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Table of Contents

Cover Page
Foreword
Abbreviations
Synopsis
Preliminary title Of the general definitions of rights and the promulgation of the laws
    Chapter I Of law and customs
    Chapter II Of the publication of the laws
    Chapter III Of the effects of laws
    Chapter IV Of the application and construction of laws
    Chapter V Of the repeal of laws
Book I Of persons
    Title I Of the distinction of persons, and the privation of certain civil rights in certain cases
      Chapter I Of the distinction of persons established by nature
      Chapter II Of the distinctions of persons which are established by law
    Title II Of domicil and the manner of changing the same
    Title III Of absent persons
      Chapter I Of the curatorship of absent persons
      Chapter II Of the putting into provisional possession the heirs of the absentee
      Chapter III Of the effects of absence upon the eventual rights which may belong to the absentee
      Chapter IV Of the effects of absence respecting marriage
      Chapter V Of the care of minor children whose father has disappeared
    Title IV Of husband and wife
      Chapter I On marriage
      Chapter II How marriages may be contracted or made
      Chapter III Of the nullity of marriages
      Chapter IV Of the respective rights and duties of married persons
      Chapter V Of the dissolution of marriages
      Chapter VI Of second marriages
    Title V Of the separation from bed and board
      Chapter I Of the causes of separation from bed and board
      Chapter II Of the proceedings on separation from bed and board
      Chapter III Of the provisional proceedings to which a suit for separation may give occasion
      Chapter IV Of objections to the action of separation from bed and board
      Chapter V Of the effects of separation from bed and board
    Title VI Of master and servant
      Chapter I Of the several sorts of servants
      Chapter II Of free servants
      Chapter III Of slaves
    Title VII Of father and child
      Chapter I Of children in general
      Chapter II Of legitimate children
        Section I Of legitimacy resulting from marriage
        Section II Of the manner of proving the legitimate filiation
      Chapter III Of illegitimate children
        Section I Of legitimation
        Section II Of the acknowledgment of illegitimate children
      Chapter IV Of adoption
      Chapter V Of paternal authority
        Section I Of the duties of parents towards their legitimate children, and of the duties of legitimate children towards their parents
        Section II Of the duties of parents towards their natural children, and of the duties of natural children towards their parents
    Title VIII Of minors, of their tutorship, curatorship and emancipation
      Chapter I Of tutorship
        Section I General dispositions
        Section II Of tutorship by nature
        Section III Of tutorship by will
        Section IV Of the tutorship by the effect of the law
        Section V Of dative tutorship
        Section VI Of the under tutor
        Section VII Of the causes which dispense or excuse from the tutorship
        Section VIII Of incapacity for, exclusion from and deprivation of the tutorship
        Section IX Of the administration of the tutor
      Chapter II Of the curatorship of minors
      Chapter III Of emancipation
    Title IX Of persons insane, idiots, and other persons incapable of administering their estate
      Chapter I Of the interdiction and curatorship of persons incapable of administering their estate, whether on account of insanity or of some other infirmity
      Chapter II Of the other persons to whom curators are appointed
    Title X Of communities or corporations
      Chapter I Of the nature of communities or corporations, of their use and kind
      Chapter II Of the rights and privileges of communities or corporations and of their incapacities
      Chapter III Of the dissolution of communities or corporations
Book II Of things and of the different modifications of property
    Title I Of things or estates
      Chapter I Of the distinction of things or estates
      Chapter II Of immoveables
      Chapter III Of moveables
      Chapter IV Of estates considered in their relation to those who possess them
    Title II Of absolute ownership
      Chapter I Universal principles
      Chapter II Of the right of accession to what is produced by the thing
      Chapter III Of the right of accession to what unites or incorporates itself to the thing
        Section I Of the right of accession concerning immoveables
        Section II Of the right of accession concerning moveable things
    Title III Of usufruct, use and habitation
      Chapter I Of usufruct
        Section I General definitions
        Section II Of the rights of the usufructuary
        Section III Of the obligations of the usufructuary
        Section IV Of the obligations of the owner
        Section V How usufruct expires
      Chapter II Of the use and habitation
    Title IV Of predial services or services of land
      Chapter I General principles
      Chapter II Of services which originate from the natural situation of the place
      Chapter III Of services imposed by law
        Section I Of walls, fences, and ditches in common
        Section II Of the distance and of the intermediary works required for certain buildings
        Section III Of lights on the property of a neighbor
        Section IV Of the manner of carrying off rain from the roof
        Section V Of the right of passage
      Chapter IV Of services established by the act of man
        Section I Of the different kinds of services which may be established by the act of man
        Section II How services are acquired
        Section III Of the rights of the proprietor of the estate to which the service is due
        Section IV How Services are extinguished
Book III Of the different manners of acquiring the property of things
    Preliminary title General dispositions
    Title I Of successions
      Chapter I Of the different sorts of successions and heirs
      Chapter II Of legal successions
        Section I General rules
        Section II Of the succession of descendants
        Section III Of the succession of ascendants
        Section IV Of the succession of collaterals
      Chapter III Of irregular successions
      Chapter IV In what manner successions are opened
      Chapter V Of the incapacity and unworthiness of the heirs
      Chapter VI In what manner a succession is accepted and how it is renounced
        Section I Of the acceptance pure and simple
        Section II Of the acceptance of a succession with the benefit of an inventory
      Chapter VII Of the administration of vacant estates and estates ab intestato
      Chapter VIII Of partition among heirs and of the collation of goods
        Section I Of the nature of partition and in what manner it is made
        Section II Of the collation of goods
        Section III Of the payment of debts
        Section IV Of the effect of partition and of its rescision
    Title II Of donations inter vivos (between living persons) and mortis causa (in prospect of death)
      Chapter I General dispositions
      Chapter II Of the capacity necessary for disposing of and receiving by donation inter vivos or mortis causa
      Chapter III Of the portion disposable, and of its reduction in case of excess
        Section I Of the disposable portion and the legitime
        Section II Of the reduction of dispositions inter vivos or mortis causa; of the manner in which it is made and of its effects
      Chapter IV Of dispositions reprobated by the law in donations inter vivos and mortis causa
      Chapter V Of donations inter vivos (between living)
        Section I Of the irrevocability of donations inter vivos
        Section II Of the form of donations inter vivos
        Section III Of the exceptions to the rule of the irrevocability of donations inter vivos
      Chapter VI Of dispositions mortis causa (in the prospect of death)
        Section I Of testament or codicil
        Section II Of the form of testaments and codicils
        Section III Of testamentary dispositions
        Section IV Of the institution of heir and of disinherison
        Section V Of legacies
        Section VI Of the opening and the proof of wills, and of testamentary executions
        Section VII Of the revocation of testaments and codicils and of their caducity
        Section VIII Of the interpretation of testamentary dispositions
      Chapter VII Of partitions made by parents among their descendants
      Chapter VIII Of donations made by marriage contract to the husband or wife, and to the children to be born of the marriage
      Chapter IX Of donations between married persons, either by marriage contract, or during the marriage
    Title III Of contracts and of conventional obligations in general
      Chapter I Preliminary dispositions
      Chapter II Of the conditions essential to the validity of agreements
        Section I Of consent
        Section II Of the capability of the parties contracting
        Section III Of the object and the matter of contracts
        Section IV Of the cause
      Chapter III Of the effect of obligations
        Section I General dispositions
        Section II Of the obligation of giving
        Section III Of the obligations of doing or of not doing
        Section IV Of the damages resulting from the non execution of the obligation
        Section V Of the interpretation of the agreements
        Section VI Of the effect of agreements with regard to persons not parties to them
      Chapter IV Of the different kinds of obligations
        Section I Of conditional obligations
          § 1 Of the condition in general and of its different kinds
          § 2 Of the suspensive condition
          § 3 Of the dissolving condition
        Section II Of obligations to be performed at a certain term
        Section III Of the alternative obligations
        Section IV Of obligations in solido or jointly and severally
          § 1 Of the obligation in solido between creditors
          § 2 Of the obligation in solido on the part of debtors
        Section V Of obligations divisible and indivisible
          § 1 Of the effects of a divisible obligation
          § 2 Of the effect of the indivisible obligation
        Section VI Of obligations with penal clauses
      Chapter V Of the extinction of obligations
        Section I Of payment
          § 1 Of payment in general
          § 2 Of payment with subrogation
          § 3 Of the imputation of payments
          § 4 Of tenders of payment, and consignment
          § 5 Of the surrender of property
        Section II Of novation
        Section III Of the remission of the debt
        Section IV Of compensation
        Section V Of confusion
        Section VI Of the loss of the thing due
        Section VII Of the action of nullity or of rescission of agreements
      Chapter VI Of the proof of obligations and of that of payment
        Section I Of the literal proof
          § 1 Of the authentic title
          § 2 Of the acts under private signature
          § 3 Of copies of titles
          § 4 Of recognitive and confirmative acts
        Section II Of testimonial proof
        Section III Of presumptions
          § 1 Of presumptions established by law
          § 2 Of presumption not established by law
        Section IV Of the confession of the party
        Section V Of the proof by oath
    Title IV Of engagements formed without agreements, or of quasi contracts and quasi offences
      Section I Of the quasi contract
      Section II Of quasi crimes or offences
    Title V Of marriage contract
      Chapter I General dispositions
      Chapter II Of the various kinds of matrimonial agreements
        Section I Of donations made in consideration of marriage
        Section II Of dowry or marriage portion
        Section III Of paraphernalia or extra dotal effects
        Section IV Of the partnership or community of acquests or gains
      Chapter III Of the separation of property
    Title VI Of sale
      Chapter I Of the nature and form of the contract of sale, and of the manner in which it is to be performed
      Chapter II Of persons capable of buying and selling, and of things which may be sold
      Chapter III Of the obligations of the seller
        Section I Of the tradition or delivery of the thing sold
        Section II Of the warranty, in case of eviction of the thing sold
        Section III Of the warranty of the defects of the thing sold or of the redhibitory vices
      Chapter IV Of the obligations of the buyer
      Chapter V Of the nullity and rescissions of the sale
        Section I Of the power or right of redemption
        Section II Of the rescission of sales on account of lesion
      Chapter VI Of sales by cant or auction
      Chapter VII Of the assignment or transfer of debts and other incorporeal rights
    Title VII Of exchange
    Title VIII Of letting and hiring
      Chapter I Of the several species of contracts for letting and hiring
      Chapter II Of the contract for letting out things
        Section I Of the form and duration of leases
        Section II Of the obligations of the lessor
        Section III Of the obligations of the lessee
        Section IV Of the dissolution of leases
      Chapter III Of the letting out of labour or industry
        Section I Of the hiring of servants and workmen
        Section II Of carriers and watermen
        Section III Of plots for buildings and other works
    Title IX Of partnership
      Chapter I General dispositions
      Chapter II Of the various kinds of partnerships
      Chapter III Of the obligations of partners towards each other, and towards third persons
        Section I Of the obligations of partners towards each other
        Section II Of the obligations of partners towards third persons
      Chapter IV Of the different manners in which partnerships end
    Title X Of loan
      Chapter I Of the loan for use or commodatum
        Section I Of the nature of the loan for use
        Section II Of the engagements of the borrower for use
        Section III Of the engagements of the lender for use
      Chapter II Of the loan for consumption or mutuum
        Section I Of the nature of the loan for consumption
        Section II Of the obligations of the lender for consumption
        Section III Of the engagements of the borrower for consumption
      Chapter III Of loan on interest
    Title XI Of deposit and sequestration
      Chapter I Of deposit in general and of its divers kinds
      Chapter II Of the deposit properly so called
        Section I Of the nature and essence of the contract of deposit
        Section II Of the obligations of the depository
        Section III Of the obligations of him by whom the deposit has been made
        Section IV Of the necessary deposit
      Chapter III Of sequestration
        Section I Of its different species
        Section II Of the conventional sequestration
        Section III Of the judicial sequestration or deposit
    Title XII Of aleatory contracts
    Title XIII Of mandate or commission
      Chapter I Of the nature of proxies, mandates and commissions
      Chapter II What persons may be appointed attornies in fact
      Chapter III Of the obligations of a person acting under a power of attorney
      Chapter IV Of the obligations of the principal who acts by his attorney in fact
      Chapter V How the procuration expires
    Title XIV Of suretyship
      Chapter I Of the nature and extent of suretyship
      Chapter II Of the effects of suretyship
        Section I Of the effects of suretyship between the creditor and the surety
        Section II Of the effects of suretyship between the debtor and the surety
        Section III Respecting the effects of suretyship between the sureties
      Chapter III Of the extinction of suretyship
      Chapter IV Of the legal and judicial sureties
    Title XV Of transactions
    Title XVI Of respite
    Title XVII Of compromises or arbitration
    Title XVIII Of pledge
    Title XIX Of privileges and mortgages
      Chapter I Of the nature of a mortgage and of its several sorts
      Chapter II Who may mortgage and what thing may be mortgaged
      Chapter III Of the effects of mortgage
        Section I Of the effects of mortgage with regard to the debtor
        Section II Of the effects of mortgages against third possessors and of the action of mortgage
        Section III Of the registering of mortgages and of the register kept for that purpose
      Chapter IV Of the order of privileges and mortgages
        Section I Of the preference and order of privileges
      Chapter V How privileges or mortgages expire or are extinguished
    Title XX Of occupancy, possession and prescription
      Chapter I Of occupancy
      Chapter II Of possession
      Chapter III Of prescription
        Section I Of the possession required to establish prescription
        Section II Of the causes which suspend or interrupt prescriptions
        Section III Of the several species of prescription
    Title XXI Of the title by judgment or seizure
Index
Manuscript index
Manuscript index Part 2

CHAPTER V - OF THE EXTINCTION OF OBLIGATIONS

Art. 134. Obligations are extinguished
By payment,
By novation,
By voluntary remission;
By compensation;
By confusion,
By the loss of the thing;
By nullity or rescission,
By the effect of the dissolving condition, which has been explained in the preceding chapter;
And by prescription, which shall be the subject of a particular title.

 

SECTION I - OF PAYMENT

 

§ 1 - OF PAYMENT IN GENERAL

Art. 135. Every payment presupposes a debt; what has been paid without having been due, is subject to be reclaimed.
That cannot be reclaimed that has been voluntarily given in discharge of a natural obligation.

Art. 136. An obligation may be discharged by any person concerned in it, such as a co-obligee or a security.
The obligation may even be discharged by a third person, no way concerned in it, provided that person act in the name and for the discharge of the debtor, or that if he act in his own name, he be not subrogated to the rights of the creditor.

Art. 137. The obligation of doing, cannot be discharged by a third person, against the will of the creditor, when it is the interest of the latter, that it be fulfilled by the debtor himself.

Art. 138. To make valid payment, the payer must be the owner of the thing given in payment, and capable of alienating it.
Nevertheless payment in a sum of money, or in any thing that is consumed by use, cannot be reclaimed from the creditor who has fairly consumed it, although the payment was made by a person who was not the owner of the thing, or was not capable of alienating it.

Art. 139. The payment must be made to the creditor or to some person having a power from him to receive it, or authorised by a court, or by law, to receive it for him.
Payment made to a person not having power to receive it for the creditor, is valid if the creditor has ratified it, or has profited by it.

Art. 140. Payment made bona fide to him who is in possession of the voucher of the credit, is valid, although the possessor be afterwards evicted of it.

Art. 141. Payment made to the creditor is not valid, if he was incapable of receiving it, unless the debtor proves that the thing paid has accrued to the profit of the creditor.

Art. 142. Payment made by a debtor to his creditor, to the prejudice of a seizure or an attachment, is not valid with regard to the creditors seizing or attaching, these may according to their claims, oblige him to pay anew, and he has in that case alone, recourse against the creditor.

Art. 143. The creditor cannot be constrained to receive any other thing than that which is due, although the value of the thing tendered be equal, or even greater.

Art. 144. The debtor cannot oblige the creditor to receive in part, the payment of a debt, even divisible.

Art. 145. The debtor of a certain and determinate matter, is discharged by the delivery of the thing in the state in which it is, at the time of delivery, provided that, previously to the deterioration, he was not chargeable with delay.

Art. 146. If the debt be of a thing which is determined only by its species, the debtor in order to his discharge is not bound to deliver it, of the best kind, but he cannot tender it of the worst.

Art. 147. The payment must be made in the place specified in the agreement. If the place be not thus specified, the payment in case of a certain and determinate substance, must be made in the place where was, at the time of the agreement, the thing which is the object of it.
These two cases excepted, the payment must be made at the dwelling of the debtor.

Art. 148. The expences attending the payment are at the charge of the debtor.

 

§ 2 - OF PAYMENT WITH SUBROGATION

Art. 149. Subrogation to the right of a creditor in favor of a third person who pays him, is either conventional or legal.

Art. 150. The subrogation is conventional-
1st. When the creditor receiving his payment from a third person, subrogates him in his rights, actions, privileges, and mortgages against the debtor; this subrogation must be expressed and made at the same time as the payment.
2dly. When the debtor borrows a sum for the purpose of paying his debts, and intending to subrogate the lender in the rights of the creditor. To make this subrogation valid, it is necessary that the act of borrowing, and the receipt, be executed in presence of a notary and two witnesses; that in the act of borrowing, it be declared that the sum was borrowed to make the payment, and that in the receipt, it be declared that the payment has been made with the money furnished for that purpose be the new creditor.

Art. 151. Subrogation takes place of right;
1st, For the benefit of him who, being himself a creditor, pays another creditor whose claim is preferable to his, by reason of his privileges or mortgages;
2d, For the benefit of the purchaser of any immoveable property, who employs the price of his purchase in paying the creditors, to whom the hereditament was mortgaged.
3d, For the benefit of him who being bound with others, or for others, for the payment of the debt, had an interest in discharging it.
4th, For the benefit of the beneficiary heir, who has paid with his own funds the debts of the succession.

Art. 152. The subrogation established by the preceding articles, takes place as well against the securities, as against the debtors. It cannot injure the creditor since if he has been paid but in part, he may exercise his right for what remains due, in preference to him for whom he has received only a partial payment.

CHAPITRE V - DE L'EXTINCTION DES OBLIGATIONS

Art. 134. Les obligations s'éteignent:
Par le payement;
Par la novation;
Par la remise volontaire;
Par la compensation;
Par la confusion;
Par la perte de la chose;
Par la nullité ou la rescision;
Par l'effet de la condition résolutoire, qui a été expliquée au chapitre précédent;
Et par la prescription, qui fera l'objet d'un titre particulier.

 

SECTION  I - DU PAYEMENT

 

§ 1 - DU PAYEMENT EN GÉNÉRAL

Art. 135. Tout payement suppose une dette; ce qui a été payé, sans être dû, est sujet à répétition.
La répétition n'est pas admise à l'égard des obligations naturelles qui ont été volontairement acquittées.

Art. 136. Une obligation peut être acquittée par toute personne qui y est intéressée, telle qu'un co-obligé, ou une caution.
L'obligation peut même être acquittée par un tiers qui n'y est point intéressé, pourvu que ce tiers agisse au nom et en l'acquit du débiteur, ou que, s'il agit en son nom propre, il ne soit pas subrogé aux droits du créancier.

Art. 137. L'obligation de faire ne peut être acquittée par un tiers, contre le gré du créancier, lorsque ce dernier a intérêt qu'elle soit remplie par le débiteur lui-même.

Art. 138. Pour payer valablement, il faut être propriétaire de la chose donnée en payement, et capable de l'aliéner.
Néanmoins, le payement d'une somme en argent, ou autre chose qui se consomme par l'usage, ne peut être répétée contre le créancier qui l'a consommée de bonne foi, quoique le payement en ait été fait par celui qui n'en était pas propriétaire; ou qui n'était pas capable de l'aliéner.

Art. 139. Le payement doit être fait au créancier, ou à quelqu'un ayant pouvoir de lui, ou qui soit autorisé par justice ou par la loi à recevoir pour lui.
Le payement fait de bonne foi à celui qui n'aurait pas pouvoir de recevoir pour le créancier, est valable, si celui-ci le ratifie, ou s'il en a profité.

Art. 140. Le payement fait de bonne foi à celui qui est en possession de la créance, est valable, encore que le possesseur eu soit, par la suite, évincé.

Art. 141. Le payement fait au créancier n'est point valable, s'il était incapable de le recevoir, à moins que le débiteur ne prouve que la chose payée a tourné au profit du créancier.

Art. 142. Le payement fait par le débiteur à son créancier, au préjudice d'une saisie ou d'une opposition, n'est pas valable à l'égard des créanciers saisissans ou opposans; ceux-ci peuvent, selon leur droit, le contraindre à payer de nouveau, sauf, en ce cas seulement, son recours contre le créancier.

Art. 143. Le créancier ne peut  être contraint de recevoir une autre chose que celle qui lui est due, quoique la valeur de la chose offerte soit égale, ou même plus grande.

Art. 144. Le débiteur ne peut point forcer le créancier à recevoir, en partie, le payement d'une dette, même divisible.

Art. 145. Le débiteur d'un corps certain et déterminé, est libéré par la remise de la chose en l'état où elle se trouve lors de la livraison, pourvu que les détériorations qui y sont survenues, ne viennent point de son fait, ou de sa faute, ni de celle des personnes dont il est responsable, ou qu'avant ces détériorations il ne fut pas en demeure.

Art. 146. Si la dette est d'une chose qui ne soit déterminée que par son espèce, le débiteur ne sera pas tenu, pour être libéré, de la donner de la meilleure espèce; mais il ne pourra l'offrir de la plus mauvaise.

Art. 147. Le payement doit être exécuté dans le lieu désigné par la convention. Si le lieu n'y est pas désigné, le payement, lorsqu'il s'agit d'un corps certain et déterminé, doit être fait dans le lieu où était, au tems de l'obligation, la chose qui on fait l'objet.
Hors ces deux cas, le payement doit être fait au domicile du débiteur.

Art. 148. Les frais du payement sont à la charge du débiteur.

 

§ 2 - DU PAYEMENT AVEC SUBROGATION

Art. 149. La subrogation dans les droits du créancier, au profit d'une tierce personne qui le paye, est ou conventionnelle ou légale.

Art. 150. Cette subrogation est conventionnelle:
1o. Lorsque le créancier, recevant son payement d'une tierce personne la subroge dans ses droits, actions, priviléges ou hypothèques contre le débiteur ; cette subrogation doit être expresse, et faite en même-tems que le payement;
2o. Lorsque le débiteur emprunte une somme, à l'effet de payer sa dette, et de subroger le prêteur dans les droits du créancier. Il faut, pour que cette subrogation soit valable, que l'acte d'emprunt et la quittance soient passés devant un notaire et deux témoins; que dans l'acte d'emprunt, il soit déclaré que la somme a été empruntée pour faire le payement, et que, dans la quittance, il soit déclaré que le payement a été fait des deniers, fournis à cet effet, par le nouveau créancier. Cette subrogation s'opère sans le secours de la volonté du créancier.

Art. 151. La subrogation a lieu de plein droit:
1o. Au profit de celui qui, étant lui-même créancier, paye un autre créancier qui lui est préférable, à raison de ses priviléges et hypothèques;
2o. Au profit de l'acquéreur d'un immeuble, qui emploie le prix de son acquisition au payement des créanciers auxquels cet héritage était hypothéqué;
3o. Au profit de celui qui, étant tenu avec d'autres, ou pour d'autres au payement de la dette, avait intérêt de l'acquitter;
4o. Au profit de l'héritier bénéficiaire qui a payé, de ses deniers, les dettes de la succession.

Art. 152. La subrogation établie, par les articles précédens, a lieu tant contre les cautions que contre les débiteurs; elle ne peut nuire au créancier, lorsqu'il n'a été payé qu'en partie; en ce cas, il peut exercer ses droits pour ce qui lui reste dû, par préférence à celui dont il n'a reçu qu'un payement partiel.

< Previous | Next >© Manuscript notes copyright 1968 by Louis V. de la Vergne.
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