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Table of Contents

Cover Page
Foreword
Abbreviations
Synopsis
Preliminary title Of the general definitions of rights and the promulgation of the laws
    Chapter I Of law and customs
    Chapter II Of the publication of the laws
    Chapter III Of the effects of laws
    Chapter IV Of the application and construction of laws
    Chapter V Of the repeal of laws
Book I Of persons
    Title I Of the distinction of persons, and the privation of certain civil rights in certain cases
      Chapter I Of the distinction of persons established by nature
      Chapter II Of the distinctions of persons which are established by law
    Title II Of domicil and the manner of changing the same
    Title III Of absent persons
      Chapter I Of the curatorship of absent persons
      Chapter II Of the putting into provisional possession the heirs of the absentee
      Chapter III Of the effects of absence upon the eventual rights which may belong to the absentee
      Chapter IV Of the effects of absence respecting marriage
      Chapter V Of the care of minor children whose father has disappeared
    Title IV Of husband and wife
      Chapter I On marriage
      Chapter II How marriages may be contracted or made
      Chapter III Of the nullity of marriages
      Chapter IV Of the respective rights and duties of married persons
      Chapter V Of the dissolution of marriages
      Chapter VI Of second marriages
    Title V Of the separation from bed and board
      Chapter I Of the causes of separation from bed and board
      Chapter II Of the proceedings on separation from bed and board
      Chapter III Of the provisional proceedings to which a suit for separation may give occasion
      Chapter IV Of objections to the action of separation from bed and board
      Chapter V Of the effects of separation from bed and board
    Title VI Of master and servant
      Chapter I Of the several sorts of servants
      Chapter II Of free servants
      Chapter III Of slaves
    Title VII Of father and child
      Chapter I Of children in general
      Chapter II Of legitimate children
        Section I Of legitimacy resulting from marriage
        Section II Of the manner of proving the legitimate filiation
      Chapter III Of illegitimate children
        Section I Of legitimation
        Section II Of the acknowledgment of illegitimate children
      Chapter IV Of adoption
      Chapter V Of paternal authority
        Section I Of the duties of parents towards their legitimate children, and of the duties of legitimate children towards their parents
        Section II Of the duties of parents towards their natural children, and of the duties of natural children towards their parents
    Title VIII Of minors, of their tutorship, curatorship and emancipation
      Chapter I Of tutorship
        Section I General dispositions
        Section II Of tutorship by nature
        Section III Of tutorship by will
        Section IV Of the tutorship by the effect of the law
        Section V Of dative tutorship
        Section VI Of the under tutor
        Section VII Of the causes which dispense or excuse from the tutorship
        Section VIII Of incapacity for, exclusion from and deprivation of the tutorship
        Section IX Of the administration of the tutor
      Chapter II Of the curatorship of minors
      Chapter III Of emancipation
    Title IX Of persons insane, idiots, and other persons incapable of administering their estate
      Chapter I Of the interdiction and curatorship of persons incapable of administering their estate, whether on account of insanity or of some other infirmity
      Chapter II Of the other persons to whom curators are appointed
    Title X Of communities or corporations
      Chapter I Of the nature of communities or corporations, of their use and kind
      Chapter II Of the rights and privileges of communities or corporations and of their incapacities
      Chapter III Of the dissolution of communities or corporations
Book II Of things and of the different modifications of property
    Title I Of things or estates
      Chapter I Of the distinction of things or estates
      Chapter II Of immoveables
      Chapter III Of moveables
      Chapter IV Of estates considered in their relation to those who possess them
    Title II Of absolute ownership
      Chapter I Universal principles
      Chapter II Of the right of accession to what is produced by the thing
      Chapter III Of the right of accession to what unites or incorporates itself to the thing
        Section I Of the right of accession concerning immoveables
        Section II Of the right of accession concerning moveable things
    Title III Of usufruct, use and habitation
      Chapter I Of usufruct
        Section I General definitions
        Section II Of the rights of the usufructuary
        Section III Of the obligations of the usufructuary
        Section IV Of the obligations of the owner
        Section V How usufruct expires
      Chapter II Of the use and habitation
    Title IV Of predial services or services of land
      Chapter I General principles
      Chapter II Of services which originate from the natural situation of the place
      Chapter III Of services imposed by law
        Section I Of walls, fences, and ditches in common
        Section II Of the distance and of the intermediary works required for certain buildings
        Section III Of lights on the property of a neighbor
        Section IV Of the manner of carrying off rain from the roof
        Section V Of the right of passage
      Chapter IV Of services established by the act of man
        Section I Of the different kinds of services which may be established by the act of man
        Section II How services are acquired
        Section III Of the rights of the proprietor of the estate to which the service is due
        Section IV How Services are extinguished
Book III Of the different manners of acquiring the property of things
    Preliminary title General dispositions
    Title I Of successions
      Chapter I Of the different sorts of successions and heirs
      Chapter II Of legal successions
        Section I General rules
        Section II Of the succession of descendants
        Section III Of the succession of ascendants
        Section IV Of the succession of collaterals
      Chapter III Of irregular successions
      Chapter IV In what manner successions are opened
      Chapter V Of the incapacity and unworthiness of the heirs
      Chapter VI In what manner a succession is accepted and how it is renounced
        Section I Of the acceptance pure and simple
        Section II Of the acceptance of a succession with the benefit of an inventory
      Chapter VII Of the administration of vacant estates and estates ab intestato
      Chapter VIII Of partition among heirs and of the collation of goods
        Section I Of the nature of partition and in what manner it is made
        Section II Of the collation of goods
        Section III Of the payment of debts
        Section IV Of the effect of partition and of its rescision
    Title II Of donations inter vivos (between living persons) and mortis causa (in prospect of death)
      Chapter I General dispositions
      Chapter II Of the capacity necessary for disposing of and receiving by donation inter vivos or mortis causa
      Chapter III Of the portion disposable, and of its reduction in case of excess
        Section I Of the disposable portion and the legitime
        Section II Of the reduction of dispositions inter vivos or mortis causa; of the manner in which it is made and of its effects
      Chapter IV Of dispositions reprobated by the law in donations inter vivos and mortis causa
      Chapter V Of donations inter vivos (between living)
        Section I Of the irrevocability of donations inter vivos
        Section II Of the form of donations inter vivos
        Section III Of the exceptions to the rule of the irrevocability of donations inter vivos
      Chapter VI Of dispositions mortis causa (in the prospect of death)
        Section I Of testament or codicil
        Section II Of the form of testaments and codicils
        Section III Of testamentary dispositions
        Section IV Of the institution of heir and of disinherison
        Section V Of legacies
        Section VI Of the opening and the proof of wills, and of testamentary executions
        Section VII Of the revocation of testaments and codicils and of their caducity
        Section VIII Of the interpretation of testamentary dispositions
      Chapter VII Of partitions made by parents among their descendants
      Chapter VIII Of donations made by marriage contract to the husband or wife, and to the children to be born of the marriage
      Chapter IX Of donations between married persons, either by marriage contract, or during the marriage
    Title III Of contracts and of conventional obligations in general
      Chapter I Preliminary dispositions
      Chapter II Of the conditions essential to the validity of agreements
        Section I Of consent
        Section II Of the capability of the parties contracting
        Section III Of the object and the matter of contracts
        Section IV Of the cause
      Chapter III Of the effect of obligations
        Section I General dispositions
        Section II Of the obligation of giving
        Section III Of the obligations of doing or of not doing
        Section IV Of the damages resulting from the non execution of the obligation
        Section V Of the interpretation of the agreements
        Section VI Of the effect of agreements with regard to persons not parties to them
      Chapter IV Of the different kinds of obligations
        Section I Of conditional obligations
          § 1 Of the condition in general and of its different kinds
          § 2 Of the suspensive condition
          § 3 Of the dissolving condition
        Section II Of obligations to be performed at a certain term
        Section III Of the alternative obligations
        Section IV Of obligations in solido or jointly and severally
          § 1 Of the obligation in solido between creditors
          § 2 Of the obligation in solido on the part of debtors
        Section V Of obligations divisible and indivisible
          § 1 Of the effects of a divisible obligation
          § 2 Of the effect of the indivisible obligation
        Section VI Of obligations with penal clauses
      Chapter V Of the extinction of obligations
        Section I Of payment
          § 1 Of payment in general
          § 2 Of payment with subrogation
          § 3 Of the imputation of payments
          § 4 Of tenders of payment, and consignment
          § 5 Of the surrender of property
        Section II Of novation
        Section III Of the remission of the debt
        Section IV Of compensation
        Section V Of confusion
        Section VI Of the loss of the thing due
        Section VII Of the action of nullity or of rescission of agreements
      Chapter VI Of the proof of obligations and of that of payment
        Section I Of the literal proof
          § 1 Of the authentic title
          § 2 Of the acts under private signature
          § 3 Of copies of titles
          § 4 Of recognitive and confirmative acts
        Section II Of testimonial proof
        Section III Of presumptions
          § 1 Of presumptions established by law
          § 2 Of presumption not established by law
        Section IV Of the confession of the party
        Section V Of the proof by oath
    Title IV Of engagements formed without agreements, or of quasi contracts and quasi offences
      Section I Of the quasi contract
      Section II Of quasi crimes or offences
    Title V Of marriage contract
      Chapter I General dispositions
      Chapter II Of the various kinds of matrimonial agreements
        Section I Of donations made in consideration of marriage
        Section II Of dowry or marriage portion
        Section III Of paraphernalia or extra dotal effects
        Section IV Of the partnership or community of acquests or gains
      Chapter III Of the separation of property
    Title VI Of sale
      Chapter I Of the nature and form of the contract of sale, and of the manner in which it is to be performed
      Chapter II Of persons capable of buying and selling, and of things which may be sold
      Chapter III Of the obligations of the seller
        Section I Of the tradition or delivery of the thing sold
        Section II Of the warranty, in case of eviction of the thing sold
        Section III Of the warranty of the defects of the thing sold or of the redhibitory vices
      Chapter IV Of the obligations of the buyer
      Chapter V Of the nullity and rescissions of the sale
        Section I Of the power or right of redemption
        Section II Of the rescission of sales on account of lesion
      Chapter VI Of sales by cant or auction
      Chapter VII Of the assignment or transfer of debts and other incorporeal rights
    Title VII Of exchange
    Title VIII Of letting and hiring
      Chapter I Of the several species of contracts for letting and hiring
      Chapter II Of the contract for letting out things
        Section I Of the form and duration of leases
        Section II Of the obligations of the lessor
        Section III Of the obligations of the lessee
        Section IV Of the dissolution of leases
      Chapter III Of the letting out of labour or industry
        Section I Of the hiring of servants and workmen
        Section II Of carriers and watermen
        Section III Of plots for buildings and other works
    Title IX Of partnership
      Chapter I General dispositions
      Chapter II Of the various kinds of partnerships
      Chapter III Of the obligations of partners towards each other, and towards third persons
        Section I Of the obligations of partners towards each other
        Section II Of the obligations of partners towards third persons
      Chapter IV Of the different manners in which partnerships end
    Title X Of loan
      Chapter I Of the loan for use or commodatum
        Section I Of the nature of the loan for use
        Section II Of the engagements of the borrower for use
        Section III Of the engagements of the lender for use
      Chapter II Of the loan for consumption or mutuum
        Section I Of the nature of the loan for consumption
        Section II Of the obligations of the lender for consumption
        Section III Of the engagements of the borrower for consumption
      Chapter III Of loan on interest
    Title XI Of deposit and sequestration
      Chapter I Of deposit in general and of its divers kinds
      Chapter II Of the deposit properly so called
        Section I Of the nature and essence of the contract of deposit
        Section II Of the obligations of the depository
        Section III Of the obligations of him by whom the deposit has been made
        Section IV Of the necessary deposit
      Chapter III Of sequestration
        Section I Of its different species
        Section II Of the conventional sequestration
        Section III Of the judicial sequestration or deposit
    Title XII Of aleatory contracts
    Title XIII Of mandate or commission
      Chapter I Of the nature of proxies, mandates and commissions
      Chapter II What persons may be appointed attornies in fact
      Chapter III Of the obligations of a person acting under a power of attorney
      Chapter IV Of the obligations of the principal who acts by his attorney in fact
      Chapter V How the procuration expires
    Title XIV Of suretyship
      Chapter I Of the nature and extent of suretyship
      Chapter II Of the effects of suretyship
        Section I Of the effects of suretyship between the creditor and the surety
        Section II Of the effects of suretyship between the debtor and the surety
        Section III Respecting the effects of suretyship between the sureties
      Chapter III Of the extinction of suretyship
      Chapter IV Of the legal and judicial sureties
    Title XV Of transactions
    Title XVI Of respite
    Title XVII Of compromises or arbitration
    Title XVIII Of pledge
    Title XIX Of privileges and mortgages
      Chapter I Of the nature of a mortgage and of its several sorts
      Chapter II Who may mortgage and what thing may be mortgaged
      Chapter III Of the effects of mortgage
        Section I Of the effects of mortgage with regard to the debtor
        Section II Of the effects of mortgages against third possessors and of the action of mortgage
        Section III Of the registering of mortgages and of the register kept for that purpose
      Chapter IV Of the order of privileges and mortgages
        Section I Of the preference and order of privileges
      Chapter V How privileges or mortgages expire or are extinguished
    Title XX Of occupancy, possession and prescription
      Chapter I Of occupancy
      Chapter II Of possession
      Chapter III Of prescription
        Section I Of the possession required to establish prescription
        Section II Of the causes which suspend or interrupt prescriptions
        Section III Of the several species of prescription
    Title XXI Of the title by judgment or seizure
Index
Manuscript index
Manuscript index Part 2

TITLE XIV – OF SURETYSHIP

 

CHAPTER I – OF THE NATURE AND EXTENT OF SURETYSHIP

Art. 1. The person who becomes surety on a debt, is bound to pay to the creditor said debt, either in whole or in part, in behalf of the debtor, if said debtor does not pay it himself.

Art. 2. Suretyship can only be given for the performance of valid contracts. A man may however become surety for an obligation of which the principal debtor might get a discharge by an exception merely personal to him, such as that of being a minor, or a married woman.

Art. 3. The suretyship cannot exceed what may be due by the debtor, nor be contracted under more onerous conditions. It may be contracted for a part of the debt only, or under more favorable conditions. The suretyship which exceeds the debt, or which is contracted under more onerous conditions, shall not be void, but shall be reduced to the conditions of the principal obligation.

Art. 4. Suretyship may be given not only for the principal debtor, but also for the person who has been his security.

Art. 5. Suretyship cannot be presumed, it ought to be expressed and is to be restrained within the limits intended by the contract.

Art. 6. A general and indefinite suretyship extends to all the accessories of the principal debt and even to the costs.

 

CHAPTER II – OF THE EFFECTS OF SURETYSHIP

 

SECTION I – OF THE EFFECTS OF SURETYSHIP BETWEEN THE CREDITOR AND THE SURETY

Art. 7. The obligation of the surety towards the creditor, is to pay him in case the debtor should not himself satisfy the debt; and the property of said debtor is to be previously discussed or seized, unless said security should have renounced the plea of discussion, or should be bound in solido jointly with the debtor; in which case the effects of his engagement are to be regulated by the same principles which have been established for debtors in solido.

Art. 8. The creditor is not bound to discuss the principal debtor’s property, unless he should be required so to do by the security.

Art. 9. The surety who does require the discussion is bound to point out to the creditor the property of the principal debtor and furnish a sufficient sum to have said discussion carried into effect.

Art. 10. The creditor cannot be compelled to have the property of the principal debtor discussed, when said property lies out of the territory.— The same takes place with respect to any property in litigation or affected to a mortgage, which are out of the debtor’s possession.

Art. 11. The creditor who has neglected to discuss the property pointed out to him, has nevertheless the right to sue the surety, in whose power it was to prevent the insolvability of the debtor, as will be mentioned hereafter.

Art. 12. When several persons have become sureties for the same debtor and for the same debt, each of them is individually liable for the whole of said debt, in case of insolvency of any of them.
Any one of them may however demand that the creditor should divide his action by reducing his demand to the amount of the share and portion due by each surety, unless said sureties have renounced to the benefit of division.

Art. 13. A creditor can by no means claim the whole sum from the surety who applied for the division, when the other sureties have become insolvent since the time of that application. The same thing takes place if the creditor has himself voluntarily divided his actions.

  

SECTION II – OF THE EFFECTS OF SURETYSHIP BETWEEN THE DEBTOR AND THE SURETY

Art. 14. The surety who has paid the debt, has his remedy against the principal debtor, whether the surety has been given with or without the knowledge of the debtor.
This remedy takes place both for the principal and interest and for the costs which the surety may have been sentenced to pay; but with regard to the costs, the remedy of the security begins only from the day he has given notice to the principal debtor, that a suit was commenced against him.

Art. 15. With regard to said remedy, the security has the same right of action and the same privilege of subrogation which the law grants to joint co-debtors.

Art. 16. When there exist several principal joint debtors for the same debt, he who became a security to them all has his remedy against each of them for the whole amount of what he may have paid.

Art. 17. The surety has no remedy against the principal debtor who has paid a second time, for want of being warned by said surety of the payment made by him.  But the surety may have his action against the creditor for his reimbursement.

Art. 18. A security may, even before making any payment, bring a suit against the debtor to be indemnified by him, 1st, when there exists a lawsuit against him for the payment; 2d, when the debtor has become a bankrupt or is in a state of insolvency; 3d, When the debtor was bound to discharge him within a certain time; 4th, when the debt has been due by the expiration of the term for which said debt has been contracted; 5th, at the expiration of ten years, when the principal obligation is of a nature to last a longer time, unless the principal obligation, such as that of guardianship, be of a nature not to be extinguished before a determinate time.

 

SECTION III – RESPECTING THE EFFECTS OF SURETYSHIP BETWEEN THE SURETIES

Art. 19. When several persons have been sureties for the same debtor and for the same debt, the surety who has satisfied the debt, has his remedy against each of the other sureties, in proportion to the share of every one, but this remedy takes place only when the said person has paid in consequence of a law suit being instituted against him.

 

CHAPTER III – OF THE EXTINCTION OF SURETYSHIP

Art. 20. The obligation which results from a surety ship is extinguished by all the different models in which other obligations may be extinguished; but the confusion which results in case the principal debtor or his surety should become heirs one to the other, does not extinguish the action of the creditor against the person who has become the security of the security.

Art. 21. The surety may oppose to the creditor, all the exceptions belonging to the principal debtor and which are inherent to the debt; but he cannot oppose exceptions which are personal to the debtor.

Art. 22. The surety is discharged when by the act of the creditor, the subrogation to his rights, mortgages and privileges can no longer be operated in favor of the surety.

Art. 23. The voluntary acceptance on the part of the creditor, of an immoveable or any other property in payment of the principal debt, is a full discharge of the surety, even in case the creditor should be afterwards evicted from the property so accepted.

Art. 24. The simple prorogation of the term granted by the creditor to the principal debtor, does not exonerate the surety who may, in this case, sue the said debtor, to compel him to make payment.

 

CHAPTER IV – OF THE LEGAL AND JUDICIAL SURETIES

Art. [2]35. Whenever a person is bound by law or by a judgement to give a surety, he is obliged to offer a person possessed of the right of contracting for himself and of sufficient property to secure the sums for which he is bound and who resides in this territory.

Art. 26. The solvability of a legal or judicial surety is calculated only by a reference to his immoveable property, except in commercial transactions, or when the debt is of an inconsiderable amount.
Immoveable property in litigation or which from being situated at a great distance, cannot easily be discussed, shall not be considered as qualifying a person to become a legal surety.

Art. 27. When the surety who has been accepted, becomes insolvent afterwards, the person who offered said surety must give another.
An exception lies against this rule when the surety has merely been given in consequence of an agreement by which the debtor bound himself to give a particular person for security.

Art. 28. The person who can give no security, is admitted to give a pledge or other satisfaction sufficient to secure the debt.

Art. 29. A judicial surety cannot demand the discussion of the property of the principal debtor.

Art. 30. The person who has become the surety of the judicial surety, cannot demand the discussion of the property of the principal debtor and of the surety.

TITRE XIV - DU CAUTIONNEMENT

 

CHAPITRE I - DE LA NATURE ET DE L'ETENDUE DU CAUTIONNEMENT

Art. 1. Celui qui se rend caution d'une obligation, s'oblige, envers le créancier, à lui payer, au défaut du débiteur, en tout ou partie, ce que celui-ci lui doit.

Art. 2. Le cautionnement ne peut exister que sur une obligation valable.
On peut, néanmoins, cautionner l'obligation dont le débiteur principal pourrait se faire décharger par une exception purement personnelle; telle que celle du mineur, ou de la femme mariée.           

Art. 3. Le cautionnement ne peut excéder ce qui est dû par le débiteur, ni être contracté sous des conditions plus dures.
Il peut être contracté pour une partie de la dette seulement, et sous des conditions moins dures.
Le cautionnement qui excède la dette, ou qui est contracté sous des conditions plus dures, n'est point nul, mais seulement réductible à la mesure de l'action principale.           

Art. 4. On peut se rendre caution, non-seulement du débiteur principal, mais encore de celui qui l'a cautionné.           

Art. 5. Le cautionnement ne se présume point: il doit être exprès, et doit être restreint dans les limites dans lesquelles il a été contracté.           

Art. 6. Le cautionnement général et indéfini, s'étend à tous les accessoires de la dette principale; même aux frais.

 

CHAPITRE II - DE L'EFFET DU CAUTIONNEMENT

 

SECTION I - DE L'EFFET DU CAUTIONNEMENT ENTRE LE CRÉANCIER ET LA CAUTION 

Art. 7. La caution n'est obligée, envers le créancier, qu'à la payer au défaut du débiteur, qui doit être préalablement discuté dans ses biens, à moins que la caution n'ait renoncé au bénéfice de discussion, ou qu'elle ne soit obligée solidairement avec le débiteur, auquel cas, l'effet de son engagement se règle par les mêmes principes qui ont été ci-dessus établis pour les dettes solidaires.           

Art. 8. Le créancier n'est obligé de discuter le débiteur principal, que lorsque la caution le requiert.           

Art. 9. La caution, qui requiert la discussion, doit indiquer au créancier les biens du débiteur principal, et avancer les deniers suffisans pour faire la discussion.           

Art. 10. Le créancier ne peut être obligé de discuter les biens du débiteur principal, situés hors du territoire.
Il en est de même, de ceux litigieux et de ceux hypothéqués à la dette, qui ne sont plus en la possession du débiteur.           

Art. 11. Le créancier, qui a négligé de discuter les biens qui lui ont été indiqués, n'en a pas moins le droit de poursuivre la caution, qui pouvait prévenir l'insolvabilité du débiteur: ainsi qu'il sera dit ci-après.           

Art. 12. Lorsque plusieurs personnes se sont rendues cautions d'un même débiteur, pour une même dette, elles sont obligées, chacune, à toute la dette, en cas d'insolvabilité de l'une d'elles.
Néanmoins, chacune d'elles peut exiger, que le créancier divise préalablement son action, et la réduise à la part et portion de chaque caution, à moins qu'elle n'ait renoncé au bénéfice de division.           

Art. 13. Le créancier ne peut plus revenir, pour le tout, contre celle des cautions qui a demandé la division, lorsque l'autre caution n'est devenue insolvable que depuis.
Il en est de même, si le créancier a divisé lui-même et volontairement son action.

           

SECTION II - DE L'EFFET DU CAUTIONNEMENT ENTRE LE DÉBITEUR ET LA CAUTION

Art. 14. La caution qui a payé, a son recours contre le débiteur principal, soit que le cautionnement ait été donné au su ou à l'insu du débiteur.
Ce recours a lieu, tant pour le principal que pour les intérêts et les frais, auxquels la caution a été condamnée; mais, à l'égard de ces frais, le recours n'a lieu, en faveur de la caution, qu'à compter du jour qu'elle a dénoncé au débiteur principal, les poursuites faites contre elle.           

Art. 15. La caution a, pour le recours, les mêmes actions, et le même privilége de subrogation que la loi accorde au co-débiteur solidaire.           

Art. 16. Lorsqu'il y avait plusieurs débiteurs principaux, solidaires d'une même dette, la caution, qui les a tous cautionnés, a, contre chacun d'eux, le recours pour la répétition du total de ce qu'elle a payé.           

Art. 17. La caution n'a point de recours contre le débiteur principal qui a payé une seconde fois, faute, par la caution, de l'avoir averti du payement qu'elle avait fait: sauf son action en répétition contre le créancier.           

Art. 18. La caution, même avant d'avoir payé, peut agir contre le débiteur, pour être par lui indemnisée:
1°. Lorsqu'elle est poursuivie en justice pour le payement;
2°. Lorsque le débiteur à fait faillite, ou est en déconfiture;
3°. Lorsque le débiteur s'est obligé de lui rapporter sa décharge dans un certain tems;
4°. Lorsque la dette est devenue exigible par l'échéance du terme sous lequel elle avait été contractée;
5°. Au bout de dix années, lorsque l'obligation principale est de nature à durer plus long-temps; à moins que l'obligation principale, telle qu'une tutelle, ne soit pas de nature à pouvoir être éteinte avant un tems déterminé.

 

SECTION III - DE L'EFFET DU CAUTIONNEMENT ENTRE LES CO-FIDÉJUSSEURS

Art. 19. Lorsque plusieurs personnes ont cautionné un même débiteur, pour une même dette, la caution qui a acquitté la dette, a recours contre les autres cautions, chacune pour sa part et portion.
Mais ce recours n'a lieu, que lorsque la caution a payé, en conséquence de poursuites dirigées contre elle.

           

CHAPITRE III - DE L'EXTINCTION DU CAUTIONNEMENT

Art. 20. L'obligation qui résulte du cautionnement, s'éteint de toutes les différentes manières dont s'éteignent les obligations.
Mais la confusion, qui s'opère dans la personne du débiteur principal ou de sa caution, lorsqu'ils deviennent héritiers l'un de l'autre, n'éteint point l'action du créancier contre celui qui s'est rendu caution de la caution.           

Art. 21. La caution peut opposer au créancier toutes les exceptions qui appartiennent au débiteur principal, et qui sont inhérentes à la dette.
Mais elle ne peut opposer les exceptions qui sont personnelles au débiteur.           

Art. 22. La caution est déchargée, lorsque, par le fait du créancier, la subrogation à ses droits, hypothèques et priviléges, ne peut plus s'opérer en faveur de la caution.          

Art. 23. L'acceptation volontaire, que le créancier a faite d'un immeuble ou d'un effet quelconque, en payement de la dette principale, décharge la caution: encore que le créancier vienne ensuite à en être évincé. 

Art. 24. La simple prorogation de terme, accordée par le créancier au débiteur principal, ne décharge point la caution qui peut, en ce cas, poursuivre le débiteur pour le forcer au payement.

           

CHAPITRE IV - DE LA CAUTION LÉGALE, ET DE LA CAUTION JUDICIAIRE

Art. 25. Toutes les fois qu'une personne est obligée par la loi, ou par une condamnation, à fournir une caution, elle doit en présenter une qui ait la capacité de contracter, qui ait un bien suffisant pour répondre de l'objet de l'obligation, et dont le domicile soit dans le territoire.           

Art. 26. La solvabilité d'une caution, légale ou judiciaire, ne s'estime, qu'eu égard à ses propriétés foncières; excepté en matière de commerce, ou lorsque la dette est modique.
On n'a point égard aux immeubles litigieux, ou dont la discussion deviendrait trop difficile par l'éloignement de leur situation.           

Art. 27. Lorsque la caution, qui a été reçue, est devenue depuis, insolvable, celui qui l'a offerte est obligé d'en donner une autre.
Cette règle reçoit exception, lorsque la caution n'a été donnée qu'en vertu d'une convention, par laquelle le débiteur s'était obligé de donner une telle personne pour caution.           

Art. 28. Celui qui ne peut pas trouver une caution, est reçu à donner à la place, un gage ou nantissement suffisant.           

Art. 29. La caution judiciaire ne peut pas demander la discussion du principal débiteur.

Art. 30. Celui qui a simplement cautionné la caution judiciaire, ne peut demander la discussion du principal débiteur, et de la caution.

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