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Table of Contents

Cover Page
Preliminary title Of the general definitions of rights and the promulgation of the laws
    Chapter I Of law and customs
    Chapter II Of the publication of the laws
    Chapter III Of the effects of laws
    Chapter IV Of the application and construction of laws
    Chapter V Of the repeal of laws
Book I Of persons
    Title I Of the distinction of persons, and the privation of certain civil rights in certain cases
      Chapter I Of the distinction of persons established by nature
      Chapter II Of the distinctions of persons which are established by law
    Title II Of domicil and the manner of changing the same
    Title III Of absent persons
      Chapter I Of the curatorship of absent persons
      Chapter II Of the putting into provisional possession the heirs of the absentee
      Chapter III Of the effects of absence upon the eventual rights which may belong to the absentee
      Chapter IV Of the effects of absence respecting marriage
      Chapter V Of the care of minor children whose father has disappeared
    Title IV Of husband and wife
      Chapter I On marriage
      Chapter II How marriages may be contracted or made
      Chapter III Of the nullity of marriages
      Chapter IV Of the respective rights and duties of married persons
      Chapter V Of the dissolution of marriages
      Chapter VI Of second marriages
    Title V Of the separation from bed and board
      Chapter I Of the causes of separation from bed and board
      Chapter II Of the proceedings on separation from bed and board
      Chapter III Of the provisional proceedings to which a suit for separation may give occasion
      Chapter IV Of objections to the action of separation from bed and board
      Chapter V Of the effects of separation from bed and board
    Title VI Of master and servant
      Chapter I Of the several sorts of servants
      Chapter II Of free servants
      Chapter III Of slaves
    Title VII Of father and child
      Chapter I Of children in general
      Chapter II Of legitimate children
        Section I Of legitimacy resulting from marriage
        Section II Of the manner of proving the legitimate filiation
      Chapter III Of illegitimate children
        Section I Of legitimation
        Section II Of the acknowledgment of illegitimate children
      Chapter IV Of adoption
      Chapter V Of paternal authority
        Section I Of the duties of parents towards their legitimate children, and of the duties of legitimate children towards their parents
        Section II Of the duties of parents towards their natural children, and of the duties of natural children towards their parents
    Title VIII Of minors, of their tutorship, curatorship and emancipation
      Chapter I Of tutorship
        Section I General dispositions
        Section II Of tutorship by nature
        Section III Of tutorship by will
        Section IV Of the tutorship by the effect of the law
        Section V Of dative tutorship
        Section VI Of the under tutor
        Section VII Of the causes which dispense or excuse from the tutorship
        Section VIII Of incapacity for, exclusion from and deprivation of the tutorship
        Section IX Of the administration of the tutor
      Chapter II Of the curatorship of minors
      Chapter III Of emancipation
    Title IX Of persons insane, idiots, and other persons incapable of administering their estate
      Chapter I Of the interdiction and curatorship of persons incapable of administering their estate, whether on account of insanity or of some other infirmity
      Chapter II Of the other persons to whom curators are appointed
    Title X Of communities or corporations
      Chapter I Of the nature of communities or corporations, of their use and kind
      Chapter II Of the rights and privileges of communities or corporations and of their incapacities
      Chapter III Of the dissolution of communities or corporations
Book II Of things and of the different modifications of property
    Title I Of things or estates
      Chapter I Of the distinction of things or estates
      Chapter II Of immoveables
      Chapter III Of moveables
      Chapter IV Of estates considered in their relation to those who possess them
    Title II Of absolute ownership
      Chapter I Universal principles
      Chapter II Of the right of accession to what is produced by the thing
      Chapter III Of the right of accession to what unites or incorporates itself to the thing
        Section I Of the right of accession concerning immoveables
        Section II Of the right of accession concerning moveable things
    Title III Of usufruct, use and habitation
      Chapter I Of usufruct
        Section I General definitions
        Section II Of the rights of the usufructuary
        Section III Of the obligations of the usufructuary
        Section IV Of the obligations of the owner
        Section V How usufruct expires
      Chapter II Of the use and habitation
    Title IV Of predial services or services of land
      Chapter I General principles
      Chapter II Of services which originate from the natural situation of the place
      Chapter III Of services imposed by law
        Section I Of walls, fences, and ditches in common
        Section II Of the distance and of the intermediary works required for certain buildings
        Section III Of lights on the property of a neighbor
        Section IV Of the manner of carrying off rain from the roof
        Section V Of the right of passage
      Chapter IV Of services established by the act of man
        Section I Of the different kinds of services which may be established by the act of man
        Section II How services are acquired
        Section III Of the rights of the proprietor of the estate to which the service is due
        Section IV How Services are extinguished
Book III Of the different manners of acquiring the property of things
    Preliminary title General dispositions
    Title I Of successions
      Chapter I Of the different sorts of successions and heirs
      Chapter II Of legal successions
        Section I General rules
        Section II Of the succession of descendants
        Section III Of the succession of ascendants
        Section IV Of the succession of collaterals
      Chapter III Of irregular successions
      Chapter IV In what manner successions are opened
      Chapter V Of the incapacity and unworthiness of the heirs
      Chapter VI In what manner a succession is accepted and how it is renounced
        Section I Of the acceptance pure and simple
        Section II Of the acceptance of a succession with the benefit of an inventory
      Chapter VII Of the administration of vacant estates and estates ab intestato
      Chapter VIII Of partition among heirs and of the collation of goods
        Section I Of the nature of partition and in what manner it is made
        Section II Of the collation of goods
        Section III Of the payment of debts
        Section IV Of the effect of partition and of its rescision
    Title II Of donations inter vivos (between living persons) and mortis causa (in prospect of death)
      Chapter I General dispositions
      Chapter II Of the capacity necessary for disposing of and receiving by donation inter vivos or mortis causa
      Chapter III Of the portion disposable, and of its reduction in case of excess
        Section I Of the disposable portion and the legitime
        Section II Of the reduction of dispositions inter vivos or mortis causa; of the manner in which it is made and of its effects
      Chapter IV Of dispositions reprobated by the law in donations inter vivos and mortis causa
      Chapter V Of donations inter vivos (between living)
        Section I Of the irrevocability of donations inter vivos
        Section II Of the form of donations inter vivos
        Section III Of the exceptions to the rule of the irrevocability of donations inter vivos
      Chapter VI Of dispositions mortis causa (in the prospect of death)
        Section I Of testament or codicil
        Section II Of the form of testaments and codicils
        Section III Of testamentary dispositions
        Section IV Of the institution of heir and of disinherison
        Section V Of legacies
        Section VI Of the opening and the proof of wills, and of testamentary executions
        Section VII Of the revocation of testaments and codicils and of their caducity
        Section VIII Of the interpretation of testamentary dispositions
      Chapter VII Of partitions made by parents among their descendants
      Chapter VIII Of donations made by marriage contract to the husband or wife, and to the children to be born of the marriage
      Chapter IX Of donations between married persons, either by marriage contract, or during the marriage
    Title III Of contracts and of conventional obligations in general
      Chapter I Preliminary dispositions
      Chapter II Of the conditions essential to the validity of agreements
        Section I Of consent
        Section II Of the capability of the parties contracting
        Section III Of the object and the matter of contracts
        Section IV Of the cause
      Chapter III Of the effect of obligations
        Section I General dispositions
        Section II Of the obligation of giving
        Section III Of the obligations of doing or of not doing
        Section IV Of the damages resulting from the non execution of the obligation
        Section V Of the interpretation of the agreements
        Section VI Of the effect of agreements with regard to persons not parties to them
      Chapter IV Of the different kinds of obligations
        Section I Of conditional obligations
          § 1 Of the condition in general and of its different kinds
          § 2 Of the suspensive condition
          § 3 Of the dissolving condition
        Section II Of obligations to be performed at a certain term
        Section III Of the alternative obligations
        Section IV Of obligations in solido or jointly and severally
          § 1 Of the obligation in solido between creditors
          § 2 Of the obligation in solido on the part of debtors
        Section V Of obligations divisible and indivisible
          § 1 Of the effects of a divisible obligation
          § 2 Of the effect of the indivisible obligation
        Section VI Of obligations with penal clauses
      Chapter V Of the extinction of obligations
        Section I Of payment
          § 1 Of payment in general
          § 2 Of payment with subrogation
          § 3 Of the imputation of payments
          § 4 Of tenders of payment, and consignment
          § 5 Of the surrender of property
        Section II Of novation
        Section III Of the remission of the debt
        Section IV Of compensation
        Section V Of confusion
        Section VI Of the loss of the thing due
        Section VII Of the action of nullity or of rescission of agreements
      Chapter VI Of the proof of obligations and of that of payment
        Section I Of the literal proof
          § 1 Of the authentic title
          § 2 Of the acts under private signature
          § 3 Of copies of titles
          § 4 Of recognitive and confirmative acts
        Section II Of testimonial proof
        Section III Of presumptions
          § 1 Of presumptions established by law
          § 2 Of presumption not established by law
        Section IV Of the confession of the party
        Section V Of the proof by oath
    Title IV Of engagements formed without agreements, or of quasi contracts and quasi offences
      Section I Of the quasi contract
      Section II Of quasi crimes or offences
    Title V Of marriage contract
      Chapter I General dispositions
      Chapter II Of the various kinds of matrimonial agreements
        Section I Of donations made in consideration of marriage
        Section II Of dowry or marriage portion
        Section III Of paraphernalia or extra dotal effects
        Section IV Of the partnership or community of acquests or gains
      Chapter III Of the separation of property
    Title VI Of sale
      Chapter I Of the nature and form of the contract of sale, and of the manner in which it is to be performed
      Chapter II Of persons capable of buying and selling, and of things which may be sold
      Chapter III Of the obligations of the seller
        Section I Of the tradition or delivery of the thing sold
        Section II Of the warranty, in case of eviction of the thing sold
        Section III Of the warranty of the defects of the thing sold or of the redhibitory vices
      Chapter IV Of the obligations of the buyer
      Chapter V Of the nullity and rescissions of the sale
        Section I Of the power or right of redemption
        Section II Of the rescission of sales on account of lesion
      Chapter VI Of sales by cant or auction
      Chapter VII Of the assignment or transfer of debts and other incorporeal rights
    Title VII Of exchange
    Title VIII Of letting and hiring
      Chapter I Of the several species of contracts for letting and hiring
      Chapter II Of the contract for letting out things
        Section I Of the form and duration of leases
        Section II Of the obligations of the lessor
        Section III Of the obligations of the lessee
        Section IV Of the dissolution of leases
      Chapter III Of the letting out of labour or industry
        Section I Of the hiring of servants and workmen
        Section II Of carriers and watermen
        Section III Of plots for buildings and other works
    Title IX Of partnership
      Chapter I General dispositions
      Chapter II Of the various kinds of partnerships
      Chapter III Of the obligations of partners towards each other, and towards third persons
        Section I Of the obligations of partners towards each other
        Section II Of the obligations of partners towards third persons
      Chapter IV Of the different manners in which partnerships end
    Title X Of loan
      Chapter I Of the loan for use or commodatum
        Section I Of the nature of the loan for use
        Section II Of the engagements of the borrower for use
        Section III Of the engagements of the lender for use
      Chapter II Of the loan for consumption or mutuum
        Section I Of the nature of the loan for consumption
        Section II Of the obligations of the lender for consumption
        Section III Of the engagements of the borrower for consumption
      Chapter III Of loan on interest
    Title XI Of deposit and sequestration
      Chapter I Of deposit in general and of its divers kinds
      Chapter II Of the deposit properly so called
        Section I Of the nature and essence of the contract of deposit
        Section II Of the obligations of the depository
        Section III Of the obligations of him by whom the deposit has been made
        Section IV Of the necessary deposit
      Chapter III Of sequestration
        Section I Of its different species
        Section II Of the conventional sequestration
        Section III Of the judicial sequestration or deposit
    Title XII Of aleatory contracts
    Title XIII Of mandate or commission
      Chapter I Of the nature of proxies, mandates and commissions
      Chapter II What persons may be appointed attornies in fact
      Chapter III Of the obligations of a person acting under a power of attorney
      Chapter IV Of the obligations of the principal who acts by his attorney in fact
      Chapter V How the procuration expires
    Title XIV Of suretyship
      Chapter I Of the nature and extent of suretyship
      Chapter II Of the effects of suretyship
        Section I Of the effects of suretyship between the creditor and the surety
        Section II Of the effects of suretyship between the debtor and the surety
        Section III Respecting the effects of suretyship between the sureties
      Chapter III Of the extinction of suretyship
      Chapter IV Of the legal and judicial sureties
    Title XV Of transactions
    Title XVI Of respite
    Title XVII Of compromises or arbitration
    Title XVIII Of pledge
    Title XIX Of privileges and mortgages
      Chapter I Of the nature of a mortgage and of its several sorts
      Chapter II Who may mortgage and what thing may be mortgaged
      Chapter III Of the effects of mortgage
        Section I Of the effects of mortgage with regard to the debtor
        Section II Of the effects of mortgages against third possessors and of the action of mortgage
        Section III Of the registering of mortgages and of the register kept for that purpose
      Chapter IV Of the order of privileges and mortgages
        Section I Of the preference and order of privileges
      Chapter V How privileges or mortgages expire or are extinguished
    Title XX Of occupancy, possession and prescription
      Chapter I Of occupancy
      Chapter II Of possession
      Chapter III Of prescription
        Section I Of the possession required to establish prescription
        Section II Of the causes which suspend or interrupt prescriptions
        Section III Of the several species of prescription
    Title XXI Of the title by judgment or seizure
Manuscript index
Manuscript index Part 2




Art. 97. The obligation is in solido or joint and several, between several creditors; when the title expressly gives to each of them, the right of demanding payment of the total of what is due, and when the payment made to any one of them discharges the debtor, although the benefit of the obligation be to be shared and divided among the different creditors.

Art. 98. It is at the option of the debtor, to pay any one of the creditors in solido, as long as he has not been prevented by a suit instituted by one of them.
Yet if one of the creditors in solido remits the debt, the debtor is hereby exonerated only as to the part coming to that individual creditor.

Art. 99. Every act which interrupts prescription with regard to one of the creditors in solido, avails the other creditors.



Art. 100. There is an obligation in solido on the part of the debtors when they are all obliged to the same thing, so that each may be compelled for the whole, and when the payment made by one of them exonerates the other towards the creditor.

Art. 101. The obligation may be in solido though one of the debtors be obliged differently from the other, to the payment of one and the same thing: for instance, if the one be but conditionally bound, whilst the engagement of the other, is pure and simple, or if the one is allowed a term which is not granted to the other.

Art. 102. An obligation in solido is not presumed; it must be expressly stipulated.
This rule ceases to prevail only in cases where an obligation in solido takes place of right, by virtue of some provisions of the law.

Art. 103. The creditor of an obligation contracted in solido, may apply to any one of the debtors he pleases, without the debtor's having a right to plead the benefit of division.

Art. 104. A suit brought against one of the debtors, does not bar the creditor from bringing suits on the same account, against the others.

Art. 105. If the thing due has perished through the fault of one or more debtors in solido, or while he or they delayed to deliver it, the other co-debtors are not discharged from the obligation of paying the value of the thing; but the latter are not liable for damages.
The creditor can claim damages only from the debtors by whose fault the thing was lost, and from those who delayed to deliver it.

Art. 106. A suit brought against one of the debtors in solido, interrupts prescription with regard to all.

Art. 107. A demand of interest made of one of the debtors in solido makes interest run with respect to all.

Art. 108. A co-debtor in solido being sued by the creditor, may plead all the exceptions resulting from the nature of the obligation, and all such as are personal to himself, as well as such as are common to all the creditors.
He cannot plead such exceptions as are merely personal to some of the other co-debtors.

Art. 109. When one of the debtors becomes sole heir of the creditor, or when the creditor becomes sole heir of one of the debtors, the confusion extinguishes the debt in solido only for the part and portion of the debtor, or of the creditor.

Art. 110. The creditor who consents to the division of the debt, with regard to one of the co-debtors, still has an action in solido against the others, but under the deduction of the part of the debtor whom he has discharged from the debt in solido.

Art. 111. The creditor who receives separately the part of one of the debtors, without reserving in the receipt the debt in solido, or his rights in general, renounces the debt in solido only with regard to that debtor.
The creditor is not deemed to remit the debt in solido to the debtor, when he receives from him a sum equal to the portion due by him, unless the receipt specifies that it is for his part.
The same is to be observed of the mere demand made of one of the co-debtors, for his part, if the latter has not acquiesced in the demand, or if judgement has not been given against him.

Art. 112. The creditor who receives separately and without reservation, the portion of one of the co-debtors, in the arrearages and interest of the debt, loses his claim in solido only as to the arrearages and interest due, and not as to those that may in the future become due, nor as to the capital, unless the separate payment has been continued during ten successive years.

Art. 113. The obligation contracted in solido towards the creditor, is of right divided amongst the debtors, who amongst themselves, are liable each only for his part and portion.

Art. 114. If one of the co-debtors in solido pays the whole debt, he can claim from the others no more than the part and portion of each.
If one of them be insolvent, the loss occasioned by his insolvency, must be equally shared amongst all the other solvent co-debtors, and him who has made the payment.

Art. 115. In case the creditor has renounced his action in solido against one of the debtors, and one or more of the other co-debtors become insolvent, the portion of the insolvent, shall be made up by equal contribution, by all the debtors, and even those precedently discharged from the debt by the creditor in solido, shall contribute their part.

Art. 116. If the affair for which the debt has been contracted in solido, concerns only one of the co-obligees in solido, that one is liable for the whole debt towards the other co-debtors, who with regard to him, are considered only as his securities.




Art. 97. L'obligation est solidaire entre plusieurs créanciers, lorsque le titre donne expressément à chacun d'eux, le droit de demander le payement du total de la créance, et que le payement fait à l'un d'eux, libère le débiteur, encore que le bénéfice de l'obligation soit partageable et divisible entre les divers créanciers.           

Art. 98. Il est au choix du débiteur, de payer à l'un ou à l'autre des créanciers solidaires, tant qu'il n'a pas été prévenu par les poursuites de l'un d'eux.
Néanmoins, la remise qui n'est faite que par l'un des créanciers solidaires, ne libère le débiteur que pour la part de ce créancier.       

Art. 99. Tout acte qui interrompt la prescription, à l'égard de l'un des créanciers solidaires, profite aux autres créanciers.



Art. 100. Il y a solidarité de la part des débiteurs, lorsqu'ils sont obligés à une même chose, de manière que chacun puisse être contraint pour la totalité, et que le payement fait, par un seul, libère les autres envers le créancier.           

Art. 101. L'obligation peut être solidaire, quoique l'un des débiteurs soit obligé différemment de l'autre au payement de la même chose; par exemple, si l'un n'est obligé que conditionnellement, tandis que l'engagement de l'autre est pur et simple, ou si l'un a pris un terme qui n'est point accordé a l'autre.           

Art. 102. La solidarité ne se présume point, il faut qu'elle soit expressément stipulée.
Cette règle ne cesse, que dans les cas où la solidarité a lieu de plein droit, en vertu d'une disposition de la loi.          

Art. 103. Le créancier d'une obligation contractée solidairement, peut s'adresser à celui des débiteurs qu'il veut choisir, sans que celui-ci puisse lui opposer le bénéfice de division.

Art. 104. Les poursuites, faites contre l'un des débiteurs, n'empêchent pas le créancier d'en exercer de pareilles contre les autres.          

Art. 105. Si la chose a péri par la faute, ou pendant la demeure de l'un, ou de plusieurs des débiteurs solidaires, les autres co-débiteurs ne sont point déchargés de l'obligation de payer le prix de la chose, mais ceux-ci ne sont point tenus des dommages intérêts.
Le créancier peut seulement répéter les dommages et intérêts, tant contre les débiteurs, par la faute desquels la chose a péri, que contre ceux qui étaient en demeure.


Art. 106. Les poursuites faites, contre l'un des débiteurs solidaires, interrompent la prescription à l'égard de tous.          

Art. 107. La demande d'intérêts, formée contre l'un des débiteurs solidaires, fait courir les intérêts à l'égard de tous.           

Art. 108. Le co-débiteur solidaire, poursuivi par le créancier, peut opposer toutes les exceptions qui résultent de la nature de l'obligation, et toutes celles qui lui sont personnelles, ainsi que celles qui sont communes à tous les co-débiteurs.
Il ne peut opposer les exceptions qui sont purement personnelles à quelques-uns des autres co-débiteurs.           

Art. 109. Lorsque l'un des débiteurs devient l'héritier unique du créancier, ou lorsque le créancier devient l'unique héritier de l'un des débiteurs, la confusion n'éteint la créance solidaire, que pour la part et portion du débiteur ou du créancier.           

Art. 110. Le créancier, qui consent à la division de la dette, à l'égard de l'un des co-débiteurs, conserve son action solidaire contre les autres, mais sous la déduction de la part du débiteur qu'il a déchargé de la solidarité.          

Art. 111. Le créancier, qui reçoit divisément la part de l'un des débiteurs, sans réserver dans la quittance la solidarité, ou ses droits en général, ne renonce à la solidarité qu'à l'égard de ce débiteur.
Le créancier n'est pas censé remettre la solidarité au débiteur, lorsqu'il reçoit de lui une somme égale à la portion dont il est tenu, si la quittance ne porte pas, que c'est pour sa part.
Il en est de même, de la simple demande formée contre l'un des con-débiteurs, pour sa part, si celui-ci n'a pas acquiescé à la demande, ou s'il n'est pas intervenu un jugement de condamnation.           

Art. 112. Le créancier qui reçoit, divisément et sans réserve, la portion de l'un des co-débiteurs, dans les arrérages ou intérêts de la dette, ne perd la solidarité, que pour les arrérages et intérêts échus, et non pour ceux à échéoir, ni pour le capital, à moins que le payement divisé n'ait été continué pendant dix ans consécutifs.           

Art. 113. L'obligation, contractée solidairement envers le créancier, se divise de plein droit entre les débiteurs, qui n'en sont tenus entre eux, que chacun pour sa part et portion.           

Art. 114. Le co-débiteur d'une dette solidaire, qui l'a payée en entier, ne peut répéter, contre les autres, que la part et portion de chacun d'eux.
Si l'un d'eux se trouve insolvable, la perte qu'occasionne son insolvabilité, se répartit par contribution entre tous les autres co-débiteurs solvables, et celui qui a fait le payement.           

Art. 115. Dans le cas où le créancier a renoncé à l'action solidaire envers l'un des débiteurs, si l'un ou plusieurs des autres débiteurs deviennent insolvables, la portion des insolvables sera contributoirement répartie entre tous les débiteurs, même entre ceux précédemment déchargés de la solidarité par le créancier.

Art. 116. Si l'affaire, pour laquelle la dette a été contractée solidairement, ne concernait que l'un des co-obligés solidaires, celui-ci serait tenu de toute la dette, vis-à-vis des autres co-débiteurs, qui ne seraient considérés, par rapport à lui, que comme ses cautions.

< Previous | Next >© Manuscript notes copyright 1968 by Louis V. de la Vergne.
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