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Table of Contents

Cover Page
Foreword
Abbreviations
Synopsis
Preliminary title Of the general definitions of rights and the promulgation of the laws
    Chapter I Of law and customs
    Chapter II Of the publication of the laws
    Chapter III Of the effects of laws
    Chapter IV Of the application and construction of laws
    Chapter V Of the repeal of laws
Book I Of persons
    Title I Of the distinction of persons, and the privation of certain civil rights in certain cases
      Chapter I Of the distinction of persons established by nature
      Chapter II Of the distinctions of persons which are established by law
    Title II Of domicil and the manner of changing the same
    Title III Of absent persons
      Chapter I Of the curatorship of absent persons
      Chapter II Of the putting into provisional possession the heirs of the absentee
      Chapter III Of the effects of absence upon the eventual rights which may belong to the absentee
      Chapter IV Of the effects of absence respecting marriage
      Chapter V Of the care of minor children whose father has disappeared
    Title IV Of husband and wife
      Chapter I On marriage
      Chapter II How marriages may be contracted or made
      Chapter III Of the nullity of marriages
      Chapter IV Of the respective rights and duties of married persons
      Chapter V Of the dissolution of marriages
      Chapter VI Of second marriages
    Title V Of the separation from bed and board
      Chapter I Of the causes of separation from bed and board
      Chapter II Of the proceedings on separation from bed and board
      Chapter III Of the provisional proceedings to which a suit for separation may give occasion
      Chapter IV Of objections to the action of separation from bed and board
      Chapter V Of the effects of separation from bed and board
    Title VI Of master and servant
      Chapter I Of the several sorts of servants
      Chapter II Of free servants
      Chapter III Of slaves
    Title VII Of father and child
      Chapter I Of children in general
      Chapter II Of legitimate children
        Section I Of legitimacy resulting from marriage
        Section II Of the manner of proving the legitimate filiation
      Chapter III Of illegitimate children
        Section I Of legitimation
        Section II Of the acknowledgment of illegitimate children
      Chapter IV Of adoption
      Chapter V Of paternal authority
        Section I Of the duties of parents towards their legitimate children, and of the duties of legitimate children towards their parents
        Section II Of the duties of parents towards their natural children, and of the duties of natural children towards their parents
    Title VIII Of minors, of their tutorship, curatorship and emancipation
      Chapter I Of tutorship
        Section I General dispositions
        Section II Of tutorship by nature
        Section III Of tutorship by will
        Section IV Of the tutorship by the effect of the law
        Section V Of dative tutorship
        Section VI Of the under tutor
        Section VII Of the causes which dispense or excuse from the tutorship
        Section VIII Of incapacity for, exclusion from and deprivation of the tutorship
        Section IX Of the administration of the tutor
      Chapter II Of the curatorship of minors
      Chapter III Of emancipation
    Title IX Of persons insane, idiots, and other persons incapable of administering their estate
      Chapter I Of the interdiction and curatorship of persons incapable of administering their estate, whether on account of insanity or of some other infirmity
      Chapter II Of the other persons to whom curators are appointed
    Title X Of communities or corporations
      Chapter I Of the nature of communities or corporations, of their use and kind
      Chapter II Of the rights and privileges of communities or corporations and of their incapacities
      Chapter III Of the dissolution of communities or corporations
Book II Of things and of the different modifications of property
    Title I Of things or estates
      Chapter I Of the distinction of things or estates
      Chapter II Of immoveables
      Chapter III Of moveables
      Chapter IV Of estates considered in their relation to those who possess them
    Title II Of absolute ownership
      Chapter I Universal principles
      Chapter II Of the right of accession to what is produced by the thing
      Chapter III Of the right of accession to what unites or incorporates itself to the thing
        Section I Of the right of accession concerning immoveables
        Section II Of the right of accession concerning moveable things
    Title III Of usufruct, use and habitation
      Chapter I Of usufruct
        Section I General definitions
        Section II Of the rights of the usufructuary
        Section III Of the obligations of the usufructuary
        Section IV Of the obligations of the owner
        Section V How usufruct expires
      Chapter II Of the use and habitation
    Title IV Of predial services or services of land
      Chapter I General principles
      Chapter II Of services which originate from the natural situation of the place
      Chapter III Of services imposed by law
        Section I Of walls, fences, and ditches in common
        Section II Of the distance and of the intermediary works required for certain buildings
        Section III Of lights on the property of a neighbor
        Section IV Of the manner of carrying off rain from the roof
        Section V Of the right of passage
      Chapter IV Of services established by the act of man
        Section I Of the different kinds of services which may be established by the act of man
        Section II How services are acquired
        Section III Of the rights of the proprietor of the estate to which the service is due
        Section IV How Services are extinguished
Book III Of the different manners of acquiring the property of things
    Preliminary title General dispositions
    Title I Of successions
      Chapter I Of the different sorts of successions and heirs
      Chapter II Of legal successions
        Section I General rules
        Section II Of the succession of descendants
        Section III Of the succession of ascendants
        Section IV Of the succession of collaterals
      Chapter III Of irregular successions
      Chapter IV In what manner successions are opened
      Chapter V Of the incapacity and unworthiness of the heirs
      Chapter VI In what manner a succession is accepted and how it is renounced
        Section I Of the acceptance pure and simple
        Section II Of the acceptance of a succession with the benefit of an inventory
      Chapter VII Of the administration of vacant estates and estates ab intestato
      Chapter VIII Of partition among heirs and of the collation of goods
        Section I Of the nature of partition and in what manner it is made
        Section II Of the collation of goods
        Section III Of the payment of debts
        Section IV Of the effect of partition and of its rescision
    Title II Of donations inter vivos (between living persons) and mortis causa (in prospect of death)
      Chapter I General dispositions
      Chapter II Of the capacity necessary for disposing of and receiving by donation inter vivos or mortis causa
      Chapter III Of the portion disposable, and of its reduction in case of excess
        Section I Of the disposable portion and the legitime
        Section II Of the reduction of dispositions inter vivos or mortis causa; of the manner in which it is made and of its effects
      Chapter IV Of dispositions reprobated by the law in donations inter vivos and mortis causa
      Chapter V Of donations inter vivos (between living)
        Section I Of the irrevocability of donations inter vivos
        Section II Of the form of donations inter vivos
        Section III Of the exceptions to the rule of the irrevocability of donations inter vivos
      Chapter VI Of dispositions mortis causa (in the prospect of death)
        Section I Of testament or codicil
        Section II Of the form of testaments and codicils
        Section III Of testamentary dispositions
        Section IV Of the institution of heir and of disinherison
        Section V Of legacies
        Section VI Of the opening and the proof of wills, and of testamentary executions
        Section VII Of the revocation of testaments and codicils and of their caducity
        Section VIII Of the interpretation of testamentary dispositions
      Chapter VII Of partitions made by parents among their descendants
      Chapter VIII Of donations made by marriage contract to the husband or wife, and to the children to be born of the marriage
      Chapter IX Of donations between married persons, either by marriage contract, or during the marriage
    Title III Of contracts and of conventional obligations in general
      Chapter I Preliminary dispositions
      Chapter II Of the conditions essential to the validity of agreements
        Section I Of consent
        Section II Of the capability of the parties contracting
        Section III Of the object and the matter of contracts
        Section IV Of the cause
      Chapter III Of the effect of obligations
        Section I General dispositions
        Section II Of the obligation of giving
        Section III Of the obligations of doing or of not doing
        Section IV Of the damages resulting from the non execution of the obligation
        Section V Of the interpretation of the agreements
        Section VI Of the effect of agreements with regard to persons not parties to them
      Chapter IV Of the different kinds of obligations
        Section I Of conditional obligations
          § 1 Of the condition in general and of its different kinds
          § 2 Of the suspensive condition
          § 3 Of the dissolving condition
        Section II Of obligations to be performed at a certain term
        Section III Of the alternative obligations
        Section IV Of obligations in solido or jointly and severally
          § 1 Of the obligation in solido between creditors
          § 2 Of the obligation in solido on the part of debtors
        Section V Of obligations divisible and indivisible
          § 1 Of the effects of a divisible obligation
          § 2 Of the effect of the indivisible obligation
        Section VI Of obligations with penal clauses
      Chapter V Of the extinction of obligations
        Section I Of payment
          § 1 Of payment in general
          § 2 Of payment with subrogation
          § 3 Of the imputation of payments
          § 4 Of tenders of payment, and consignment
          § 5 Of the surrender of property
        Section II Of novation
        Section III Of the remission of the debt
        Section IV Of compensation
        Section V Of confusion
        Section VI Of the loss of the thing due
        Section VII Of the action of nullity or of rescission of agreements
      Chapter VI Of the proof of obligations and of that of payment
        Section I Of the literal proof
          § 1 Of the authentic title
          § 2 Of the acts under private signature
          § 3 Of copies of titles
          § 4 Of recognitive and confirmative acts
        Section II Of testimonial proof
        Section III Of presumptions
          § 1 Of presumptions established by law
          § 2 Of presumption not established by law
        Section IV Of the confession of the party
        Section V Of the proof by oath
    Title IV Of engagements formed without agreements, or of quasi contracts and quasi offences
      Section I Of the quasi contract
      Section II Of quasi crimes or offences
    Title V Of marriage contract
      Chapter I General dispositions
      Chapter II Of the various kinds of matrimonial agreements
        Section I Of donations made in consideration of marriage
        Section II Of dowry or marriage portion
        Section III Of paraphernalia or extra dotal effects
        Section IV Of the partnership or community of acquests or gains
      Chapter III Of the separation of property
    Title VI Of sale
      Chapter I Of the nature and form of the contract of sale, and of the manner in which it is to be performed
      Chapter II Of persons capable of buying and selling, and of things which may be sold
      Chapter III Of the obligations of the seller
        Section I Of the tradition or delivery of the thing sold
        Section II Of the warranty, in case of eviction of the thing sold
        Section III Of the warranty of the defects of the thing sold or of the redhibitory vices
      Chapter IV Of the obligations of the buyer
      Chapter V Of the nullity and rescissions of the sale
        Section I Of the power or right of redemption
        Section II Of the rescission of sales on account of lesion
      Chapter VI Of sales by cant or auction
      Chapter VII Of the assignment or transfer of debts and other incorporeal rights
    Title VII Of exchange
    Title VIII Of letting and hiring
      Chapter I Of the several species of contracts for letting and hiring
      Chapter II Of the contract for letting out things
        Section I Of the form and duration of leases
        Section II Of the obligations of the lessor
        Section III Of the obligations of the lessee
        Section IV Of the dissolution of leases
      Chapter III Of the letting out of labour or industry
        Section I Of the hiring of servants and workmen
        Section II Of carriers and watermen
        Section III Of plots for buildings and other works
    Title IX Of partnership
      Chapter I General dispositions
      Chapter II Of the various kinds of partnerships
      Chapter III Of the obligations of partners towards each other, and towards third persons
        Section I Of the obligations of partners towards each other
        Section II Of the obligations of partners towards third persons
      Chapter IV Of the different manners in which partnerships end
    Title X Of loan
      Chapter I Of the loan for use or commodatum
        Section I Of the nature of the loan for use
        Section II Of the engagements of the borrower for use
        Section III Of the engagements of the lender for use
      Chapter II Of the loan for consumption or mutuum
        Section I Of the nature of the loan for consumption
        Section II Of the obligations of the lender for consumption
        Section III Of the engagements of the borrower for consumption
      Chapter III Of loan on interest
    Title XI Of deposit and sequestration
      Chapter I Of deposit in general and of its divers kinds
      Chapter II Of the deposit properly so called
        Section I Of the nature and essence of the contract of deposit
        Section II Of the obligations of the depository
        Section III Of the obligations of him by whom the deposit has been made
        Section IV Of the necessary deposit
      Chapter III Of sequestration
        Section I Of its different species
        Section II Of the conventional sequestration
        Section III Of the judicial sequestration or deposit
    Title XII Of aleatory contracts
    Title XIII Of mandate or commission
      Chapter I Of the nature of proxies, mandates and commissions
      Chapter II What persons may be appointed attornies in fact
      Chapter III Of the obligations of a person acting under a power of attorney
      Chapter IV Of the obligations of the principal who acts by his attorney in fact
      Chapter V How the procuration expires
    Title XIV Of suretyship
      Chapter I Of the nature and extent of suretyship
      Chapter II Of the effects of suretyship
        Section I Of the effects of suretyship between the creditor and the surety
        Section II Of the effects of suretyship between the debtor and the surety
        Section III Respecting the effects of suretyship between the sureties
      Chapter III Of the extinction of suretyship
      Chapter IV Of the legal and judicial sureties
    Title XV Of transactions
    Title XVI Of respite
    Title XVII Of compromises or arbitration
    Title XVIII Of pledge
    Title XIX Of privileges and mortgages
      Chapter I Of the nature of a mortgage and of its several sorts
      Chapter II Who may mortgage and what thing may be mortgaged
      Chapter III Of the effects of mortgage
        Section I Of the effects of mortgage with regard to the debtor
        Section II Of the effects of mortgages against third possessors and of the action of mortgage
        Section III Of the registering of mortgages and of the register kept for that purpose
      Chapter IV Of the order of privileges and mortgages
        Section I Of the preference and order of privileges
      Chapter V How privileges or mortgages expire or are extinguished
    Title XX Of occupancy, possession and prescription
      Chapter I Of occupancy
      Chapter II Of possession
      Chapter III Of prescription
        Section I Of the possession required to establish prescription
        Section II Of the causes which suspend or interrupt prescriptions
        Section III Of the several species of prescription
    Title XXI Of the title by judgment or seizure
Index
Manuscript index
Manuscript index Part 2

CHAPTER III - OF THE EFFECT OF OBLIGATIONS

 

SECTION I - GENERAL DISPOSITIONS

Art. 34. Agreements legally entered into, have the effect of laws on those who have formed them.
They cannot be revoked, unless by mutual consent of the parties, or for causes acknowledged by law.
They must be performed with good faith.

Art. 35. Contracts oblige to the performance not only of what is expressly stipulated, but also to the performance of all things which, from equity, usage or law, are incidental to the obligation, according to its nature.

 

SECTION II - OF THE OBLIGATION OF GIVING

Art. 36. The obligation of giving includes that of delivering the thing, and of keeping it safe, until the delivery of it, the person who contracts to give, being liable, on failure, to pay damages to the person to whom he has contracted.

Art. 37. The obligation of carefully keeping the thing, whether the object of the contract be solely the utility of one of the parties, or whether its object be their common utility, subjects the person who has the thing in his keeping to take all the care of it that could be expected from a prudent father of a family.
This obligation is more or less extended with regard to certain contracts, the effects of which, in this respect, are explained under their respective titles.

Art. 38. The obligation to deliver the thing, is perfect, through the mere consent of the contracting parties.
It renders the creditor the owner, and makes the thing be at his risk from the time when it was to be delivered, although the delivery may not have taken place, unless the debtor delay to deliver it, in which case the thing remains as the risk of the latter.

Art. 39. The debtor is considered as having delayed the delivery, after he has been required to deliver, either by summons, or by any equivalent act, or by the effect of the agreement, when it is stipulated that without the necessity of any act, but by the mere expiration of the term fixed, the debtor shall be in default.

Art. 40. The effects of the obligation of giving or delivering any immoveable property, are regulated in the title of sale.

Art. 41. If the thing that one has engaged to give or to deliver to two persons successively, be merely moveable, he of the two persons who has really been put in possession of it, is preferred and remaims the owner of it, although his title be posterior in date, provided the possession be bona fide.

 

SECTION III - OF THE OBLIGATION OF DOING OR OF NOT DOING

Art. 42. Every obligation to do or not do, resolves itself into damages, in case of non execution on the part of the obligee.

Art. 43. Nevertheless the obligor has a right to require that whatever has been done in contravention to the agreement, be done; and he may be authorised to undo it at the expence of the obligee, without forfeiting his right to damages, if the case gives him a claim to them.

Art. 44. The obligor may also, in case of non execution, be authorised to cause the obligation to be executed by himself at the expence of the obligee.

Art. 45. If the obligation be not to do, he who contravenes it, becomes liable to damages by the mere act of contravention.

 

SECTION IV - OF THE DAMAGES RESULTING FROM THE NON EXECUTION OF THE OBLIGATION

Art. 46. Damages are due only when the debtor has delayed to fulfil his obligation, except however when the thing which the debtor had obliged himself to give or do, could have been given or done only at a certain time, which he has suffered to elapse.

Art. 47. The debtor is condemned if there be occasion, to the payment of damages, either on account of the non execution of the obligation, or on account of the delay of execution, whenever he fails to prove that the non execution is owing to some extraneous cause, not to be imputed to him, and that there is no want of good faith on his part.

Art. 48. There is no room for any damages, when by irresistible force, or a fortuitous event, the debtor has been hindered from giving or doing what he was obliged to give or do, or has been compelled to do what he was bound not to do.

Art. 49. The damages due to the creditor are generally for the loss he has sustained and the profit he has been deprived of, under the following exceptions and modifications.

Art. 50. The debtor is liable only to such damages as were foreseen, or might have been foreseen at the time of contracting, when it is not owing to his fraud, that the obligation has not been executed.

Art. 51. Even in case the non execution of the contract resulted from the fraud of the debtor, the damages for the loss sustained by the creditor, and the profit of which he has been deprived, must not exceed what has been the immediate and direct consequence of the non execution of the contract.

Art. 52. When the contract specifies that he who fails to execute it, shall pay a certain sum by way of damages, the other party can recover neither a larger nor a smaller sum.

Art. 53. In obligations confined to the payment of a certain sum, the damages arising from delay in the execution, are never adjudged to exceed the interest fixed by law, except where particular rules of commerce and suretyship govern the case.
Those damages are due without the creditor's being required to prove any loss.
They are due only from the day they are demanded, except in cases where the law makes them accrue of right.

Art. 54. Interest due on capitals may produce interest, either by a judiciary demand or by special agreement, provided that either in the demand or the agreement, the interest in question be due at least for an entire year.

Art. 55. Nevertheless income fallen due, such as rent, hire, arrearages or perpetual rents or annuities, bear interest from the day they are demanded, or from the day of the agreement.
The same rule applies to restitutions of fruits and to interest paid by a third person to the creditor in discharge of the debtor.

 

SECTION V - OF THE INTERPRETATION OF THE AGREEMENTS

Art. 56. In agreements we must endeavor to ascertain what was the common intention of the parties, rather than to adhere to the literal sense of the terms.

Art. 57. When a clause is susceptible of two interpretations, it must be understood in that in which it may have some effect, rather than in a sense which would render it nugatory.

Art. 58. Terms that present two meanings, must be taken in the sense most congruous to the matter of the contract.

Art. 59. Whatever is ambiguous is determined according to the usage of the country where the contract was made.

Art. 60. In contracts the clauses in common use must be supplied, though they be not expressed.

Art. 61. All clauses of agreements are interpreted the one by the other, giving to each the sense which results from the entire act.

Art. 62. In a doubtful case, the agreement is interpreted against him who has stipulated and in favor of him who has contracted the obligation.

Art. 63. However general be the terms in which a contract is couched, it extends only to the things concerning which it appears that the parties intended to contract.

Art. 64. When in a contract, a case has been expressed for the explanation of the obligation, it is not understood that by that the parties intended to restrict the extent which the engagement receives of right, to the cases not expressed.

 

SECTION VI - OF THE EFFECT OF AGREEMENTS WITH REGARD TO PERSONS NOT PARTIES TO THEM

Art. 65. Agreements have effect only on the contracting parties; they do not operate against any other persons, neither do not operate in their favor, except in the case provided for by article the 21st of this title.

Art. 66. Nevertheless a creditor may exercise all the rights and actions of his debtor, except such as are exclusively attached to the person.

Art. 67. He can also in his own name, attack the acts done by his debtor, tending to defraud him of his rights.

CHAPITRE III - DE L'EFFET DES OBLIGATIONS

 

SECTION I - DISPOSITIONS GÉNÉRALES

Art. 34. Les conventions légalement formées, tiennent lieu de loi à ceux qui les ont faites.
Elles ne peuvent être révoquées, que de leur consentement mutuel, ou pour les causes que la loi autorise.
Elles doivent être exécutées de bonne foi.

Art. 35. Les conventions obligent, non-seulement, à ce qui y est exprimé, mais encore à toutes les suites que l'équité, l'usage, ou la loi, donnent à l'obligation, d'après sa nature.

 

SECTION II - DE L'OBLIGATION DE DONNER

Art. 36. L'obligation de donner, emporte celle de livrer la chose, et de la conserver, jusqu'à la livraison, à peine de dommages intérêts envers le créancier.

Art. 37. L'obligation de veiller à la conservation de la chose, soit que la convention n'ait pour objet que l'utilité de l'une des parties, soit qu'elle ait pour objet leur utilité commune, soumet celui qui en est chargé, à y apporter tous les soins d'un bon père de famille.
Cette obligation est plus ou moins étendue, relativement à certains contrats, dont les effets, à cet égard, sont expliqués sous les titres qui les concernent.

Art. 38. L'obligation de livrer la chose, est parfaite, par le seul consentement des parties contractantes.
Elle rend le créancier propriétaire, et met la chose à ses risques, dès l'instant où elle a dû être livrée, encore que la tradition n'en ait point été fait, à moins que le débiteur ne soit en demeure de la livrer, auquel cas, la chose reste aux risques de ce dernier.

Art. 39. Le débiteur est constitué en demeure, soit par une sommation, ou par autre acte équivalent, soit par l'effet de la convention, lorsqu'elle porte que, sans qu'il soit besoin d'acte, et par la seule échéance du terme, le débiteur sera en demeure.

Art. 40. Les effets de l'obligation, de donner ou de livrer un immeuble, sont réglés au titre de la vente.

Art. 41. Si la chose, qu'on s'est obligé de donner ou de livrer à deux personnes successivement, est purement mobilière, celle des deux qui en a été mise en possession réelle, est préférée, et en demeure propriétaire, encore que son titre soit postérieur en date, pourvu toute fois, que la possession soit de bonne foi.

 

SECTION III - DE L'OBLIGATION DE FAIRE OU DE NE PAS FAIRE

Art. 42. Toute obligation, de faire ou de ne pas faire, se résout en dommages intérêts, en cas d'inexécution de la part du débiteur.

Art. 43. Néanmoins, le créancier a le droit de demander, que ce qui aurait été fait, par contravention à l'engagement, soit détruit; et il peut se faire autoriser à le détruire, aux dépens du débiteur, sans préjudice des dommages et intérêts, s'il y a lieu.

Art. 44. Le créancier peut aussi, en cas d'inexécution, être autorisé à faire exécuter lui-même l'obligation, aux dépens du débiteur.

Art. 45. Si l'obligation est, de ne pas faire, celui qui y contrevient, doit les dommages et intérêts, par le seul fait de la contravention.

           

SECTION IV - DES DOMMAGES ET INTÉRÊTS RÉSULTANT DE L'INEXÉCUTION DE L'OBLIGATION

Art. 46. Les dommages et intérêts ne sont dus, que lorsque le débiteur est en demeure de remplir son obligation, excepté néanmoins, lorsque la chose, que le débiteur s'était obligé de donner ou de faire, ne pouvait être donnée ou faite, que dans un certain tems, qu'il a laissé passer.

Art. 47. Le débiteur est condamné, s'il y a lieu, au payement de dommages intérêts, soit en raison de l'inexécution de l'obligation, soit à raison du retard dans l'exécution, toutes les fois qu'il ne justifie pas, que l'inexécution provient d'une cause étrangère qui ne peut lui être imputée, encore qu'il n'y ait aucune mauvaise foi de sa part.

Art. 48. Il n'y a lieu à aucuns dommages intérêts, lorsque, par suite d'une force majeure, ou d'un cas fortuit, le débiteur a été empêché de donner, ou de faire ce à quoi il était obligé, ou a fait ce qui lui était interdit.

Art. 49. Les dommages intérêts dus au créancier sont, en général, de la perte qu'il a faite, et du gain dont il a été privé, sauf les exceptions et modifications ci-après.

Art. 50. Le débiteur n'est tenu, que des dommages et intérêts qui ont été prévus, ou qu'on a pu prévoir lors du contrat, lorsque ce n'est point par son dol que l'obligation n'est point exécutée.

Art. 51. Dans le même cas, où l'inexécution de la convention résulte du dol du débiteur, les dommages et intérêts ne doivent comprendre, à l'égard de la perte éprouvée par le créancier, et du gain dont il a été privé, que ce qui est une suite immédiate et directe de l'inexécution de la convention.

Art. 52. Lorsque la convention porte, que celui qui manquera de l'exécuter, payera une certaine somme, à titre de dommages intérêts, il ne peut être alloué à l'autre partie, une somme plus forte ni moindre.

Art. 53. Dans les obligations, qui se bornent au payement d'une certaine somme, les dommages et intérêts, résultant du retard dans l'exécution, ne consistent jamais que dans la condamnation aux intérêts fixés par la loi, sauf les règles particulières au commerce et au cautionnement.
Ces dommages et intérêts sont dus, sans que le créancier soit tenu de justifier d'aucune perte.
Ils ne sont dus, que du jour de la demande, excepté dans les cas où la loi les fait courir de plein droit.

Art. 54. Les intérêts  échus des capitaux peuvent produire des intérêts, ou par une demande judiciaire, ou par une convention spéciale, pourvu que, soit dans la demande, soit dans la convention, il s'agisse d'intérêts dus au moins pour une année entière.

Art. 55. Néanmoins, les revenues échus, tels que les fermages, loyers, arrérages de rentes perpétuelles ou viagères, produisent intérêt du jour de la demande ou de la convention.
La même règle s'applique aux restitutions de fruits, et aux intérêts payés par un tiers, au créancier, en acquit du débiteur.

 

SECTION V - DE L'INTERPRÉTATION DES CONVENTIONS

Art. 56. On doit, dans les conventions, rechercher quelle a été la commune intention des parties contractantes, plutôt que de s'arrêter au sens littéral des termes.

Art. 57. Lorsqu'une clause est susceptible de deux sens, on doit plutôt l'entendre dans celui avec lequel elle peut avoir quelque effet, que dans le sens où elle n'en pourrait produire aucuu.

Art. 58. Les termes susceptibles de deux sens, doivent être pris dans le sens qui convient le plus à la matière du contrat.

Art. 59. Ce qui est ambigu, s'interprète par ce qui est d'usage dans le pays où le contrat est passé.

Art. 60. On doit suppléer, dans le contrat, les clauses qui y sont d'usage, quoiqu'elles n'y soient pas exprimées.

Art. 61. Toutes les clauses des conventions s'interprètent, les unes par les autres, en donnant à chacune le sens qui résulte de l'acte entier.

Art. 62. Dans le doute, la convention s'interprète, contre celui qui a stipulé, et en faveur de celui qui a contracté l'obligation.

Art. 63. Quelque généraux que soient les termes, dans lesquels une convention est conçue, elle ne comprend que les choses sur lesquelles il paraît que les parties se sont proposé de contracter.

Art. 64. Lorsque, dans un contrat, on a exprimé un cas pour l'explication de l'obligation, on n'est pas censé avoir voulu, par là, restreindre l'étendue que l'engagement reçoit, de droit, aux cas non exprimés.

 

SECTION VI - DE L'EFFET DES CONVENTIONS À L'ÉGARD DES TIERS

Art. 65. Les conventions n'ont d'effet qu'entre les parties contractantes; elles ne nuisent point au tiers, et elles ne lui profitent que dans le ca prévu par l'article 21 du présent titre.

Art. 66. Néanmoins, les créanciers peuvent exercer tous les droits et actions de leur débiteur, à l'exception de ceux qui sont exclusivement attachés à la personne.

Art. 67. Ils peuvent aussi, en leur nom personnel, attaquer les actes faits par leur débiteur, en fraude de leurs droits.

< Previous | Next >© Manuscript notes copyright 1968 by Louis V. de la Vergne.
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