still be valid as an act under private signature. [Acts 1984, No. 331, §1, eff. Jan. 1, 1985]

Art. 1835. An authentic act constitutes full proof of the agreement it contains, as against the parties, their heirs, and successors by universal or particular title. [Acts 1984, No. 331, §1, eff. Jan. 1, 1985]

Art. 1836. An act under private signature is regarded prima facie as the true and genuine act of a party executing it when his signature has been acknowledged, and the act shall be admitted in evidence without further proof.

An act under private signature may be acknowledged by a party to that act by recognizing the signature as his own before a court, or before a notary public, or other officer authorized to perform that function, in the presence of two witnesses. An act under private signature may be acknowledged also in any other manner authorized by law.

Nevertheless, an act under private signature, though acknowledged, cannot substitute for an authentic act when the law prescribes such an act. [Acts 1984, No. 331, §1, eff. Jan. 1, 1985]

Art. 1837. An act under private signature need not be written by the parties, but must be signed by them. [Acts 1984, No. 331, §1, eff. Jan. 1, 1985]

Art. 1838. A party against whom an act under private signature is asserted must acknowledge his signature or deny that it is his.

In case of denial, any means of proof may be used to establish that the signature belongs to that party. [Acts 1984, No. 331, §1, eff. Jan. 1, 1985]

Art. 1839. A transfer of immovable property must be made by authentic act or by act under private signature. Nevertheless, an oral transfer is valid between the parties when the property has been actually delivered and the transferor recognizes the transfer when interrogated on oath.

An instrument involving immovable property shall have effect against third persons only from the time it is filed for registry in the parish where the property is located. [Acts 1984, No. 331, §1, eff. Jan. 1, 1985]

Art. 1840. When certified by the notary public or other officer before whom the act was passed, a copy of an authentic act constitutes proof of the contents of the original, unless the copy is proved to be incorrect. [Acts 1984, No. 331, §1, eff. Jan. 1, 1985]

Art. 1841. When an authentic act or an acknowledged act under private signature has been filed for registry with a public officer, a copy of the act thus filed, when certified by that officer, constitutes proof of the contents of the original. [Acts 1984, No. 331, §1, eff. Jan. 1, 1985]

Art. 1842. Confirmation is a declaration whereby a person cures the relative nullity of an obligation.

An express act of confirmation must contain or identify the substance of the obligation and evidence the intention to cure its relative nullity.

Tacit confirmation may result from voluntary performance of the obligation. [Acts 1984, No. 331, §1, eff. Jan. 1, 1985]

Art. 1843. Ratification is a declaration whereby a person gives his consent to an obligation incurred on his behalf by another without authority.

An express act of ratification must evidence the intention to be bound by the ratified obligation.

Tacit ratification results when a person, with knowledge of an obligation incurred on his behalf by another, accepts the benefit of that obligation. [Acts 1984, No. 331, §1, eff. Jan. 1, 1985]

Art. 1844. The effects of confirmation and ratification are retroactive to the date of the confirmed or ratified obligation. Neither confirmation nor ratification may impair the rights of third persons. [Acts 1984, No. 331, §1, eff. Jan. 1, 1985]

Art. 1845. A donation inter vivos that is null for lack of proper form may be confirmed by the donor but the confirmation must be made in the form required for a donation.

The universal successor of the donor may, after his death, expressly or tacitly confirm such a donation. [Acts 1984, No. 331, §1, eff. Jan. 1, 1985]

Art. 1846. When a writing is not required by law, a contract not reduced to writing, for a price or, in the absence of a price, for a value not in excess of five hundred dollars may be proved by competent evidence.

If the price or value is in excess of five hundred dollars, the contract must be proved by at least one witness and other corroborating circumstances. [Acts 1984, No. 331, §1, eff. Jan. 1, 1985]

Art. 1847. Parol evidence is inadmissible to establish either a promise to pay the debt of a third person or a promise to pay a debt extinguished by prescription. [Acts 1984, No. 331, §1, eff. Jan. 1, 1985]

Art. 1848. Testimonial or other evidence may not be admitted to negate or vary the contents of an authentic act or an act under private signature. Nevertheless, in the interest of justice, that evidence may be admitted to prove such circumstances as a vice of consent or to prove that the written act was modified by a subsequent and valid oral agreement. [Acts 1984, No. 331, §1, eff. Jan. 1, 1985; Acts 2012, No. 277, §1, eff. Aug. 1, 2012]

Art. 1849. In all cases, testimonial or other evidence may be admitted to prove the existence or a presumption of a simulation or to rebut such a presumption. Nevertheless, between the parties, a counterletter is required to prove that an act purporting to transfer immovable property is an absolute simulation, except when a simulation is presumed or as necessary to protect the rights of forced heirs. [Added by Acts 2012, No. 277, §1, eff. Aug. 1, 2012]

Arts. 1850-1852. [Repealed. Acts 1997, No. 577, §3]

Art. 1853. A judicial confession is a declaration made by a party in a judicial proceeding. That confession constitutes full proof against the party who made it.

A judicial confession is indivisible and it may be revoked only on the ground of error of fact. [Acts 1984, No. 331, §1, eff. Jan. 1, 1985]


Art. 1831. Une partie qui demande l’exécution d’une obligation doit en prouver l’existence.

Une partie qui affirme qu’une obligation est nulle, ou qu’elle a été modifiée ou éteinte, doit prouver les faits ou actes à l’origine de la nullité, de la modification ou de l’extinction. [Loi de 1984, n° 331, §1, en vigueur le 1er janv. 1985]

Art. 1832. Lorsque la loi requiert qu’un contrat soit de forme écrite, le contrat ne peut pas être prouvé par témoignage ou par présomption, à moins que l’acte écrit n’ait été détruit, perdu ou volé. [Loi de 1984, n° 331, §1, en vigueur le 1er janv. 1985]

Art. 1833. A. Un acte authentique est un écrit exécuté par devant un notaire public*, ou par tout autre officier public autorisé à exercer cette fonction, en présence de deux témoins, et signé par chacune des parties qui l’a exécuté, par chacun des témoins, et par chacun des notaires publics devant lequel il a été exécuté. Le nom, manuscrit ou dactylographié, de chacune des personnes présentes doit être écrit lisiblement immédiatement en dessous de la signature de chacun des signataires de l’acte.

B. Pour que l’acte soit authentique, l’écrit n’a pas à être exécuté en un lieu ou en un moment unique, ou devant le même notaire public, ou en présence des mêmes témoins, du moment que chacune des parties s’exécute devant le notaire public ou l’officier public autorisé à exercer cette fonction, en présence de deux témoins, et que chaque partie, chaque témoin et chaque notaire public devant qui l’acte est exécuté signe l’acte. L’absence de la mention manuscrite ou dactylographiée du nom de chacun des signataires n’affecte en rien la validité ni l’authenticité de l’acte.

C. Lorsque l’une des parties n’est pas capable de signer son nom ou ne sait pas comment le faire, le notaire doit l’amener à apposer sa marque sur l’écrit. [Loi de 1984, n° 331, §1, en vigueur le 1er janv. 1985]

* NdT : Comme dans les autres états et dans les pays de common law, le notary public n’est pas un officier ministériel investi du sceau de l’Etat. Le plus souvent, il n’a pas de formation juridique et sa fonction se limite à la certification des actes qui lui sont présentés par les parties.

Art. 1834. Un acte qui ne peut être considéré comme authentique en raison de l’incompétence ou de l’incapacité du notaire public, ou en raison d’un vice de forme, peut néanmoins être valide en tant qu’acte sous seing privé. [Loi de 1984, n° 331, §1, en vigueur le 1er janv. 1985]

Art. 1835. Un acte authentique fait pleinement foi de la convention qu’il renferme, entre les parties, leurs héritiers, et leurs ayants cause à titre universel ou particulier. [Loi de 1984, n° 331, §1, en vigueur le 1er janv. 1985]

Art. 1836. Un acte sous seing privé est présumé être l’acte véritable et sincère de la partie qui l’exécute lorsque sa signature a fait l’objet d’une reconnaissance. Dans ce cas, la valeur probatoire de l’acte doit être admise sans qu’il soit nécessaire d’apporter d’autre preuve.

Un acte sous seing privé peut faire l’objet d’une reconnaissance par une partie à cet acte en reconnaissant la signature comme étant la sienne devant un tribunal ou devant un notaire public, ou devant tout officier public autorisé à exercer cette fonction, en présence de deux témoins. Un acte sous seing privé peut aussi faire l’objet d’une reconnaissance de toute autre manière autorisée par la loi.

Cependant, un acte sous seing privé, bien que reconnu, ne peut être substitué à un acte authentique lorsque la loi prescrit un tel acte. [Loi de 1984, n° 331, §1, en vigueur le 1er janv. 1985]

Art. 1837. Un acte sous seing privé peut ne pas être rédigé par les parties, mais elles doivent le signer. [Loi de 1984, n° 331, §1, en vigueur le 1er janv. 1985]

Art. 1838. Une partie à qui l’on oppose un acte sous seing privé doit ou bien reconnaître sa signature ou bien nier qu’il s’agit de sa signature.

En cas de dénégation, tout moyen de preuve peut être utilisé pour établir que la signature est celle de cette partie. [Loi de 1984, n° 331, §1, en vigueur le 1er janv. 1985]

Art. 1839. Le transfert de propriété d’un bien immobilier doit être établi par acte authentique ou par acte sous seing privé. Cependant, le transfert oral est valide entre les parties lorsque le bien a été effectivement délivré et que le cédant reconnait le transfert lorsqu’il est interrogé sous serment.

Un acte relatif à la propriété immobilière n’est opposable aux tiers qu’à compter du moment de son enregistrement dans la paroisse* où l’immeuble se situe. [Loi de 1984, n° 331, §1, en vigueur le 1er janv. 1985]

* NdT : La Louisiane a conservé la paroisse comme division territoriale. Celle-ci est l’équivalent du comté dans les autres états.

Art. 1840. Lorsqu’elle est certifiée par le notaire public ou l’officier public devant lequel l’acte a été passé, une copie d’un acte authentique constitue une preuve du contenu de l’original, sauf preuve de non-conformité de la copie. [Loi de 1984, n° 331, §1, en vigueur le 1er janv. 1985]

Art. 1841. Lorsqu’un acte authentique ou un acte sous seing privé reconnu a été enregistré au registre par un officier public, une copie de l’acte enregistré, lorsqu’elle est certifiée par ce dernier, vaut preuve du contenu de l’original. [Loi de 1984, n° 331, §1, en vigueur le 1er janv. 1985]

Art. 1842. La confirmation est la déclaration par laquelle une personne remédie à la nullité relative d’une obligation.

Un acte exprès de confirmation doit contenir ou identifier la substance de l’obligation et apporter la preuve de l’intention de remédier à sa nullité relative.

Une confirmation tacite peut résulter de l’exécution volontaire de l’obligation. [Loi de 1984, n° 331, §1, en vigueur le 1er janv. 1985]

Art. 1843. La ratification est une déclaration par laquelle une personne donne son consentement à une obligation contractée par une autre personne en son nom, sans avoir reçu pouvoir de le faire.

Un acte exprès de ratification doit manifester l’intention d’être lié par l’obligation ratifiée.

Il y a ratification tacite lorsqu’une personne ayant connaissance d’une obligation contractée en son nom, accepte le bénéfice de cette obligation. [Loi de 1984, n° 331, §1, en vigueur le 1er janv. 1985]

Art. 1844. Les effets de la confirmation et de la ratification rétroagissent à la date de l’obligation confirmée ou ratifiée. Ni la confirmation, ni la ratification ne peuvent porter atteinte aux droits des tiers. [Loi de 1984, n° 331, §1, en vigueur le 1er janv. 1985]

Art. 1845. Une donation entre vifs nulle pour vice de forme peut être confirmée par le donateur, mais la confirmation doit être effectuée dans la forme requise pour une donation.

L’ayant droit universel du donateur peut, après le décès de celui-ci, confirmer expressément ou tacitement une telle donation. [Loi de 1984, n° 331, §1, en vigueur le 1er janv. 1985]

Art. 1846. Lorsque la forme écrite n’est pas requise par la loi, un contrat non passé par écrit dont le prix ou, en l’absence de prix, la valeur n’excède pas cinq cents dollars, peut être prouvé par tout moyen.

Si le prix ou la valeur excède cinq cents dollars, le contrat doit être prouvé par au moins un témoin et d’autres circonstances concordantes. [Loi de 1984, n° 331, §1, en vigueur le 1er janv. 1985]

Art. 1847. La preuve orale ne peut être admise pour établir une promesse de paiement de la dette d’un tiers, ou une promesse de paiement d’une dette éteinte par prescription. [Loi de 1984, n° 331, §1, en vigueur le 1er janv. 1985]

Art. 1848. La preuve par témoin ou par autre moyen ne peut être admise pour nier ou pour modifier le contenu d’un acte authentique ou d’un acte sous seing privé. Toutefois, dans l’intérêt de la justice, cette preuve peut être admise pour établir des circonstances telles que le vice du consentement ou afin de prouver que l’acte écrit a été modifié par un accord oral valide et ultérieur. [Loi de 1984, n° 331, §1, en vigueur le 1er janv. 1985 ; loi de 2012, n° 277, §1, en vigueur le 1er août 2012]

Art. 1849. Dans tous les cas, la preuve par témoin ou par autre moyen peut être admise pour prouver l’existence d’une simulation, en établir la présomption ou renverser une telle présomption. Toutefois, entre les parties, une contre-lettre est requise afin de prouver qu’un acte translatif de propriété immobilière est une simulation absolue, sauf lorsque la simulation est présumée ou lorsqu’il est nécessaire de protéger les droits des héritiers réservataires. [Ajouté par la loi de 2012, n° 277, §1, en vigueur le 1er août 2012]

Art. 1850 à 1852. [Abrogés par la loi de 1997, n° 577, §3]

Art. 1853. L’aveu judiciaire est la déclaration faite par une partie lors d’une instance judiciaire. Cet aveu fait pleine foi à l’encontre de son auteur.

Un aveu judiciaire est indivisible, et ne peut être révoqué que pour cause d’erreur de fait. [Loi de 1984, n° 331, §1, en vigueur le 1er janv. 1985]

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