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Table of Contents

Cover Page
Foreword
Abbreviations
Synopsis
Preliminary title Of the general definitions of rights and the promulgation of the laws
    Chapter I Of law and customs
    Chapter II Of the publication of the laws
    Chapter III Of the effects of laws
    Chapter IV Of the application and construction of laws
    Chapter V Of the repeal of laws
Book I Of persons
    Title I Of the distinction of persons, and the privation of certain civil rights in certain cases
      Chapter I Of the distinction of persons established by nature
      Chapter II Of the distinctions of persons which are established by law
    Title II Of domicil and the manner of changing the same
    Title III Of absent persons
      Chapter I Of the curatorship of absent persons
      Chapter II Of the putting into provisional possession the heirs of the absentee
      Chapter III Of the effects of absence upon the eventual rights which may belong to the absentee
      Chapter IV Of the effects of absence respecting marriage
      Chapter V Of the care of minor children whose father has disappeared
    Title IV Of husband and wife
      Chapter I On marriage
      Chapter II How marriages may be contracted or made
      Chapter III Of the nullity of marriages
      Chapter IV Of the respective rights and duties of married persons
      Chapter V Of the dissolution of marriages
      Chapter VI Of second marriages
    Title V Of the separation from bed and board
      Chapter I Of the causes of separation from bed and board
      Chapter II Of the proceedings on separation from bed and board
      Chapter III Of the provisional proceedings to which a suit for separation may give occasion
      Chapter IV Of objections to the action of separation from bed and board
      Chapter V Of the effects of separation from bed and board
    Title VI Of master and servant
      Chapter I Of the several sorts of servants
      Chapter II Of free servants
      Chapter III Of slaves
    Title VII Of father and child
      Chapter I Of children in general
      Chapter II Of legitimate children
        Section I Of legitimacy resulting from marriage
        Section II Of the manner of proving the legitimate filiation
      Chapter III Of illegitimate children
        Section I Of legitimation
        Section II Of the acknowledgment of illegitimate children
      Chapter IV Of adoption
      Chapter V Of paternal authority
        Section I Of the duties of parents towards their legitimate children, and of the duties of legitimate children towards their parents
        Section II Of the duties of parents towards their natural children, and of the duties of natural children towards their parents
    Title VIII Of minors, of their tutorship, curatorship and emancipation
      Chapter I Of tutorship
        Section I General dispositions
        Section II Of tutorship by nature
        Section III Of tutorship by will
        Section IV Of the tutorship by the effect of the law
        Section V Of dative tutorship
        Section VI Of the under tutor
        Section VII Of the causes which dispense or excuse from the tutorship
        Section VIII Of incapacity for, exclusion from and deprivation of the tutorship
        Section IX Of the administration of the tutor
      Chapter II Of the curatorship of minors
      Chapter III Of emancipation
    Title IX Of persons insane, idiots, and other persons incapable of administering their estate
      Chapter I Of the interdiction and curatorship of persons incapable of administering their estate, whether on account of insanity or of some other infirmity
      Chapter II Of the other persons to whom curators are appointed
    Title X Of communities or corporations
      Chapter I Of the nature of communities or corporations, of their use and kind
      Chapter II Of the rights and privileges of communities or corporations and of their incapacities
      Chapter III Of the dissolution of communities or corporations
Book II Of things and of the different modifications of property
    Title I Of things or estates
      Chapter I Of the distinction of things or estates
      Chapter II Of immoveables
      Chapter III Of moveables
      Chapter IV Of estates considered in their relation to those who possess them
    Title II Of absolute ownership
      Chapter I Universal principles
      Chapter II Of the right of accession to what is produced by the thing
      Chapter III Of the right of accession to what unites or incorporates itself to the thing
        Section I Of the right of accession concerning immoveables
        Section II Of the right of accession concerning moveable things
    Title III Of usufruct, use and habitation
      Chapter I Of usufruct
        Section I General definitions
        Section II Of the rights of the usufructuary
        Section III Of the obligations of the usufructuary
        Section IV Of the obligations of the owner
        Section V How usufruct expires
      Chapter II Of the use and habitation
    Title IV Of predial services or services of land
      Chapter I General principles
      Chapter II Of services which originate from the natural situation of the place
      Chapter III Of services imposed by law
        Section I Of walls, fences, and ditches in common
        Section II Of the distance and of the intermediary works required for certain buildings
        Section III Of lights on the property of a neighbor
        Section IV Of the manner of carrying off rain from the roof
        Section V Of the right of passage
      Chapter IV Of services established by the act of man
        Section I Of the different kinds of services which may be established by the act of man
        Section II How services are acquired
        Section III Of the rights of the proprietor of the estate to which the service is due
        Section IV How Services are extinguished
Book III Of the different manners of acquiring the property of things
    Preliminary title General dispositions
    Title I Of successions
      Chapter I Of the different sorts of successions and heirs
      Chapter II Of legal successions
        Section I General rules
        Section II Of the succession of descendants
        Section III Of the succession of ascendants
        Section IV Of the succession of collaterals
      Chapter III Of irregular successions
      Chapter IV In what manner successions are opened
      Chapter V Of the incapacity and unworthiness of the heirs
      Chapter VI In what manner a succession is accepted and how it is renounced
        Section I Of the acceptance pure and simple
        Section II Of the acceptance of a succession with the benefit of an inventory
      Chapter VII Of the administration of vacant estates and estates ab intestato
      Chapter VIII Of partition among heirs and of the collation of goods
        Section I Of the nature of partition and in what manner it is made
        Section II Of the collation of goods
        Section III Of the payment of debts
        Section IV Of the effect of partition and of its rescision
    Title II Of donations inter vivos (between living persons) and mortis causa (in prospect of death)
      Chapter I General dispositions
      Chapter II Of the capacity necessary for disposing of and receiving by donation inter vivos or mortis causa
      Chapter III Of the portion disposable, and of its reduction in case of excess
        Section I Of the disposable portion and the legitime
        Section II Of the reduction of dispositions inter vivos or mortis causa; of the manner in which it is made and of its effects
      Chapter IV Of dispositions reprobated by the law in donations inter vivos and mortis causa
      Chapter V Of donations inter vivos (between living)
        Section I Of the irrevocability of donations inter vivos
        Section II Of the form of donations inter vivos
        Section III Of the exceptions to the rule of the irrevocability of donations inter vivos
      Chapter VI Of dispositions mortis causa (in the prospect of death)
        Section I Of testament or codicil
        Section II Of the form of testaments and codicils
        Section III Of testamentary dispositions
        Section IV Of the institution of heir and of disinherison
        Section V Of legacies
        Section VI Of the opening and the proof of wills, and of testamentary executions
        Section VII Of the revocation of testaments and codicils and of their caducity
        Section VIII Of the interpretation of testamentary dispositions
      Chapter VII Of partitions made by parents among their descendants
      Chapter VIII Of donations made by marriage contract to the husband or wife, and to the children to be born of the marriage
      Chapter IX Of donations between married persons, either by marriage contract, or during the marriage
    Title III Of contracts and of conventional obligations in general
      Chapter I Preliminary dispositions
      Chapter II Of the conditions essential to the validity of agreements
        Section I Of consent
        Section II Of the capability of the parties contracting
        Section III Of the object and the matter of contracts
        Section IV Of the cause
      Chapter III Of the effect of obligations
        Section I General dispositions
        Section II Of the obligation of giving
        Section III Of the obligations of doing or of not doing
        Section IV Of the damages resulting from the non execution of the obligation
        Section V Of the interpretation of the agreements
        Section VI Of the effect of agreements with regard to persons not parties to them
      Chapter IV Of the different kinds of obligations
        Section I Of conditional obligations
          § 1 Of the condition in general and of its different kinds
          § 2 Of the suspensive condition
          § 3 Of the dissolving condition
        Section II Of obligations to be performed at a certain term
        Section III Of the alternative obligations
        Section IV Of obligations in solido or jointly and severally
          § 1 Of the obligation in solido between creditors
          § 2 Of the obligation in solido on the part of debtors
        Section V Of obligations divisible and indivisible
          § 1 Of the effects of a divisible obligation
          § 2 Of the effect of the indivisible obligation
        Section VI Of obligations with penal clauses
      Chapter V Of the extinction of obligations
        Section I Of payment
          § 1 Of payment in general
          § 2 Of payment with subrogation
          § 3 Of the imputation of payments
          § 4 Of tenders of payment, and consignment
          § 5 Of the surrender of property
        Section II Of novation
        Section III Of the remission of the debt
        Section IV Of compensation
        Section V Of confusion
        Section VI Of the loss of the thing due
        Section VII Of the action of nullity or of rescission of agreements
      Chapter VI Of the proof of obligations and of that of payment
        Section I Of the literal proof
          § 1 Of the authentic title
          § 2 Of the acts under private signature
          § 3 Of copies of titles
          § 4 Of recognitive and confirmative acts
        Section II Of testimonial proof
        Section III Of presumptions
          § 1 Of presumptions established by law
          § 2 Of presumption not established by law
        Section IV Of the confession of the party
        Section V Of the proof by oath
    Title IV Of engagements formed without agreements, or of quasi contracts and quasi offences
      Section I Of the quasi contract
      Section II Of quasi crimes or offences
    Title V Of marriage contract
      Chapter I General dispositions
      Chapter II Of the various kinds of matrimonial agreements
        Section I Of donations made in consideration of marriage
        Section II Of dowry or marriage portion
        Section III Of paraphernalia or extra dotal effects
        Section IV Of the partnership or community of acquests or gains
      Chapter III Of the separation of property
    Title VI Of sale
      Chapter I Of the nature and form of the contract of sale, and of the manner in which it is to be performed
      Chapter II Of persons capable of buying and selling, and of things which may be sold
      Chapter III Of the obligations of the seller
        Section I Of the tradition or delivery of the thing sold
        Section II Of the warranty, in case of eviction of the thing sold
        Section III Of the warranty of the defects of the thing sold or of the redhibitory vices
      Chapter IV Of the obligations of the buyer
      Chapter V Of the nullity and rescissions of the sale
        Section I Of the power or right of redemption
        Section II Of the rescission of sales on account of lesion
      Chapter VI Of sales by cant or auction
      Chapter VII Of the assignment or transfer of debts and other incorporeal rights
    Title VII Of exchange
    Title VIII Of letting and hiring
      Chapter I Of the several species of contracts for letting and hiring
      Chapter II Of the contract for letting out things
        Section I Of the form and duration of leases
        Section II Of the obligations of the lessor
        Section III Of the obligations of the lessee
        Section IV Of the dissolution of leases
      Chapter III Of the letting out of labour or industry
        Section I Of the hiring of servants and workmen
        Section II Of carriers and watermen
        Section III Of plots for buildings and other works
    Title IX Of partnership
      Chapter I General dispositions
      Chapter II Of the various kinds of partnerships
      Chapter III Of the obligations of partners towards each other, and towards third persons
        Section I Of the obligations of partners towards each other
        Section II Of the obligations of partners towards third persons
      Chapter IV Of the different manners in which partnerships end
    Title X Of loan
      Chapter I Of the loan for use or commodatum
        Section I Of the nature of the loan for use
        Section II Of the engagements of the borrower for use
        Section III Of the engagements of the lender for use
      Chapter II Of the loan for consumption or mutuum
        Section I Of the nature of the loan for consumption
        Section II Of the obligations of the lender for consumption
        Section III Of the engagements of the borrower for consumption
      Chapter III Of loan on interest
    Title XI Of deposit and sequestration
      Chapter I Of deposit in general and of its divers kinds
      Chapter II Of the deposit properly so called
        Section I Of the nature and essence of the contract of deposit
        Section II Of the obligations of the depository
        Section III Of the obligations of him by whom the deposit has been made
        Section IV Of the necessary deposit
      Chapter III Of sequestration
        Section I Of its different species
        Section II Of the conventional sequestration
        Section III Of the judicial sequestration or deposit
    Title XII Of aleatory contracts
    Title XIII Of mandate or commission
      Chapter I Of the nature of proxies, mandates and commissions
      Chapter II What persons may be appointed attornies in fact
      Chapter III Of the obligations of a person acting under a power of attorney
      Chapter IV Of the obligations of the principal who acts by his attorney in fact
      Chapter V How the procuration expires
    Title XIV Of suretyship
      Chapter I Of the nature and extent of suretyship
      Chapter II Of the effects of suretyship
        Section I Of the effects of suretyship between the creditor and the surety
        Section II Of the effects of suretyship between the debtor and the surety
        Section III Respecting the effects of suretyship between the sureties
      Chapter III Of the extinction of suretyship
      Chapter IV Of the legal and judicial sureties
    Title XV Of transactions
    Title XVI Of respite
    Title XVII Of compromises or arbitration
    Title XVIII Of pledge
    Title XIX Of privileges and mortgages
      Chapter I Of the nature of a mortgage and of its several sorts
      Chapter II Who may mortgage and what thing may be mortgaged
      Chapter III Of the effects of mortgage
        Section I Of the effects of mortgage with regard to the debtor
        Section II Of the effects of mortgages against third possessors and of the action of mortgage
        Section III Of the registering of mortgages and of the register kept for that purpose
      Chapter IV Of the order of privileges and mortgages
        Section I Of the preference and order of privileges
      Chapter V How privileges or mortgages expire or are extinguished
    Title XX Of occupancy, possession and prescription
      Chapter I Of occupancy
      Chapter II Of possession
      Chapter III Of prescription
        Section I Of the possession required to establish prescription
        Section II Of the causes which suspend or interrupt prescriptions
        Section III Of the several species of prescription
    Title XXI Of the title by judgment or seizure
Index
Manuscript index
Manuscript index Part 2

SECTION III - OF TESTAMENTARY DISPOSITIONS

Art. 110. Testamentary dispositions are generally made in form of institution of heir, or in form of legacy.

Art. 111. The institution of heir is a disposition by which the testator names one or more persons to succeed him, either in the whole of his estate or only in a certain quantum of the estate, or in some particular thing.

Art. 112. A legacy is a direct disposition which the testator makes for the benefit of one or more persons, either of the whole or a portion of his estate, or of some particular thing.

Art. 113. Testamentary dispositions, whether they be made in form of insitution of heir, or in form of legacy, are either universal or on a universal title, or on a particular title.

Art. 114. Testamentary dispositions universal are those by which the testator gives to one or more persons the whole of the property he leaves at his death, or of which the law permits him to dispose.

Art. 115. Testamentary dispositions on a universal title, are those by which the testator gives to one or more persons a quantum of the property of which the law permits him to dispose, as the half, the third part, the twentieth part, or the whole of a certain kind of property, as all his real estate, all his moveable property; or a quantum of the whole, as the third part of his real estate or three fourths of his moveable property.

Art. 116. Testamentary dispositions on a particular title, are those by which the testator gives to one or several persons certain substances, as such a house, such a horse, his library, his ward robe; or indeterminate things as a horse, a silver bason weighing so much; or a certain sum of money, as a sum of ten thousand dollars; or a certain quantity, as ten puncheons of rum or a hundred barrels of flour.

Art. 117. By testament may be made all kinds of dispositions, whether universal or on a universal title, or on a particular title.
But by codicil may be made only dispositions on a particular title and for things purely moveable, otherwise they are null and void.

Art. 118. Testamentary dispositions may be made either purely or simply or conditionally.

Art. 119. Although testamentary dispositions whether universal or on a universal title, or on a particular title, may be made indifferently, either by form of institution of heir, or by form of legacy, we will treat more particularly of universal dispositions under the title of institution of heirs, and of particular dispositions under the title of legacy.

 

SECTION IV - OF THE INSTITUTION OF HEIR AND OF DISINHERISON

Art. 120. A testator who has forced heirs, that is to say legitimate descendants or ascendants, is not, in order to the validity of his testament obliged to institute them heirs; they will nevertheless have a right to the legitimate part reserved to them by law; but if the testator desires to deprive them of that legitimate part, he can do it only by disinheriting them by testament, in the manner and form hereafter prescribed.

Art. 121. If the testator has instituted his forced heirs by his will, or has there bequeathed them legacies and other advantages of less value than the legitimate part reserved to them by law, those heirs have an action for their supplement of their legitimate part, the effect of which is to cause the reduction of the other dispositions made by the testator to the prejudice of the legitimate part in the manner prescribed in section second of chapter third of this title.

Art. 122. Whether the forced heirs have or have not been instituted by the testator, they are by his death, of full right, seized of all the property of the succession, and the heir instituted universally, is bound to demand of them the delivery of the property contained in the testament, saving the reduction in case of their exceeding the disposable portion.

Art. 123. Nevertheless in the same cases, the heir instituted universally shall have the enjoyment of the property comprised in the testament, from the day of the decease, if the demand of delivery was made within a year from that day, otherwise that enjoyment shall commence only from the day on which an action is brought, or from the day on which the delivery is voluntary consented to.

Art. 124. When on the death of a testator there are no forced heirs, the heir instituted universally shall be of full right, seized by the death of the testator, without being obliged to demand the delivery.
And in that case the heir instituted universally shall be subject to the same rules as the legal heir, as to the acceptance or rejection of the succession, to the benefit of an inventory, to the partition and collation of goods and payment of the debts, conformably to what is prescribed in the title of successions.

Art. 125. An heir universally instituted being in concurrence with forced heirs, shall be liable for the debts and charges of the succession of the testator personally for his part and portion, and by mortgage for the whole, he shall be bound to pay off all the legacies, except in the case of reduction, as explained in articles 33 and 34 of the present title.

Art. 126. Forced heirs may be deprived of their legitime or legal portion, and of the seisin granted them by law, by the effect of disinherison by the testator, for just cause and in the manner hereafter prescribed.

Art. 127. A disinherison to be valid, must be made by testament; were it only by codicil it would be null and void.

Art. 128. The disinherison must be made by name and expressly, and for a just cause, otherwise it is null.

Art. 129. There are no just causes of disinherison but those expressly recognized by law in the following articles.

Art. 130. The just causes for which parents may disinherit their children, are twelve in number, to wit:
1st. If the child has raised his or her hand to strike the parent, or if he or she has really struck the parent; but a mere threat is not sufficient.
2dly. If the child has been guilty towards a parent, of cruelty, a crime or grievous injury.
3dly. If the child has attempted to take the life of either parent.
4thly. If the child has accused a parent of any capital crime, except however that of high treason.
5. If the child has refused sustenance to a parent, having the means to afford it.
6. If the child has neglected to take care of a parent become insane.
7. If the child refused to ransom them when detained in captivity.
8. If the child used any act of violence or coercion to hinder a parent from making a will.
9. If the son has had an incestuous commerce with his father's wife.
10. If the child has refused to go bail for a parent, having the means, to take him out of prison.
11. If the son or daughter being a minor marries without the consent of their parents.
12. If the daughter being a minor whom her parents have proposed to marry with a portion according to their means, has rejected their proposal in order to lead a debauched life: but if the father or mother has neglected to marry a daughter until the age of majority, she cannot be disinherited though after that age she leads not a regular life or fall into a fault contrary to her honor.

Art. 131. The ascendants may disinherit their legitimate descendants, coming to their succession, for the ten former causes expressed in the preceding article, when the acts of ingratitude there mentioned have been committed towards them, instead of towards the parents; but they cannot disinherit their descendants for the two latter causes.

Art. 132. Legitimate children dying without issue and leaving a parent or other ascendants, in the direct line, cannot disinherit them unless for the eight following causes, to wit:
1st, If the parent has accused the child of a capital crime, except however the crime of high treason.
2d, If the parent has attempted to take the child's life;
3d, If the parent has by any violence or force hindered the child from making a will;
4th, If the parent has refused sustenance to the child in necessity, having the means of affording it.
5th, If the parent has neglected to take care of the child while in a state of insanity;
6th, If the parent has neglected to ransom the child when in captivity;
7th, If the father or mother or other ascendants have attempted the life the one of the other, in which case the child or descendant making a will, may disinherit the one who has attempted the life of the other;
8th, If the father or other male ascendant has had an incestuous commerce with the wife of his son or descendant.

Art. 133. The testator must express in the will for what reasons he disinherited his forced heirs or any of them, and the other heirs of the testator are moreover obliged to prove the facts on which the disinherison is founded, otherwise it is null.

Art. 134. When all the forced heirs have been validly disinherited, the heir instituted universally, is seized in full right, of the succession, without being bound to demand the delivery of it, in the same manner as if there were no forced heirs, conformably to what is prescribed in article 124 above.

Art. 135. An heir who is instituted only on a universal title, shall be bound to demand delivery from the forced heirs not disinherited for just cause; and if there be no forced heirs, from the heir instituted universally; and if there be no such heir, from the legitimate heirs and other persons succeeding, called in the order established in the title of successions.

Art. 136. The heir instituted on an universal title, shall like the heir instituted universally, be liable to the debts and charges of the succession, personally for his part and portion, and by mortgage for the whole.

Art. 137. When the testator has disposed of only a quantum of the disposable portion, and that by a universal title, the heir thus instituted shall be bound to pay off the particular legacies by contribution with the legitimate heirs and other persons succeeding to the testator.

Art. 138. In no case can the heir instituted on any title whatever, pretend to the falcidian portion, that is to say the fourth part which the civil law empowers the testamentary heir to retain of the succession, in case it be absorbed above three fourths by the legacies, that right being and remaining abolished.

SECTION III - DES DISPOSITIONS TESTAMENTAIRES

Art. 110. Les dispositions testamentaires se font en général par forme d'institution d'héritier, ou par forme de legs.

Art. 111. L'institution d'héritier est une disposition par laquelle le testateur nomme une ou plusieurs personnes pour lui succéder, soit dans l'universalité de ses biens, soit seulement dans une quotité de ces mêmes biens, soit dans quelque chose particulière.

Art. 112. Le legs est une disposition directe que le testateur fait au profit d'une ou plusieurs personnes, soit de l'universalité, soit d'une quotité de ses biens, soit de quelque chose particulière.

Art. 113. Les  dispositions testamentaires, soit qu'elles se fassent par forme d'institution d'héritier, soit par forme de legs, sont, ou universelles, ou à titre universel, ou à titre particulier.

Art. 114. Les dispositions testamentaires universelles, sont celles par lesquelles le testateur donne à une ou plusieurs personnes, l'universalité des biens qu'il laissera à son décès ou dont la loi lui permet de disposer.

Art. 115. Les dispositions testamentaires, à titre universel, sont celles par lesquelles le testateur donne à une ou plusieurs personnes, une quote part des biens dont la loi lui permet de disposer, comme la moitié, le tiers, le vingtième; ou l'universalité d'une certaine espèce de biens, comme tous ses immeubles, tout son mobilier; ou une quotité de ces universalités, comme le tiers de ses immeubles, ou les trois quarts de ses meubles.

Art. 116. Les dispositions testamentaires, à titre particulier, sont celles par lesquelles le testateur donne à une ou plusieurs personnes, des corps certains, comme une telle maison, un tel cheval, sa bibliothèque, sa garde-robe; ou des choses indéterminées, comme un cheval, un bassin d'argent de tant de marcs; ou une certaine somme d'argent, comme une somme de dix mille piastres; ou une certaine quantité, comme dix boucauts de rum, ou cent barils de farine.

Art. 117. On peut faire, par testament, toutes espèces de dispositions, soit universelles, soit à titre universel, soit à titre particulier.
Mais on ne peut faire, par codicile, que des dispositions à titre particulier et pour des choses purement mobilières, à peine de nullité.

Art. 118. Les dispositions testamentaires peuvent se faire, ou purement, ou simplement, ou sous condition.

Art. 119. Quoique les dispositions testamentaires, soit universelles, soit à titre universel, soit à titre particulier, puissent se faire indifféremment par forme d'institution d'héritier ou par forme de legs, on traitera plus particulièrement des dispositions universelles, sous le titre de l'institution d'héritier, et des dispositions particulières, sous le titre des legs.

                

SECTION IV - DE L'INSTITUTION D'HÉRITIER ET DE L'EXHÉRÉDATION

Art. 120. Le testateur, qui a des héritiers forcés, c'est-à-dire, des descendans ou ascendans légitimes, n'est point tenu, pour la validité de son testament, de les instituer héritiers; ils n'en auront pas moins droit pour cela à la légitime qui leur est réservée par la loi, mais si le testateur veut les priver de cette légitime, il ne pourra le faire qu'en les deshéritant expressément et nommément par son testament, de la manière et dans la forme ci-après prescrite.

Art. 121. Si le testateur a institué ses héritiers forcés, par son testament, ou leur y a fait des legs et autres avantages de moindre valeur que la légitime qui leur est réservée par la loi, ces héritiers ont une action en supplément de leur légitime, dont l'effet est de faire réduire les autres dispositions que le testateur a faites au préjudice de la légitime, de la manière qui est prescrite en la section 2 du chapitre 3 de ce titre.

Art. 122. Soit que les héritiers forcés ayent été institués ou non par le testateur, ils sont saisis, de plein droit, par sa mort, de tous les biens de la succession, et l'héritier institué universellement est tenu de leur demander la délivrance des biens compris dans le testament, sauf la réduction dans le cas où ils excéderaient la portion disponible.

Art. 123. Néanmoins, dans les mêmes cas, l'héritier institué universellement aura la jouissance des biens compris dans le testament, à compter du jour du décès, si la demande en délivrance a été faite dans l'année depuis cette époque, si non, cette jouissance ne commencera que du jour de la demande formée en justice, ou du jour que la demande aurait été volontairement consentie.

Art. 124. Lorsqu'au décès du testateur, il n'y aura pas d'héritiers forcés, l'héritier institué universellement sera saisi, de plein droit, par la mort du testateur, sans être tenu de demander la délivrance.
Et dans ce cas, l'héritier institué universellement sera assujetti aux mêmes règles que l'héritier légitime, relativement à l'acceptation ou à la répudiation de la succession, au bénéfice d'inventaire, aux partages, rapports et payemens des dettes, conformément à ce qui est prescrit au titre des successions.           

Art. 125. L'héritier institué universellement, qui sera en concours avec des héritiers forcés, sera tenu des dettes et charges de la succession du testateur, personnellement pour sa part et portion, et hypothécairement pour le tout, et il sera tenu d'acquitter tous les legs, sauf le cas de réduction, ainsi qu'il est expliqué aux articles 33 ou 34 de présent titre.

Art. 126. Les héritiers forcés peuveat être privés de la légitime et de la saisine qui leur est accordée par la loi, par l'effet de l'exhérédation prononcée par le testateur, pour une juste cause, et de la manière ci-après prescrite.

Art. 127. Une exhérédation, pour être valable, doit être faite par testament; celle continue dans un codicile serait nulle.

Art. 128. L'exhérédation doit être faite nommément et expressément, et pour une juste cause, à peine de nullité.

Art. 129. Il n'y a de justes causes d'exhérédation que celles qui sont expressément autorisées par la loi, dans les articles suivans.

Art. 130. Les justes causes pour lesquelles les père et mère peuvent deshériter leurs enfans légitimes, sont au nombre de douze; savoir:
1°. Si l'enfant a porté la main sur son père ou sa mère pour les frapper; ou s'il les a réellement frappés, mais une simple menace ne suffirait pas;
2°. S'il s'est rendu coupable envers eux de sevices, délits ou injures graves;
3°. S'il a attenté à la vie de son père ou de sa mère;
4°. S'il les a accusé de quelque crime capital, autre toutefois que celui de haute trahison;
5°. S'il leur a refusé des alimens, lorsqu'il avait le moyen de leur en fournir;
6°. S'il a negligé d'en prendre soin, dans le cas où ils seraient tombés en démence;
7°. S'il a négligé de les racheter, lorsqu'ils étaient détenus en captivité;
8°. S'il a employé quelque voie de fait, ou quelque violence, pour les empêcher de tester;
9°. S'il l'enfant mâle a eu un commerce incestueux avec la femme de son père;
10°. Si l'enfant majeur a refusé de se porter caution de ses père ou mère, lorsqu'il en avait les moyens, pour les tirer de prison;
11°. Si l'enfant mineur, de quelque sexe que ce soit, se marie sans le consentement de ses père et mère.
12°. Si la fille mineure, que son père ou sa mère a voulu marier et doter suivant ses facultés, a refusé ce qu'on lui proposait pour mener une vie débauchée; mais si le père ou la mère a négligé de marier sa fille jusqu'à son âge de majorité, elle ne peut être deshéritée, quoiqu'après cet âge, elle ne vive pas dans l'ordre ou tombe en faute contre son honneur.

Art. 131. Les ascendans peuvent deshériter leurs descendans légitimes, venant à leurs successions, pour les dix premières causes, exprimées au précédent article, lorsque les faits d'ingratitude y mentionnés ont été commis contre eux, au lieu de l'être contre les père et mère; mais ils ne peuvent deshériter leurs descendans pour les deux dernières causes.

Art. 132. Les enfans légitimes, qui décèdent sans postérité et qui laissent un père ou une mère, ou à leur défaut, d'autres ascendans en ligne directe, ne peuvent les deshériter que pour les huit causes suivantes:
1°. Si le père ou la mère les a accusés d'un crime capital, autre toutefois que celui de haute trahison;
2°. Si le père ou la mère a attenté à la vie de l'enfant;
3°. Si, par quelque violence ou voie de fait, ils les ont empêché de tester;
4°. S'ils leur ont refusé des alimens, dans leurs besoins, lorsqu'ils avaient les moyens de leur en fournir;
5°. S'ils ont négligé de prendre soin d'eux, lorsqu'ils étaient en démence;
6°. S'ils ont négligé de les racheter, lorsqu'ils étaient en captivité;
7°. Si le père ou la mère, ou autres ascendans, ont attenté à la vie l'un de l'autre, dans lequel cas, l'enfant ou descendant testateur peut deshériter celui des deux qui aura attenté à la vie de l'autre;
8°. Si le père, ou autre ascendant mâle, a eu un commerce incestueux avec la femme de l'enfant ou descendant.

Art. 133. Le testateur doit exprimer, dans le testament, pour quelles causes il a deshérité ses héritiers forcés, ou quelques-uns d'entre eux; et les autres héritiers du testateur sont tenus, en outre, de prouver les faits sur lesquels l'exhérédation est fondée, le tout à peine de nullité.

Art. 134. Lorsque tous les héritiers forcés ont été valablement deshérités, l'héritier institué universellement, est saisi, de plein droit, de la succession, sans être tenu d'en demander la délivrance, de la même manière que s'il n'y avait point d'héritiers forcés, conformément à ce qui est prescrit en l'article 124 ci-dessus.

Art. 135. L'héritier qui n'est institué qu'à titre universel, sera tenu de demander la délivrance aux héritiers forcés, qui n'ont pas été deshérités pour une juste cause, et à défaut d'héritiers forcés, à l'héritier institué universellement; et à défaut de celui-ci, aux héritiers légitimes et autres personnes successibles, appelés dans l'ordre établi au titre des successions.

Art. 136. L'héritier institué à titre universel sera tenu, comme l'héritier institué universellement, des dettes et charges de la succession, personnellement pour sa part et portion, et hypothécairement pour le tout.

Art. 137. Lorsque le testateur n'aura disposé que d'une quotité de la portion disponible, et qu'il l'aura fait à titre universel, l'héritier ainsi institué sera tenu d'acquitter les legs particuliers, par contribution avec les héritiers légitimes et autres successibles du testateur.

Art. 138. Dans aucuns cas l'héritier institué, à quelque titre que ce soit, ne pourra prétendre la falcidie ou la quarte falcidie, c'est-à-dire le quart que la loi civile autorise l'héritier testamentaire à retenir sur la succession, dans le cas où elle se trouverait absorbée au delà des trois quarts, par des legs; ce droit étant et demeurant aboli.

< Previous | Next >© Manuscript notes copyright 1968 by Louis V. de la Vergne.
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