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Table of Contents

Cover Page
Foreword
Abbreviations
Synopsis
Preliminary title Of the general definitions of rights and the promulgation of the laws
    Chapter I Of law and customs
    Chapter II Of the publication of the laws
    Chapter III Of the effects of laws
    Chapter IV Of the application and construction of laws
    Chapter V Of the repeal of laws
Book I Of persons
    Title I Of the distinction of persons, and the privation of certain civil rights in certain cases
      Chapter I Of the distinction of persons established by nature
      Chapter II Of the distinctions of persons which are established by law
    Title II Of domicil and the manner of changing the same
    Title III Of absent persons
      Chapter I Of the curatorship of absent persons
      Chapter II Of the putting into provisional possession the heirs of the absentee
      Chapter III Of the effects of absence upon the eventual rights which may belong to the absentee
      Chapter IV Of the effects of absence respecting marriage
      Chapter V Of the care of minor children whose father has disappeared
    Title IV Of husband and wife
      Chapter I On marriage
      Chapter II How marriages may be contracted or made
      Chapter III Of the nullity of marriages
      Chapter IV Of the respective rights and duties of married persons
      Chapter V Of the dissolution of marriages
      Chapter VI Of second marriages
    Title V Of the separation from bed and board
      Chapter I Of the causes of separation from bed and board
      Chapter II Of the proceedings on separation from bed and board
      Chapter III Of the provisional proceedings to which a suit for separation may give occasion
      Chapter IV Of objections to the action of separation from bed and board
      Chapter V Of the effects of separation from bed and board
    Title VI Of master and servant
      Chapter I Of the several sorts of servants
      Chapter II Of free servants
      Chapter III Of slaves
    Title VII Of father and child
      Chapter I Of children in general
      Chapter II Of legitimate children
        Section I Of legitimacy resulting from marriage
        Section II Of the manner of proving the legitimate filiation
      Chapter III Of illegitimate children
        Section I Of legitimation
        Section II Of the acknowledgment of illegitimate children
      Chapter IV Of adoption
      Chapter V Of paternal authority
        Section I Of the duties of parents towards their legitimate children, and of the duties of legitimate children towards their parents
        Section II Of the duties of parents towards their natural children, and of the duties of natural children towards their parents
    Title VIII Of minors, of their tutorship, curatorship and emancipation
      Chapter I Of tutorship
        Section I General dispositions
        Section II Of tutorship by nature
        Section III Of tutorship by will
        Section IV Of the tutorship by the effect of the law
        Section V Of dative tutorship
        Section VI Of the under tutor
        Section VII Of the causes which dispense or excuse from the tutorship
        Section VIII Of incapacity for, exclusion from and deprivation of the tutorship
        Section IX Of the administration of the tutor
      Chapter II Of the curatorship of minors
      Chapter III Of emancipation
    Title IX Of persons insane, idiots, and other persons incapable of administering their estate
      Chapter I Of the interdiction and curatorship of persons incapable of administering their estate, whether on account of insanity or of some other infirmity
      Chapter II Of the other persons to whom curators are appointed
    Title X Of communities or corporations
      Chapter I Of the nature of communities or corporations, of their use and kind
      Chapter II Of the rights and privileges of communities or corporations and of their incapacities
      Chapter III Of the dissolution of communities or corporations
Book II Of things and of the different modifications of property
    Title I Of things or estates
      Chapter I Of the distinction of things or estates
      Chapter II Of immoveables
      Chapter III Of moveables
      Chapter IV Of estates considered in their relation to those who possess them
    Title II Of absolute ownership
      Chapter I Universal principles
      Chapter II Of the right of accession to what is produced by the thing
      Chapter III Of the right of accession to what unites or incorporates itself to the thing
        Section I Of the right of accession concerning immoveables
        Section II Of the right of accession concerning moveable things
    Title III Of usufruct, use and habitation
      Chapter I Of usufruct
        Section I General definitions
        Section II Of the rights of the usufructuary
        Section III Of the obligations of the usufructuary
        Section IV Of the obligations of the owner
        Section V How usufruct expires
      Chapter II Of the use and habitation
    Title IV Of predial services or services of land
      Chapter I General principles
      Chapter II Of services which originate from the natural situation of the place
      Chapter III Of services imposed by law
        Section I Of walls, fences, and ditches in common
        Section II Of the distance and of the intermediary works required for certain buildings
        Section III Of lights on the property of a neighbor
        Section IV Of the manner of carrying off rain from the roof
        Section V Of the right of passage
      Chapter IV Of services established by the act of man
        Section I Of the different kinds of services which may be established by the act of man
        Section II How services are acquired
        Section III Of the rights of the proprietor of the estate to which the service is due
        Section IV How Services are extinguished
Book III Of the different manners of acquiring the property of things
    Preliminary title General dispositions
    Title I Of successions
      Chapter I Of the different sorts of successions and heirs
      Chapter II Of legal successions
        Section I General rules
        Section II Of the succession of descendants
        Section III Of the succession of ascendants
        Section IV Of the succession of collaterals
      Chapter III Of irregular successions
      Chapter IV In what manner successions are opened
      Chapter V Of the incapacity and unworthiness of the heirs
      Chapter VI In what manner a succession is accepted and how it is renounced
        Section I Of the acceptance pure and simple
        Section II Of the acceptance of a succession with the benefit of an inventory
      Chapter VII Of the administration of vacant estates and estates ab intestato
      Chapter VIII Of partition among heirs and of the collation of goods
        Section I Of the nature of partition and in what manner it is made
        Section II Of the collation of goods
        Section III Of the payment of debts
        Section IV Of the effect of partition and of its rescision
    Title II Of donations inter vivos (between living persons) and mortis causa (in prospect of death)
      Chapter I General dispositions
      Chapter II Of the capacity necessary for disposing of and receiving by donation inter vivos or mortis causa
      Chapter III Of the portion disposable, and of its reduction in case of excess
        Section I Of the disposable portion and the legitime
        Section II Of the reduction of dispositions inter vivos or mortis causa; of the manner in which it is made and of its effects
      Chapter IV Of dispositions reprobated by the law in donations inter vivos and mortis causa
      Chapter V Of donations inter vivos (between living)
        Section I Of the irrevocability of donations inter vivos
        Section II Of the form of donations inter vivos
        Section III Of the exceptions to the rule of the irrevocability of donations inter vivos
      Chapter VI Of dispositions mortis causa (in the prospect of death)
        Section I Of testament or codicil
        Section II Of the form of testaments and codicils
        Section III Of testamentary dispositions
        Section IV Of the institution of heir and of disinherison
        Section V Of legacies
        Section VI Of the opening and the proof of wills, and of testamentary executions
        Section VII Of the revocation of testaments and codicils and of their caducity
        Section VIII Of the interpretation of testamentary dispositions
      Chapter VII Of partitions made by parents among their descendants
      Chapter VIII Of donations made by marriage contract to the husband or wife, and to the children to be born of the marriage
      Chapter IX Of donations between married persons, either by marriage contract, or during the marriage
    Title III Of contracts and of conventional obligations in general
      Chapter I Preliminary dispositions
      Chapter II Of the conditions essential to the validity of agreements
        Section I Of consent
        Section II Of the capability of the parties contracting
        Section III Of the object and the matter of contracts
        Section IV Of the cause
      Chapter III Of the effect of obligations
        Section I General dispositions
        Section II Of the obligation of giving
        Section III Of the obligations of doing or of not doing
        Section IV Of the damages resulting from the non execution of the obligation
        Section V Of the interpretation of the agreements
        Section VI Of the effect of agreements with regard to persons not parties to them
      Chapter IV Of the different kinds of obligations
        Section I Of conditional obligations
          § 1 Of the condition in general and of its different kinds
          § 2 Of the suspensive condition
          § 3 Of the dissolving condition
        Section II Of obligations to be performed at a certain term
        Section III Of the alternative obligations
        Section IV Of obligations in solido or jointly and severally
          § 1 Of the obligation in solido between creditors
          § 2 Of the obligation in solido on the part of debtors
        Section V Of obligations divisible and indivisible
          § 1 Of the effects of a divisible obligation
          § 2 Of the effect of the indivisible obligation
        Section VI Of obligations with penal clauses
      Chapter V Of the extinction of obligations
        Section I Of payment
          § 1 Of payment in general
          § 2 Of payment with subrogation
          § 3 Of the imputation of payments
          § 4 Of tenders of payment, and consignment
          § 5 Of the surrender of property
        Section II Of novation
        Section III Of the remission of the debt
        Section IV Of compensation
        Section V Of confusion
        Section VI Of the loss of the thing due
        Section VII Of the action of nullity or of rescission of agreements
      Chapter VI Of the proof of obligations and of that of payment
        Section I Of the literal proof
          § 1 Of the authentic title
          § 2 Of the acts under private signature
          § 3 Of copies of titles
          § 4 Of recognitive and confirmative acts
        Section II Of testimonial proof
        Section III Of presumptions
          § 1 Of presumptions established by law
          § 2 Of presumption not established by law
        Section IV Of the confession of the party
        Section V Of the proof by oath
    Title IV Of engagements formed without agreements, or of quasi contracts and quasi offences
      Section I Of the quasi contract
      Section II Of quasi crimes or offences
    Title V Of marriage contract
      Chapter I General dispositions
      Chapter II Of the various kinds of matrimonial agreements
        Section I Of donations made in consideration of marriage
        Section II Of dowry or marriage portion
        Section III Of paraphernalia or extra dotal effects
        Section IV Of the partnership or community of acquests or gains
      Chapter III Of the separation of property
    Title VI Of sale
      Chapter I Of the nature and form of the contract of sale, and of the manner in which it is to be performed
      Chapter II Of persons capable of buying and selling, and of things which may be sold
      Chapter III Of the obligations of the seller
        Section I Of the tradition or delivery of the thing sold
        Section II Of the warranty, in case of eviction of the thing sold
        Section III Of the warranty of the defects of the thing sold or of the redhibitory vices
      Chapter IV Of the obligations of the buyer
      Chapter V Of the nullity and rescissions of the sale
        Section I Of the power or right of redemption
        Section II Of the rescission of sales on account of lesion
      Chapter VI Of sales by cant or auction
      Chapter VII Of the assignment or transfer of debts and other incorporeal rights
    Title VII Of exchange
    Title VIII Of letting and hiring
      Chapter I Of the several species of contracts for letting and hiring
      Chapter II Of the contract for letting out things
        Section I Of the form and duration of leases
        Section II Of the obligations of the lessor
        Section III Of the obligations of the lessee
        Section IV Of the dissolution of leases
      Chapter III Of the letting out of labour or industry
        Section I Of the hiring of servants and workmen
        Section II Of carriers and watermen
        Section III Of plots for buildings and other works
    Title IX Of partnership
      Chapter I General dispositions
      Chapter II Of the various kinds of partnerships
      Chapter III Of the obligations of partners towards each other, and towards third persons
        Section I Of the obligations of partners towards each other
        Section II Of the obligations of partners towards third persons
      Chapter IV Of the different manners in which partnerships end
    Title X Of loan
      Chapter I Of the loan for use or commodatum
        Section I Of the nature of the loan for use
        Section II Of the engagements of the borrower for use
        Section III Of the engagements of the lender for use
      Chapter II Of the loan for consumption or mutuum
        Section I Of the nature of the loan for consumption
        Section II Of the obligations of the lender for consumption
        Section III Of the engagements of the borrower for consumption
      Chapter III Of loan on interest
    Title XI Of deposit and sequestration
      Chapter I Of deposit in general and of its divers kinds
      Chapter II Of the deposit properly so called
        Section I Of the nature and essence of the contract of deposit
        Section II Of the obligations of the depository
        Section III Of the obligations of him by whom the deposit has been made
        Section IV Of the necessary deposit
      Chapter III Of sequestration
        Section I Of its different species
        Section II Of the conventional sequestration
        Section III Of the judicial sequestration or deposit
    Title XII Of aleatory contracts
    Title XIII Of mandate or commission
      Chapter I Of the nature of proxies, mandates and commissions
      Chapter II What persons may be appointed attornies in fact
      Chapter III Of the obligations of a person acting under a power of attorney
      Chapter IV Of the obligations of the principal who acts by his attorney in fact
      Chapter V How the procuration expires
    Title XIV Of suretyship
      Chapter I Of the nature and extent of suretyship
      Chapter II Of the effects of suretyship
        Section I Of the effects of suretyship between the creditor and the surety
        Section II Of the effects of suretyship between the debtor and the surety
        Section III Respecting the effects of suretyship between the sureties
      Chapter III Of the extinction of suretyship
      Chapter IV Of the legal and judicial sureties
    Title XV Of transactions
    Title XVI Of respite
    Title XVII Of compromises or arbitration
    Title XVIII Of pledge
    Title XIX Of privileges and mortgages
      Chapter I Of the nature of a mortgage and of its several sorts
      Chapter II Who may mortgage and what thing may be mortgaged
      Chapter III Of the effects of mortgage
        Section I Of the effects of mortgage with regard to the debtor
        Section II Of the effects of mortgages against third possessors and of the action of mortgage
        Section III Of the registering of mortgages and of the register kept for that purpose
      Chapter IV Of the order of privileges and mortgages
        Section I Of the preference and order of privileges
      Chapter V How privileges or mortgages expire or are extinguished
    Title XX Of occupancy, possession and prescription
      Chapter I Of occupancy
      Chapter II Of possession
      Chapter III Of prescription
        Section I Of the possession required to establish prescription
        Section II Of the causes which suspend or interrupt prescriptions
        Section III Of the several species of prescription
    Title XXI Of the title by judgment or seizure
Index
Manuscript index
Manuscript index Part 2

TITLE XIX - OF PRIVILEGES AND MORTGAGES

 

CHAPTER I - OF THE NATURE OF A MORTGAGE AND OF ITS SEVERAL SORTS

Art. 1. The mortgage is a contract by which a person affects the whole of his property or only some part of it, in favor of another, for security of an engagement, but without divesting himself of the possession thereof.

Art. 2. The mortgage is a sort of pawn, the mortgaged thing being bound for the payment of the debt or of the obligation.
It agrees with the pawn, 1st, inasmuch as both are granted to the creditors for security of their debts, 2d, inasmuch as both produce a lien on the thing which it subjects to it, and that one cannot engage the same thing to a second creditor to the prejudice of the other.
It differs from the pawn, 1st, inasmuch as the term mortgage is only applied to immoveables and slaves and that of pawn to moveables; 2d, inasmuch as in the pawn the moveables and effects which are subject to it must be put into the hands and possession of the creditor, whereas the mortgage does but affect the immoveables and slaves to the right of the creditor, without any need of putting him in possession of them.

Art. 3. The mortgage is a real right on the immoveable affected by it.
It is in its nature indivisible. It subsists for the whole in all and each of the things affected by it and on every part of them; and it follows the mortgaged property into whatever hands it may pass.

Art. 4. There are three sorts of mortgages, we call conventional mortgages that which results from the agreement of the parties.
Judicial mortgage is that which the law attributes to judgments.
And legal or tacit mortgage that which exists by virtue of law alone.

Art. 5. Conventional mortgage can be granted only by an authentic act made in the usual form of contracts or by any act under private signature.
A mortgage verbally stipulated is not valid nor is the oral proof of it admitted whatever may be the amount of the debt or obligation for which it has been stipulated.

Art. 6. There is no conventional mortgage, except that which is expressly stipulated in the act or writing made between the parties; it is never understood and is not inferred from the nature of the act.

Art. 7. They who have on the property which may be duly mortgaged only a right either depending on a condition or subject to be annulled or rescinded in certain cases, can only consent to a mortgage subject to the same conditions or to the same rescission.

Art. 8. The judicial mortgage is that which proceeds from every judgment: it is of the same nature as the conventional mortgage; it leaves the debtor in possession of all his property but it affects or makes them liable in the same manner as the conventional mortgage, to the payment of the amount for which judgment is obtained against the debtor.

Art. 9. The judicial mortgage takes place from the day when the judgment either on a hearing of the parties or by default, final or subject to an appeal, has been rendered in favor of him who obtained said judgment.  If an appeal be brought from any judgment not final and the judgment be confirmed above, the mortgage shall reascend to the day when the original judgment was rendered.

Art. 10. When in the trial of an appeal the judgment has been reversed only in certain points, the mortgage of this judgment shall subsist as to all the points which have not been reversed or changed.

Art. 11. The awards of arbitrators give a mortgage only from the day when their execution is ordered by the judge.

Art. 12. In like manner judgments rendered in the other states or territories of the United States, give a mortgage only from the day when their execution has been ordered by one of the judges of this territory.

Art. 13. Judgment obtained against a person deceased, gives a mortgage on the property personally belonging to his heir, only from the day of the judgment which ordered that they should be executed against said heir.

Art. 14. Conventional or judicial mortgages cannot operate against a third person, except from the day of their being entered in the office of the register of mortgages, in the manner and form hereafter directed.

Art. 15. The legal mortgage is that which proceeds from the law, without any express covenant of the parties, but which is notwithstanding grounded on a tacit consent which the law presumes to have been given by him on whose property it grants this mortgage; therefore it is also called in law a tacit mortgage.
Such is the mortgage which a minor has on his tutor's property from the day of his appointment; such is that which the law gives to the wife for her dowry on her husband's property.

Art. 16. There is no legal mortgages but in the cases directed by law.

Art. 17. The wife has a legal mortgage on her husband's property to wit:
1st, For the restitution of her dowry as well as for the replacing of her dotal effects alienated by her husband and which she brought in marriage, from the day of celebrating said marriage.
2d, For the restitution and the replacing of the dotal effects accrued to her during the marriage, either by succession or donation, from the day when said succession devolved or said donation took effect.
3d, To indemnify her against the debts to which she has made herself liable jointly with her husband and for the replacing of her hereditary effects alienated, from the time of her contracting said liability or from the day of the sale.

Art. 18. The mortgages which the law establishes in favor of the wife, take place not only for herself personally but also for her heirs or assigns.

Art. 19. Minors or persons interdicted or absent, have a legal mortgage on their tutors or curator's property, for surety of their administration, from the day of the appointment of said tutors or curators, and until the final settlement and closing of their accounts, and the tutors and curators of said persons have a like mortgage on their property for the security of the advances which they may have made to them.

Art. 20. There is a legal mortgage on the property of those who, without being tutors or curators, have taken upon themselves the administration of the property of minors, persons interdicted or absent, from the day when they made the first act of that administration.

Art. 21. The children of a preceding marriage, whose mother has married again, without calling on a meeting of the family, to decide whether the tutorship of said children shall be preserved to her or not, have a legal mortgage on the new husband's property, for the acts of the tutorship so unlawfully kept by their mother, from the day of celebrating the new marriage.

Art. 22. There is a legal mortgage from the day of the closing of the inventory against the survivor of the husband or wife, or against the heirs who have been entrusted, by the inventory, with the property belonging to the community or estate.

Art. 23. Co-heirs have a legal or tacit mortgage on the property which has been the object of partition, from the day of that partition, for the warranty of their respective portions, as well as for the returns of money on the shares.

Art. 24. Universal and particular legatees have a legal mortgage on the estate of him who has made the legacy, from the day of his death, for security of the delivery of said legacies by the heirs or other persons bound to pay them.

Art. 25. The territory, the different parishes, cities and other corporations, companies of trade, or navigation and all public establishments have a legal mortgage on the property of their collectors and other accountable persons from the day when they entered into office.

Art. 26. There is a legal mortgage on the property of sequestrators and guardians established by authority of justice, from the day of their appointment.  To the divers sorts of legal mortgages mentioned in this title, must be added those which may have been omitted in the above enumeration and which may have been established in other parts of the present code.

Art. 27. The legal mortgage is not required to be recorded or entered into the office of the register of mortgages.

Art. 28. A mortgage whether legal or judicial or conventional extends to all the debtor's estate, either present or to come, which may be lawfully mortgaged, unless that, with respect to the estate to come, some contrary stipulation exists.

Art. 29. Mortgages under another view, may be divided into simple mortgage and privileged mortgage.
The simple mortgage gives to the creditor, no other preference of right over his debtor's property, than that which the date of his title or of its recording, affords to him: according to this rule, the first in time is paid first.
The privileged mortgage or as it is otherwise called the privilege, is that which derives from a privileged cause, which gives a preference over the creditors who have only a simple mortgage though of a prior date.
Such is the privilege of the vender who has the preference over every other creditor for his payment, on the real property he has sold.

Art. 30. Mortgage is further divided into general and special mortgage.
The general mortgage is that which includes all the property present and to come of the debtor.
And the special mortgage on the contrary, is limited to certain property as to the property present or restricted nominally to a certain specified property.

Art. 31. The special mortgage compels the creditor to come on and to cause to be sold the thing which is thus mortgaged to him, before he can come on the other property of his debtor; but that obligation is dispensed with, if it has been stipulated that the general mortgage should not derogate from the special nor the special from the general.

TITRE XIX - DES PRIVILÉGES ET HYPOTHÈQUES

 

CHAPITRE I - DE LA NATURE DE L'HYPOTHÈQUE, ET DE SES DIVISIONS

Art. 1. L'hypothèque est un contrat, par lequel une personne affecte la totalité de ses biens, ou seulement quelques-uns d'entre eux en faveur d'un autre, pour sûreté de quelque engagement, mais sans se dépouiller de leur possession.           

Art. 2. L'hypothèque est une espèce de gage, la chose hypothéquée étant obligée au payement de la dette ou de l'engagement:
Elle a de commun avec le gage, 1°. Que l'un et l'autre sont accordés aux créanciers pour sûreté de leurs créances: et 2°. Que l'un et l'autre affectent la chose qui y est sujette, et qu'on ne peut engager la même chose à un second créancier, au préjudice du premier.
Elle diffère du gage 1°. En ce que le terme d'hypothèque ne s'applique qu'aux immeubles et aux esclaves, et celui du gage aux meubles; et 2°. En ce que, dans le gage, les meubles et effets qui y sont sujets, doivent être mis entre les mains et en la puissance du créancier, tandis que l'hypothèque ne fait qu'affecter les immeubles et esclaves aux droits du créancier, sans qu'il soit besoin de l'en mettre en possession.           

Art. 3. L'hypothèque est un droit réel sur les biens qu'elle affecte: elle est de sa nature indivisible; elle subsiste en entier sur tous et chacun des biens affectés et sur chaque portion d'iceux; elle suit le bien hypothéqué dans quelque mains qu'il passe.           

Art. 4. Il y a trois sortes d'hypothèques:
On nomme hypothèque conventionnelle, celle qui résulte de la convention des parties;
Hypothèque judiciaire, celle que la loi attribue aux jugemens;           
Et hypothèque légale ou tacite, celle qui résulte de la loi seulement.           

Art. 5. L'hypothèque conventionnelle ne peut être consentie, que par acte authentique, dans la forme ordinaire des contrats, ou par acte sous signature privée.
L'hypothèque stipulée verbalement, n'est pas valable, et la preuve testimoniale n'en est point admise, quelque soit le montant de la dette ou de l'obligation pour laquelle elle a été consentie.          

Art. 6. Il n'y a point d'hypothèque conventionnelle, que celle qui est stipulée expressément dans l'acte fait entre les parties; elle n'est jamais sous-entendue, et ne s'induit point de la nature de l'acte.           

Art. 7. Ceux qui n'ont, sur les biens susceptibles d'hypothèque, qu'un droit suspendu par une condition, ou résoluble dans certains cas, ou sujet à rescision, ne peuvent consentir qu'une hypothèque soumise aux mêmes conditions, ou à la même rescision. 

Art. 8. L'hypothèque judiciaire, est celle qui procède d'un jugemene quelconque; elle est de même nature que l'hypothèque conventionnelle laisse le débiteur en possession de tous ses biens, mais elle les affecte de la même manière que l'hypothèque conventionnelle au payement des condamnations prononcées contre le débiteur par le jugement.           

Art. 9. L'hypothèque judiciaire a lieu du jour où les jugemens, soit contradictoires, soit par défaut, définitifs ou susceptibles d'appel, sont rendus, et ce, en faveur de celui qui les a obtenus; s'il y a appel d'aucun jugement non définitif, et qu'il soit confirmé, l'hypothèque remonte au jour du jugement dont est appel.           

Art. 10. Lorsque, sur l'appel, le jugement n'a été infirmé que dans de certaines dispositions, l'hypothèque de ce jugement subsiste pour toutes les dispositions qui n'ont point été changées ou infirmées.           

Art. 11. Les décisions arbitrales n'emportent hypothèque, que du jour où elles sont revêtues de l'ordonnance judiciaire d'exécution.           

Art. 12. L'hypothèque ne peut pareillement résulter des jugemens rendus dans les autres états ou territoires de l'union, que du jour où l'exécution en a été ordonnée par l'un des juges de ce territoire.           

Art. 13. Les jugemens obtenus contre un défunt, n'emportent hypothèque sur les biens personnels de l'héritier, que du jour du jugement qui les a déclarés exécutoires contre ledit héritier.           

Art. 14. L'hypothèque conventionnelle et judiciaire ne peuvent préjudicier au tiers, que de la date de leur inscription au bureau conservatoire des hypothèques, de la manière et dans la forme ci-après prescrites.           

Art. 15. L'hypothèque légale, est celle qui procède de la loi, sans aucune convention expresse des parties, mais qui est fondée néanmoins sur un consentement tacite, que la loi présume donné par celui sur les biens duquel elle accorde cette hypothèque; c'est pourquoi elle est aussi appelée en droit, hypothèque tacite.
Telle est l'hypothèque que le mineur a sur les biens de son tuteur, du jour de la nomination de celui-ci; telle est celle que la loi donne à la femme, pour sa dot, sur les biens de son mari. 

Art. 16. Il n'y a d'hypothèque légale, que dans les cas déterminés par la loi. 

Art. 17. La femme a une hypothèque légale sur les biens de son mari, savoir:
1º. Pour la restitution de sa dot, et pour le remploi des biens dotaux vendus par le mari, et qu'elle a apportés en mariage, et ce, à compter du jour de la célébration du mariage;
2º. Pour la restitution ou le remploi des biens dotaux qui lui sont advenus pendant le mariage, soit par succession ou donation, du jour que la succession s'est ouverte, ou que la donation a eu son effet;
3º. Pour l'indemnité des dettes auxquelles elle s'est obligée, conjointement avec lui, et pour le remploi de ses propres aliénés, du jour de l'obligation ou de la vente. 

Art. 18. Les hypothèques que la loi établit en faveur de la femme ont lieu, non-seulement pour la femme personnellement, mais encore au profit de ses héritiers ou ayans cause. 

Art. 19. Les mineurs, les interdits et les absens, ont hypothèque sur les biens de leurs tuteurs et curateurs, pour sûreté de leur administration, du jour de la nomination desdits tuteurs et curateurs, jusqu'à celui de l'apurement et de la clôture de leur compte définitif.
Et les tuteurs et curateurs desdites personnes, ont une semblable hypothèque sur leurs biens, pour sûreté des avances qu'ils peuvent leur avoir faites. 

Art. 20. Il y a hypothèque légale sur les biens de ceux qui, sans avoir été tuteurs ou curateurs, se sont immiscés dans l'administration des biens des mineurs, interdits, ou absens, à compter du jour où ils ont fait le premier acte de cette administration.           

Art. 21. Les enfans des précédens mariages, dont la mère s'est remariée sans convoquer une assemblée de famille pour faire prononcer si la tutelle desdits enfans lui sera conservée ou non, ont une hypothèque légale sur les biens du nouveau mari, pour les faites de la tutelle, ainsi indûment conservée par leur mère, à compter du jour de la célébration du nouveau mariage.           

Art. 22. Il y a hypothèque légale, à compter du jour de la clôture de l'inventaire, contre le survivant des époux, ou les héritiers qui ont été chargés, par l'inventaire, des biens de la communauté ou de la succession. 

Art. 23. Les co-héritiers ont une hypothèque légale ou tacite sur les biens qui ont été l'objet du partage, du jour de ce partage, pour la garantie de leurs portions respectives, et pour la soulte ou retour des lots. 

Art. 24. Les légataires universels ou particuliers, ont une hypothèque légale sur les biens de la succession de celui qui leur a fait le legs, à compter du jour de son décès, pour sûreté de la délivrance desdits legs de la part des héritiers, ou obligés aux legs. 

Art. 25. Le territoire, les différentes paroisses, les communes et autres corporations, les compagnies de commerce et de navigation, et les établissemens publics, ont une hypothèque légale sur les biens de leurs receveurs et comptables, du jour où ils sont entrés en fonctions. 

Art. 26. Il y a hypothèque légale sur tous les biens des séquestres et gardiens établis par autorité de justice, à compter du jour de leur nomination.
Le tout, sans préjudice des autres hypothèques légales, qui peuvent n'être pas mentionnées ici, et être établies dans d'autres parties du présent code. 

Art. 27. L'hypothèque légale n'est point sujette à inscription. 

Art. 28. Les hypothèques, soit légales, soit judiciaires, soit conventionnelles, s'étendent sur tous les biens présens ou futurs du débiteur, qui sont susceptibles d'hypothèque, à moins, qu'à l'égard des biens futurs, il n'y ait stipulation contraire. 

Art. 29. L'hypothèque, sous un autre point de vue, peut se diviser en hypothèque simple, et hypothèque privilégiée.
L'hypothèque simple ne donne au créancier d'autre droit, d'autre préférence sur les biens de son débiteur, que ceux que lui procure la date de son inscription ou de sa créance; suivant cette règle, le premier en date est payé le premier;
L'hypothèque privilégiée, autrement appelée simplement privilége, est celle qui dérive d'une cause privilégiée, et qui donne la préférence sur les créanciers qui n'ont qu'une simple hypothèque, quand bien même ils seraient antérieurs en date.
Telle est l'hypothèque du vendeur qui est préféré à tous autres, pour son payement sur le fonds qu'il a vendu. 

Art. 30. L'hypothèque se divise enfin, en hypothèque générale, et hypothèque spéciale.
L'hypothèque générale, est celle qui comprend tous les biens présens et avenir du débiteur.
La spéciale, au contraire, est, ou limitée à de certains biens, comme aux biens présens, ou restreinte à certains biens nommément. 

Art. 31. L'hypothèque spéciale oblige le créancier à discuter le bien qui lui est ainsi hypothéqué, avant de pouvoir s'adresser aux autres, mais on est dispensé de cette obligation, s'il a été stipulé, que l'hypothèque générale ne dérogera pas à la spéciale, ni la spéciale à la générale.

< Previous | Next >© Manuscript notes copyright 1968 by Louis V. de la Vergne.
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