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Table of Contents

Cover Page
Foreword
Abbreviations
Synopsis
Preliminary title Of the general definitions of rights and the promulgation of the laws
    Chapter I Of law and customs
    Chapter II Of the publication of the laws
    Chapter III Of the effects of laws
    Chapter IV Of the application and construction of laws
    Chapter V Of the repeal of laws
Book I Of persons
    Title I Of the distinction of persons, and the privation of certain civil rights in certain cases
      Chapter I Of the distinction of persons established by nature
      Chapter II Of the distinctions of persons which are established by law
    Title II Of domicil and the manner of changing the same
    Title III Of absent persons
      Chapter I Of the curatorship of absent persons
      Chapter II Of the putting into provisional possession the heirs of the absentee
      Chapter III Of the effects of absence upon the eventual rights which may belong to the absentee
      Chapter IV Of the effects of absence respecting marriage
      Chapter V Of the care of minor children whose father has disappeared
    Title IV Of husband and wife
      Chapter I On marriage
      Chapter II How marriages may be contracted or made
      Chapter III Of the nullity of marriages
      Chapter IV Of the respective rights and duties of married persons
      Chapter V Of the dissolution of marriages
      Chapter VI Of second marriages
    Title V Of the separation from bed and board
      Chapter I Of the causes of separation from bed and board
      Chapter II Of the proceedings on separation from bed and board
      Chapter III Of the provisional proceedings to which a suit for separation may give occasion
      Chapter IV Of objections to the action of separation from bed and board
      Chapter V Of the effects of separation from bed and board
    Title VI Of master and servant
      Chapter I Of the several sorts of servants
      Chapter II Of free servants
      Chapter III Of slaves
    Title VII Of father and child
      Chapter I Of children in general
      Chapter II Of legitimate children
        Section I Of legitimacy resulting from marriage
        Section II Of the manner of proving the legitimate filiation
      Chapter III Of illegitimate children
        Section I Of legitimation
        Section II Of the acknowledgment of illegitimate children
      Chapter IV Of adoption
      Chapter V Of paternal authority
        Section I Of the duties of parents towards their legitimate children, and of the duties of legitimate children towards their parents
        Section II Of the duties of parents towards their natural children, and of the duties of natural children towards their parents
    Title VIII Of minors, of their tutorship, curatorship and emancipation
      Chapter I Of tutorship
        Section I General dispositions
        Section II Of tutorship by nature
        Section III Of tutorship by will
        Section IV Of the tutorship by the effect of the law
        Section V Of dative tutorship
        Section VI Of the under tutor
        Section VII Of the causes which dispense or excuse from the tutorship
        Section VIII Of incapacity for, exclusion from and deprivation of the tutorship
        Section IX Of the administration of the tutor
      Chapter II Of the curatorship of minors
      Chapter III Of emancipation
    Title IX Of persons insane, idiots, and other persons incapable of administering their estate
      Chapter I Of the interdiction and curatorship of persons incapable of administering their estate, whether on account of insanity or of some other infirmity
      Chapter II Of the other persons to whom curators are appointed
    Title X Of communities or corporations
      Chapter I Of the nature of communities or corporations, of their use and kind
      Chapter II Of the rights and privileges of communities or corporations and of their incapacities
      Chapter III Of the dissolution of communities or corporations
Book II Of things and of the different modifications of property
    Title I Of things or estates
      Chapter I Of the distinction of things or estates
      Chapter II Of immoveables
      Chapter III Of moveables
      Chapter IV Of estates considered in their relation to those who possess them
    Title II Of absolute ownership
      Chapter I Universal principles
      Chapter II Of the right of accession to what is produced by the thing
      Chapter III Of the right of accession to what unites or incorporates itself to the thing
        Section I Of the right of accession concerning immoveables
        Section II Of the right of accession concerning moveable things
    Title III Of usufruct, use and habitation
      Chapter I Of usufruct
        Section I General definitions
        Section II Of the rights of the usufructuary
        Section III Of the obligations of the usufructuary
        Section IV Of the obligations of the owner
        Section V How usufruct expires
      Chapter II Of the use and habitation
    Title IV Of predial services or services of land
      Chapter I General principles
      Chapter II Of services which originate from the natural situation of the place
      Chapter III Of services imposed by law
        Section I Of walls, fences, and ditches in common
        Section II Of the distance and of the intermediary works required for certain buildings
        Section III Of lights on the property of a neighbor
        Section IV Of the manner of carrying off rain from the roof
        Section V Of the right of passage
      Chapter IV Of services established by the act of man
        Section I Of the different kinds of services which may be established by the act of man
        Section II How services are acquired
        Section III Of the rights of the proprietor of the estate to which the service is due
        Section IV How Services are extinguished
Book III Of the different manners of acquiring the property of things
    Preliminary title General dispositions
    Title I Of successions
      Chapter I Of the different sorts of successions and heirs
      Chapter II Of legal successions
        Section I General rules
        Section II Of the succession of descendants
        Section III Of the succession of ascendants
        Section IV Of the succession of collaterals
      Chapter III Of irregular successions
      Chapter IV In what manner successions are opened
      Chapter V Of the incapacity and unworthiness of the heirs
      Chapter VI In what manner a succession is accepted and how it is renounced
        Section I Of the acceptance pure and simple
        Section II Of the acceptance of a succession with the benefit of an inventory
      Chapter VII Of the administration of vacant estates and estates ab intestato
      Chapter VIII Of partition among heirs and of the collation of goods
        Section I Of the nature of partition and in what manner it is made
        Section II Of the collation of goods
        Section III Of the payment of debts
        Section IV Of the effect of partition and of its rescision
    Title II Of donations inter vivos (between living persons) and mortis causa (in prospect of death)
      Chapter I General dispositions
      Chapter II Of the capacity necessary for disposing of and receiving by donation inter vivos or mortis causa
      Chapter III Of the portion disposable, and of its reduction in case of excess
        Section I Of the disposable portion and the legitime
        Section II Of the reduction of dispositions inter vivos or mortis causa; of the manner in which it is made and of its effects
      Chapter IV Of dispositions reprobated by the law in donations inter vivos and mortis causa
      Chapter V Of donations inter vivos (between living)
        Section I Of the irrevocability of donations inter vivos
        Section II Of the form of donations inter vivos
        Section III Of the exceptions to the rule of the irrevocability of donations inter vivos
      Chapter VI Of dispositions mortis causa (in the prospect of death)
        Section I Of testament or codicil
        Section II Of the form of testaments and codicils
        Section III Of testamentary dispositions
        Section IV Of the institution of heir and of disinherison
        Section V Of legacies
        Section VI Of the opening and the proof of wills, and of testamentary executions
        Section VII Of the revocation of testaments and codicils and of their caducity
        Section VIII Of the interpretation of testamentary dispositions
      Chapter VII Of partitions made by parents among their descendants
      Chapter VIII Of donations made by marriage contract to the husband or wife, and to the children to be born of the marriage
      Chapter IX Of donations between married persons, either by marriage contract, or during the marriage
    Title III Of contracts and of conventional obligations in general
      Chapter I Preliminary dispositions
      Chapter II Of the conditions essential to the validity of agreements
        Section I Of consent
        Section II Of the capability of the parties contracting
        Section III Of the object and the matter of contracts
        Section IV Of the cause
      Chapter III Of the effect of obligations
        Section I General dispositions
        Section II Of the obligation of giving
        Section III Of the obligations of doing or of not doing
        Section IV Of the damages resulting from the non execution of the obligation
        Section V Of the interpretation of the agreements
        Section VI Of the effect of agreements with regard to persons not parties to them
      Chapter IV Of the different kinds of obligations
        Section I Of conditional obligations
          § 1 Of the condition in general and of its different kinds
          § 2 Of the suspensive condition
          § 3 Of the dissolving condition
        Section II Of obligations to be performed at a certain term
        Section III Of the alternative obligations
        Section IV Of obligations in solido or jointly and severally
          § 1 Of the obligation in solido between creditors
          § 2 Of the obligation in solido on the part of debtors
        Section V Of obligations divisible and indivisible
          § 1 Of the effects of a divisible obligation
          § 2 Of the effect of the indivisible obligation
        Section VI Of obligations with penal clauses
      Chapter V Of the extinction of obligations
        Section I Of payment
          § 1 Of payment in general
          § 2 Of payment with subrogation
          § 3 Of the imputation of payments
          § 4 Of tenders of payment, and consignment
          § 5 Of the surrender of property
        Section II Of novation
        Section III Of the remission of the debt
        Section IV Of compensation
        Section V Of confusion
        Section VI Of the loss of the thing due
        Section VII Of the action of nullity or of rescission of agreements
      Chapter VI Of the proof of obligations and of that of payment
        Section I Of the literal proof
          § 1 Of the authentic title
          § 2 Of the acts under private signature
          § 3 Of copies of titles
          § 4 Of recognitive and confirmative acts
        Section II Of testimonial proof
        Section III Of presumptions
          § 1 Of presumptions established by law
          § 2 Of presumption not established by law
        Section IV Of the confession of the party
        Section V Of the proof by oath
    Title IV Of engagements formed without agreements, or of quasi contracts and quasi offences
      Section I Of the quasi contract
      Section II Of quasi crimes or offences
    Title V Of marriage contract
      Chapter I General dispositions
      Chapter II Of the various kinds of matrimonial agreements
        Section I Of donations made in consideration of marriage
        Section II Of dowry or marriage portion
        Section III Of paraphernalia or extra dotal effects
        Section IV Of the partnership or community of acquests or gains
      Chapter III Of the separation of property
    Title VI Of sale
      Chapter I Of the nature and form of the contract of sale, and of the manner in which it is to be performed
      Chapter II Of persons capable of buying and selling, and of things which may be sold
      Chapter III Of the obligations of the seller
        Section I Of the tradition or delivery of the thing sold
        Section II Of the warranty, in case of eviction of the thing sold
        Section III Of the warranty of the defects of the thing sold or of the redhibitory vices
      Chapter IV Of the obligations of the buyer
      Chapter V Of the nullity and rescissions of the sale
        Section I Of the power or right of redemption
        Section II Of the rescission of sales on account of lesion
      Chapter VI Of sales by cant or auction
      Chapter VII Of the assignment or transfer of debts and other incorporeal rights
    Title VII Of exchange
    Title VIII Of letting and hiring
      Chapter I Of the several species of contracts for letting and hiring
      Chapter II Of the contract for letting out things
        Section I Of the form and duration of leases
        Section II Of the obligations of the lessor
        Section III Of the obligations of the lessee
        Section IV Of the dissolution of leases
      Chapter III Of the letting out of labour or industry
        Section I Of the hiring of servants and workmen
        Section II Of carriers and watermen
        Section III Of plots for buildings and other works
    Title IX Of partnership
      Chapter I General dispositions
      Chapter II Of the various kinds of partnerships
      Chapter III Of the obligations of partners towards each other, and towards third persons
        Section I Of the obligations of partners towards each other
        Section II Of the obligations of partners towards third persons
      Chapter IV Of the different manners in which partnerships end
    Title X Of loan
      Chapter I Of the loan for use or commodatum
        Section I Of the nature of the loan for use
        Section II Of the engagements of the borrower for use
        Section III Of the engagements of the lender for use
      Chapter II Of the loan for consumption or mutuum
        Section I Of the nature of the loan for consumption
        Section II Of the obligations of the lender for consumption
        Section III Of the engagements of the borrower for consumption
      Chapter III Of loan on interest
    Title XI Of deposit and sequestration
      Chapter I Of deposit in general and of its divers kinds
      Chapter II Of the deposit properly so called
        Section I Of the nature and essence of the contract of deposit
        Section II Of the obligations of the depository
        Section III Of the obligations of him by whom the deposit has been made
        Section IV Of the necessary deposit
      Chapter III Of sequestration
        Section I Of its different species
        Section II Of the conventional sequestration
        Section III Of the judicial sequestration or deposit
    Title XII Of aleatory contracts
    Title XIII Of mandate or commission
      Chapter I Of the nature of proxies, mandates and commissions
      Chapter II What persons may be appointed attornies in fact
      Chapter III Of the obligations of a person acting under a power of attorney
      Chapter IV Of the obligations of the principal who acts by his attorney in fact
      Chapter V How the procuration expires
    Title XIV Of suretyship
      Chapter I Of the nature and extent of suretyship
      Chapter II Of the effects of suretyship
        Section I Of the effects of suretyship between the creditor and the surety
        Section II Of the effects of suretyship between the debtor and the surety
        Section III Respecting the effects of suretyship between the sureties
      Chapter III Of the extinction of suretyship
      Chapter IV Of the legal and judicial sureties
    Title XV Of transactions
    Title XVI Of respite
    Title XVII Of compromises or arbitration
    Title XVIII Of pledge
    Title XIX Of privileges and mortgages
      Chapter I Of the nature of a mortgage and of its several sorts
      Chapter II Who may mortgage and what thing may be mortgaged
      Chapter III Of the effects of mortgage
        Section I Of the effects of mortgage with regard to the debtor
        Section II Of the effects of mortgages against third possessors and of the action of mortgage
        Section III Of the registering of mortgages and of the register kept for that purpose
      Chapter IV Of the order of privileges and mortgages
        Section I Of the preference and order of privileges
      Chapter V How privileges or mortgages expire or are extinguished
    Title XX Of occupancy, possession and prescription
      Chapter I Of occupancy
      Chapter II Of possession
      Chapter III Of prescription
        Section I Of the possession required to establish prescription
        Section II Of the causes which suspend or interrupt prescriptions
        Section III Of the several species of prescription
    Title XXI Of the title by judgment or seizure
Index
Manuscript index
Manuscript index Part 2

CHAPTER VI - OF THE PROOF OF OBLIGATIONS AND OF THAT OF PAYMENT

Art. 215. He who claims the execution of an obligation must prove it.
On the other hand, he who contends that he is exonerated, must prove the payment or the fact which has produced the extinction of his obligation.

Art. 216. The rule which concerns the literal proof, the testimonial proof, presumption, the confession of the party, and the oath, are explained in the following sections.

 

SECTION I - OF THE LITERAL PROOF

 

§ 1 - OF THE AUTHENTIC TITLE

Art. 217. The authentic act is that which has been received by public officers having power to record public acts in the place where the act has been drawn up, and with the requisite solemnities.

Art. 218. An act which is not authentic, through the incompetence or the incapacity of the officer, or through a defect of form, avails as a private writing, if it be signed by the parties.

Art. 219. The authentic act is full proof of the agreement contained in it, against the contracting parties and their heirs or assigns, unless it be declared and proved a forgery.

Art. 220. An act whether authentic or under private signature is proof between the parties, even of what is there expressed only in enunciative terms, provided the enunciation have a direct reference to the disposition.
Enunciations foreign from the dispositions, can serve only as a commencement of proof.

Art. 221. Counter letters can have effect only between the contracting parties: they have no effect against others.

 

§ 2 - OF THE ACTS UNDER PRIVATE SIGNATURE

Art. 222. All acts may be executed under private signature, except such as possitive laws have ordained to be passed in presence of a notary.

Art. 223. It is not necessary that those acts be written by the contracting parties, provided they be signed by them.

Art. 224. An act under private signature, acknowledged by the party against whom it is adduced, or legally held to be acknowledged, has, between those who have subscribed it, and their heirs and assigns, the same credit as an authentic act.

Art. 225. The person against whom an act under private signature is produced, is obliged formally to avow or disavow his signature.
Their heirs or assigns may simply declare that they know not the hand writing or the signature of the person they represent.

Art. 226. In case the party disavows his signature, and in case the heirs or assigns declare that they do no know the signature of the person whom they represent, proof of it may be given under oath or affirmation, by at least one credible witness, declaring positively that he knows the signature as having seen the obligation signed by the person from whom or from whose heirs the payment or execution of it is demanded, and if there be no such deposition, the signature of the person must be ascertained by two persons having skill to judge of hand writing, appointed by the judge before whom the cause is pending, which two persons shall report on oath whether the signature appear to them to be that of the person whose it is alledged to be, on their having compared it with papers acknowledged to have been signed by him.

Art. 227. Acts under private signature containing synallagmatic agreements, are valid only in as much as they are made in as many originals as there are parties having a distinct interest.
One original is sufficient for all the persons having one and the same interest.
Every original must contain the mention of the number of originals that have been made of it.
Nevertheless, the defect of the mention that the original has been made double or treble, &c cannot be pleaded by him who has executed on his part the agreement expressed in the act.

Art. 228. Acts under private signature expressing a sale or exchange of immoveables or slaves must be acknowledged and registered in the office of a notary public, six days from their date, if they be passed in the city of New-Orleans or within its liberties; and within ten days from its date, if they be passed without the city and its liberties, in any part of the territory.
When acts under private signature expressing a sale or exchange of immoveable property or slaves have been registered within the above mentioned time, they shall have effect against third persons from the day of their date, otherwise they shall have effect only from the time of their being registered; but the want or delay of registering cannot be pleaded by any one of the contracting parties, their heirs or assigns.

Art. 229. Acts under private signature expressing a sale or exchange or moveable things, have effect against third persons, and can prejudice them only from the day of their being registered in the office of a notary public, unless it be proved that the sale or exchange was accompanied with the actual delivery of the object sold or exchanged, or with some of the circumstances that are equivalent to the actual delivery, according to law or usage.
There is an exception to this rule in favor of the sales of produce or merchandise, if the truth of the date at which they appear to have been passed, be attested on oath or affirmation by at least one credible and disinterested witness.

Art. 230. Merchants' books do not prove against persons who are not in trade, the sale and delivery of the articles there entered.

Art. 231. Merchants' books are good evidence against the merchants themselves, but whoever wishes to avail himself to that evidence, must admit the books to prove what they contain contrary to his pretensions.

Art. 232. Domestic books and papers are no proof in favor of him who has written them.
They are proofs against him, 1st, in all cases where they formally declare a payment received; 2dly, when they contain an express mention that the minute was made to supply the want of a title in favor of him for whose advantage they declare that an obligation was made.

Art. 233. What is written by the creditor at the foot, in the margin, or on the back of a title that has always remained in his possession, though it be neither signed nor dated by him, is good evidence when it tends to establish the discharge of the debtor.
In like manner what is written by the creditor on the back, in the margin, or at the foot of the duplicate of a title, or of a receipt, is evidence, provided that duplicate be in the hands of the debtor.

CHAPITRE VI - DE LA PREUVE DES OBLIGATIONS ET DE CELLE DU PAYEMENT

Art. 215. Celui qui réclame l'exécution d'une obligation, doit la prouver.
Réciproquement, celui qui se prétend libéré, doit justifier le payement, ou le fait qui a produit l'extinction de son obligation.

Art. 216. Les règles qui concernent la preuve littérale, la preuve testimoniale, les présomptions, la confession de la partie et le serment, sont expliquées dans les sections suivantes.

 

SECTION I - DE LA PREUVE LITTÉRALE

 

§ 1 - DU TITRE AUTHENTIQUE  

Art. 217. L'acte authentique, est celui qui a été reçu par un officier public ayant le droit d'instrumenter dans le lieu où l'acte a été rédigé, et avec les solennités requises.

Art. 218. L'acte qui n'est point authentique, par l'incompétence ou l'incapacité de l'officier, ou par un défaut de forme, vaut comme écriture privée, s'il a été signé des parties.

Art. 219. L'acte authentique fait pleine foi de la convention qu'il renferme, entre les parties contractantes et leurs héritiers ou ayans cause, sauf le cas où il est argué de faux, et où le faux est prouvé.

Art. 220. L'acte, soit authentique, soit sous seing privé, fait foi entre les parties, même de ce qui n'y est exprimé qu'en termes énonciatifs, pourvu que l'énonciation ait un rapport directe à la disposition. Les énonciations étrangères à la disposition, ne peuvent servir que d'un commencement de preuve.

Art. 221. Les contre-lettres ne peuvent avoir leur effet qu'entre les parties contractantes; elles n'ont point d'effet contre les tiers. 

 

§ 2 - DE L'ACTE SOUS SEING PRIVÉ

Art. 222. On peut faire, sous signature privée, tous les actes que des lois positives n'ont pas ordonné de passer par-devant notaires.

Art. 223. Il n'est pas nécessaire que ces actes soient écrits de la main des contractans, pourvu qu'ils soient signés d'eux.

Art. 224. L'acte sous seing privé, reconnu par celui auquel on l'oppose, ou légalement tenu pour reconnu, a, entre ceux qui l'ont souscrit, et entre leurs héritiers et ayans cause, la même foi que l'acte authentique.

Art. 225. Celui auquel on oppose un acte sous seing privé, est obligé d'avouer ou de désavouer formellement sa signature.
Ses héritiers ou ayans cause peuvent se contenter de déclarer, qu'ils ne connaissent pas l'écriture, ou la signature de leur auteur.

Art. 226. Dans le cas où la partie désavoue sa signature, et dans le cas où ses héritiers ou ayans cause déclarent ne la point connaître, la preuve pourra s'en faire par la déposition, sous serment, ou affirmation d'au moins un témoin digne de foi, qui déclare positivement reconnaître la signature, comme ayant vu signer l'obligation par la partie à laquelle, ou aux héritiers de laquelle le payement ou l'exécution en est demandée, à défaut de laquelle déposition, la signature de la partie devra être vérifiée par deux experts écrivains, nommés par le juge saisi de la contestation, lesquels feront leur rapport, sous serment, si la signature leur paraît être celle de la partie, d'après la comparaison qu'ils en feront avec des pièces reconnues comme étant par lui signées.

Art. 227. Les actes, sous seing privé, qui contiennent des conventions synallagmatiques, ne sont valables qu'autant qu'ils ont été faits en autant d'originaux qu'il y a de parties ayant un intérêt dérect.
Il suffit d'un original pour toutes les personnes ayant même intérêt.
Chaque original doit contenir la mention du nombre des originaux qui en ont été faits.
Néanmoins le défaut de mention, que les originaux ont été fait doubles, triples, &c. ne peut être opposé par celui qui a exécuté, de sa part, la convention portée dans l'acte.

Art. 228. Les actes sous signature privée, portant vente ou échange d'immeubles ou d'esclaves, devront être reconnus et enregistrés en l'étude d'un notaire public, dans les six jours de leur date, s'ils sont passés dans la ville de la Nouvelle-Orléans, et sa banlieue, et dans les dix jours de cette même date, s'ils sont passés hors de la ville et banlieue, dans le reste du territoire.
Lorsque les actes sous signature privée, portant vente ou échange d'immeubles ou d'esclaves, auront été enregistrés dans les délais ci-dessus, ils auront effet contre les tiers, du jour de leur date, autrement ils n'en auront que de celui de leur enregistrement; mais le défaut, ou le regard de cet enregistrement, ne pourra être opposé par aucune des parties contractantes, leurs héritiers ou ayans cause.

Art. 229. Les actes sous signature privée, portant vente ou échange d'effets mobiliers, n'ont de date contre des tiers, et ne peuvent leur préjudicier que du jour où ils ont été enregistrés en l'étude d'un notaire public, si ce n'est qu'il soit prouvé, que la vente on l'échange a été accompagné de la tradition réelle de l'objet vendu ou échangé, ou de quelques-unes des circonstances qui équivalent à la tradition réelle, d'après la loi et l'usage.
Il y a exception à cette règle, en faveur des ventes de denrées ou de marchandises, si la vérité de la date, à laquelle elles paraissent avoir été passées, est attestée par la déposition, sous serment, ou affirmation d'au moins un témoin digne de foi et désintéressé.

Art. 230. Les livres des marchands ne font point, contre les personnes non marchandes, preuve des fournitures qui y sont portées.

Art. 231. Les livres des marchands font preuve contre eux, mais celui qui en veut tirer avantage, ne put les diviser en ce qu'ils contiennent de contraire à sa prétention.

Art. 232. Les registres et papiers domestiques ne font point un titre pour celui qui les écrit; ils font foi contre lui:
1°. Dans tous les cas où ils énoncent formellement un payement reçu;
2°. Lorsqu'ils contiennent la mention expresse, que la note a été faite pour suppléer le défaut de titre, en faveur de celui au profit duquel ils enoncent une obligation.

Art. 223. L'écriture, mise par le créancier à la suite, en marge, ou au dos d'un titre qui est toujours resté en sa possession, fait foi, quoique non signée, ni datée par lui, lorsqu'elle tend à établir la libération du débiteur.
Il en est, de même, de l'écriture mise par le créancier au dos, ou en marge, ou à la suite du double d'un titre ou d'une quittance, pourvu que ce double soit entre les mains du débiteur.  

< Previous | Next >© Manuscript notes copyright 1968 by Louis V. de la Vergne.
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