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Table of Contents

Cover Page
Foreword
Abbreviations
Synopsis
Preliminary title Of the general definitions of rights and the promulgation of the laws
    Chapter I Of law and customs
    Chapter II Of the publication of the laws
    Chapter III Of the effects of laws
    Chapter IV Of the application and construction of laws
    Chapter V Of the repeal of laws
Book I Of persons
    Title I Of the distinction of persons, and the privation of certain civil rights in certain cases
      Chapter I Of the distinction of persons established by nature
      Chapter II Of the distinctions of persons which are established by law
    Title II Of domicil and the manner of changing the same
    Title III Of absent persons
      Chapter I Of the curatorship of absent persons
      Chapter II Of the putting into provisional possession the heirs of the absentee
      Chapter III Of the effects of absence upon the eventual rights which may belong to the absentee
      Chapter IV Of the effects of absence respecting marriage
      Chapter V Of the care of minor children whose father has disappeared
    Title IV Of husband and wife
      Chapter I On marriage
      Chapter II How marriages may be contracted or made
      Chapter III Of the nullity of marriages
      Chapter IV Of the respective rights and duties of married persons
      Chapter V Of the dissolution of marriages
      Chapter VI Of second marriages
    Title V Of the separation from bed and board
      Chapter I Of the causes of separation from bed and board
      Chapter II Of the proceedings on separation from bed and board
      Chapter III Of the provisional proceedings to which a suit for separation may give occasion
      Chapter IV Of objections to the action of separation from bed and board
      Chapter V Of the effects of separation from bed and board
    Title VI Of master and servant
      Chapter I Of the several sorts of servants
      Chapter II Of free servants
      Chapter III Of slaves
    Title VII Of father and child
      Chapter I Of children in general
      Chapter II Of legitimate children
        Section I Of legitimacy resulting from marriage
        Section II Of the manner of proving the legitimate filiation
      Chapter III Of illegitimate children
        Section I Of legitimation
        Section II Of the acknowledgment of illegitimate children
      Chapter IV Of adoption
      Chapter V Of paternal authority
        Section I Of the duties of parents towards their legitimate children, and of the duties of legitimate children towards their parents
        Section II Of the duties of parents towards their natural children, and of the duties of natural children towards their parents
    Title VIII Of minors, of their tutorship, curatorship and emancipation
      Chapter I Of tutorship
        Section I General dispositions
        Section II Of tutorship by nature
        Section III Of tutorship by will
        Section IV Of the tutorship by the effect of the law
        Section V Of dative tutorship
        Section VI Of the under tutor
        Section VII Of the causes which dispense or excuse from the tutorship
        Section VIII Of incapacity for, exclusion from and deprivation of the tutorship
        Section IX Of the administration of the tutor
      Chapter II Of the curatorship of minors
      Chapter III Of emancipation
    Title IX Of persons insane, idiots, and other persons incapable of administering their estate
      Chapter I Of the interdiction and curatorship of persons incapable of administering their estate, whether on account of insanity or of some other infirmity
      Chapter II Of the other persons to whom curators are appointed
    Title X Of communities or corporations
      Chapter I Of the nature of communities or corporations, of their use and kind
      Chapter II Of the rights and privileges of communities or corporations and of their incapacities
      Chapter III Of the dissolution of communities or corporations
Book II Of things and of the different modifications of property
    Title I Of things or estates
      Chapter I Of the distinction of things or estates
      Chapter II Of immoveables
      Chapter III Of moveables
      Chapter IV Of estates considered in their relation to those who possess them
    Title II Of absolute ownership
      Chapter I Universal principles
      Chapter II Of the right of accession to what is produced by the thing
      Chapter III Of the right of accession to what unites or incorporates itself to the thing
        Section I Of the right of accession concerning immoveables
        Section II Of the right of accession concerning moveable things
    Title III Of usufruct, use and habitation
      Chapter I Of usufruct
        Section I General definitions
        Section II Of the rights of the usufructuary
        Section III Of the obligations of the usufructuary
        Section IV Of the obligations of the owner
        Section V How usufruct expires
      Chapter II Of the use and habitation
    Title IV Of predial services or services of land
      Chapter I General principles
      Chapter II Of services which originate from the natural situation of the place
      Chapter III Of services imposed by law
        Section I Of walls, fences, and ditches in common
        Section II Of the distance and of the intermediary works required for certain buildings
        Section III Of lights on the property of a neighbor
        Section IV Of the manner of carrying off rain from the roof
        Section V Of the right of passage
      Chapter IV Of services established by the act of man
        Section I Of the different kinds of services which may be established by the act of man
        Section II How services are acquired
        Section III Of the rights of the proprietor of the estate to which the service is due
        Section IV How Services are extinguished
Book III Of the different manners of acquiring the property of things
    Preliminary title General dispositions
    Title I Of successions
      Chapter I Of the different sorts of successions and heirs
      Chapter II Of legal successions
        Section I General rules
        Section II Of the succession of descendants
        Section III Of the succession of ascendants
        Section IV Of the succession of collaterals
      Chapter III Of irregular successions
      Chapter IV In what manner successions are opened
      Chapter V Of the incapacity and unworthiness of the heirs
      Chapter VI In what manner a succession is accepted and how it is renounced
        Section I Of the acceptance pure and simple
        Section II Of the acceptance of a succession with the benefit of an inventory
      Chapter VII Of the administration of vacant estates and estates ab intestato
      Chapter VIII Of partition among heirs and of the collation of goods
        Section I Of the nature of partition and in what manner it is made
        Section II Of the collation of goods
        Section III Of the payment of debts
        Section IV Of the effect of partition and of its rescision
    Title II Of donations inter vivos (between living persons) and mortis causa (in prospect of death)
      Chapter I General dispositions
      Chapter II Of the capacity necessary for disposing of and receiving by donation inter vivos or mortis causa
      Chapter III Of the portion disposable, and of its reduction in case of excess
        Section I Of the disposable portion and the legitime
        Section II Of the reduction of dispositions inter vivos or mortis causa; of the manner in which it is made and of its effects
      Chapter IV Of dispositions reprobated by the law in donations inter vivos and mortis causa
      Chapter V Of donations inter vivos (between living)
        Section I Of the irrevocability of donations inter vivos
        Section II Of the form of donations inter vivos
        Section III Of the exceptions to the rule of the irrevocability of donations inter vivos
      Chapter VI Of dispositions mortis causa (in the prospect of death)
        Section I Of testament or codicil
        Section II Of the form of testaments and codicils
        Section III Of testamentary dispositions
        Section IV Of the institution of heir and of disinherison
        Section V Of legacies
        Section VI Of the opening and the proof of wills, and of testamentary executions
        Section VII Of the revocation of testaments and codicils and of their caducity
        Section VIII Of the interpretation of testamentary dispositions
      Chapter VII Of partitions made by parents among their descendants
      Chapter VIII Of donations made by marriage contract to the husband or wife, and to the children to be born of the marriage
      Chapter IX Of donations between married persons, either by marriage contract, or during the marriage
    Title III Of contracts and of conventional obligations in general
      Chapter I Preliminary dispositions
      Chapter II Of the conditions essential to the validity of agreements
        Section I Of consent
        Section II Of the capability of the parties contracting
        Section III Of the object and the matter of contracts
        Section IV Of the cause
      Chapter III Of the effect of obligations
        Section I General dispositions
        Section II Of the obligation of giving
        Section III Of the obligations of doing or of not doing
        Section IV Of the damages resulting from the non execution of the obligation
        Section V Of the interpretation of the agreements
        Section VI Of the effect of agreements with regard to persons not parties to them
      Chapter IV Of the different kinds of obligations
        Section I Of conditional obligations
          § 1 Of the condition in general and of its different kinds
          § 2 Of the suspensive condition
          § 3 Of the dissolving condition
        Section II Of obligations to be performed at a certain term
        Section III Of the alternative obligations
        Section IV Of obligations in solido or jointly and severally
          § 1 Of the obligation in solido between creditors
          § 2 Of the obligation in solido on the part of debtors
        Section V Of obligations divisible and indivisible
          § 1 Of the effects of a divisible obligation
          § 2 Of the effect of the indivisible obligation
        Section VI Of obligations with penal clauses
      Chapter V Of the extinction of obligations
        Section I Of payment
          § 1 Of payment in general
          § 2 Of payment with subrogation
          § 3 Of the imputation of payments
          § 4 Of tenders of payment, and consignment
          § 5 Of the surrender of property
        Section II Of novation
        Section III Of the remission of the debt
        Section IV Of compensation
        Section V Of confusion
        Section VI Of the loss of the thing due
        Section VII Of the action of nullity or of rescission of agreements
      Chapter VI Of the proof of obligations and of that of payment
        Section I Of the literal proof
          § 1 Of the authentic title
          § 2 Of the acts under private signature
          § 3 Of copies of titles
          § 4 Of recognitive and confirmative acts
        Section II Of testimonial proof
        Section III Of presumptions
          § 1 Of presumptions established by law
          § 2 Of presumption not established by law
        Section IV Of the confession of the party
        Section V Of the proof by oath
    Title IV Of engagements formed without agreements, or of quasi contracts and quasi offences
      Section I Of the quasi contract
      Section II Of quasi crimes or offences
    Title V Of marriage contract
      Chapter I General dispositions
      Chapter II Of the various kinds of matrimonial agreements
        Section I Of donations made in consideration of marriage
        Section II Of dowry or marriage portion
        Section III Of paraphernalia or extra dotal effects
        Section IV Of the partnership or community of acquests or gains
      Chapter III Of the separation of property
    Title VI Of sale
      Chapter I Of the nature and form of the contract of sale, and of the manner in which it is to be performed
      Chapter II Of persons capable of buying and selling, and of things which may be sold
      Chapter III Of the obligations of the seller
        Section I Of the tradition or delivery of the thing sold
        Section II Of the warranty, in case of eviction of the thing sold
        Section III Of the warranty of the defects of the thing sold or of the redhibitory vices
      Chapter IV Of the obligations of the buyer
      Chapter V Of the nullity and rescissions of the sale
        Section I Of the power or right of redemption
        Section II Of the rescission of sales on account of lesion
      Chapter VI Of sales by cant or auction
      Chapter VII Of the assignment or transfer of debts and other incorporeal rights
    Title VII Of exchange
    Title VIII Of letting and hiring
      Chapter I Of the several species of contracts for letting and hiring
      Chapter II Of the contract for letting out things
        Section I Of the form and duration of leases
        Section II Of the obligations of the lessor
        Section III Of the obligations of the lessee
        Section IV Of the dissolution of leases
      Chapter III Of the letting out of labour or industry
        Section I Of the hiring of servants and workmen
        Section II Of carriers and watermen
        Section III Of plots for buildings and other works
    Title IX Of partnership
      Chapter I General dispositions
      Chapter II Of the various kinds of partnerships
      Chapter III Of the obligations of partners towards each other, and towards third persons
        Section I Of the obligations of partners towards each other
        Section II Of the obligations of partners towards third persons
      Chapter IV Of the different manners in which partnerships end
    Title X Of loan
      Chapter I Of the loan for use or commodatum
        Section I Of the nature of the loan for use
        Section II Of the engagements of the borrower for use
        Section III Of the engagements of the lender for use
      Chapter II Of the loan for consumption or mutuum
        Section I Of the nature of the loan for consumption
        Section II Of the obligations of the lender for consumption
        Section III Of the engagements of the borrower for consumption
      Chapter III Of loan on interest
    Title XI Of deposit and sequestration
      Chapter I Of deposit in general and of its divers kinds
      Chapter II Of the deposit properly so called
        Section I Of the nature and essence of the contract of deposit
        Section II Of the obligations of the depository
        Section III Of the obligations of him by whom the deposit has been made
        Section IV Of the necessary deposit
      Chapter III Of sequestration
        Section I Of its different species
        Section II Of the conventional sequestration
        Section III Of the judicial sequestration or deposit
    Title XII Of aleatory contracts
    Title XIII Of mandate or commission
      Chapter I Of the nature of proxies, mandates and commissions
      Chapter II What persons may be appointed attornies in fact
      Chapter III Of the obligations of a person acting under a power of attorney
      Chapter IV Of the obligations of the principal who acts by his attorney in fact
      Chapter V How the procuration expires
    Title XIV Of suretyship
      Chapter I Of the nature and extent of suretyship
      Chapter II Of the effects of suretyship
        Section I Of the effects of suretyship between the creditor and the surety
        Section II Of the effects of suretyship between the debtor and the surety
        Section III Respecting the effects of suretyship between the sureties
      Chapter III Of the extinction of suretyship
      Chapter IV Of the legal and judicial sureties
    Title XV Of transactions
    Title XVI Of respite
    Title XVII Of compromises or arbitration
    Title XVIII Of pledge
    Title XIX Of privileges and mortgages
      Chapter I Of the nature of a mortgage and of its several sorts
      Chapter II Who may mortgage and what thing may be mortgaged
      Chapter III Of the effects of mortgage
        Section I Of the effects of mortgage with regard to the debtor
        Section II Of the effects of mortgages against third possessors and of the action of mortgage
        Section III Of the registering of mortgages and of the register kept for that purpose
      Chapter IV Of the order of privileges and mortgages
        Section I Of the preference and order of privileges
      Chapter V How privileges or mortgages expire or are extinguished
    Title XX Of occupancy, possession and prescription
      Chapter I Of occupancy
      Chapter II Of possession
      Chapter III Of prescription
        Section I Of the possession required to establish prescription
        Section II Of the causes which suspend or interrupt prescriptions
        Section III Of the several species of prescription
    Title XXI Of the title by judgment or seizure
Index
Manuscript index
Manuscript index Part 2

CHAPTER VIII - OF PARTITION AMONG HEIRS AND OF THE COLLATION OF GOODS

 

SECTION I - OF THE NATURE OF PARTITION AND IN WHAT MANNER IT IS MADE

Art. 155. When a person deceased has left in this territory some property to be inherited by several heirs testamentary or legal or others, such heirs are seized of that estate and become proprietors and possessors of the same, each for his individual share, so that a community of property is formed between them.

Art. 156. None of the co-heirs or co-proprietors of an undivided thing or estate, can be obligated to remain always in that state: thus any of the said co-heirs or co-proprietors of age or minors, can compel the others to a partition of the estate which they possess jointly, whatever be the lapse of time during which the joint tenancy may have lasted; and that right is exercised by what is called the action of partition.

Art. 157. The partition is the separation, division or distribution which is made of a thing common to several co-proprietors or co-heirs who enjoyed the same undividedly.

Art. 158. Every partition is either definitive or provisional; definitive partition is that which is made in a stable and irrevocable manner.
Provisional partition is that which is made provisionally of certain things before the rest can be partaken; and even of every thing that is to be partaken, when the parties are not in a situation to make an irrevocable partition.

Art. 159. The partition may be required notwithstanding any convention to the contrary, because such convention being contrary to the nature of the community of property, cannot be valid.

Art. 160. The partition can be claimed even though one of the co-heirs should have enjoyed separately some part of the estate, if there has been no act of partition, nor a possession sufficient to acquire prescription.

Art. 161. There is no occasion for partition if the deceased has regulated it between his lawful heirs or strangers; and in such case the judge must follow the will of the testator.
The same thing takes place where the testator has assigned the paternal legal portion of his children upon distinct parts of the estate.

Art. 162. The partition is considered as containing alienation and sale. 
From whence it follows, that to exercise the action of partition in behalf of minors or persons interdicted, it is necessary that their tutors or curators be authorised thereto by the judge, upon the advice of a family meeting, as it is prescribed for the sale of their goods.

Art. 163. A husband may, without the co-operation of his wife, compel her co-heirs to the partition of the moveable property of the succession accruing to her, and be compelled himself to it, as being the master of the personal actions of his wife.
But he cannot without his wife, solicit the final partition of the immoveables accruing to her; he may only when he has a right to the enjoyment of said property by the effect of his marriage, ask the provisional partition of it.
The co-heirs of the wife, when they wish to compel her to a final partition, must sue the husband and wife jointly.

Art. 164. Not only the co-heir himself, but the heirs of that co-heir, and any other successor, can compel and be compelled to the partition of the estate.

Art. 165. The partition is made by forming several lots proportioned to the right that each co-proprietor has in the thing.
That partition can be made amicably or judicially.

Art. 166. When all the co-heirs of a succession are of age and present, or duly represented in the territory, they are at liberty to make their partition amicably in such form as they please, if they agree among themselves.
But if they do not agree as to the mode or form of their partition, or if there is among the co-heirs, some minor, interdicted or absent heir, the partition shall be made judicially, with the formalities hereafter prescribed.

Art. 167. All judicial partitions must be preceded by a faithful and exact appraisement of the moveables, immoveables, and other objects to be partaken, which appraisement shall be executed by experts appointed to that effect by the judge ex officio, and duly sworn by the public officer charged with the recording of the proces verbal of appraisement of said experts.

Art. 168. The proces verbal of the experts must set forth the things and their value; it must express whether the object appraised can be conveniently partaken, and in what manner, and finally fix, in case of variance, each of the lots that can be formed out of the whole, and their value.

Art. 169. At the time of executing the said proces verbal, the creditors of the succession may come forward and form any opposition they may think fit for the preservation of their rights.

Art. 170. Each of the co-heirs may demand his share in nature of the moveables and immoveables of the succession, but if there are creditors who have made any attachment or opposition, or if a majority of the co-heirs are of opinion that the sale is necessary in order to satisfy the debts and charges of the succession, the moveables shall be sold at public auction after the usual advertisements.

Art. 171. When things are by their nature indivisible, or when they cannot conveniently be partaken, their sale must be proceeded by cant or licitation.

Art. 172. Cant or licitation is the act by which an immoveable which is common to several persons, and cannot be partaken conveniently, is adjudged to one of them, or to some other person.

Art. 173. The right to a cant or licitation is always impliedly included in the action of partition, that is to say, that if the partition of the thing itself cannot be made conveniently, it shall be a matter of course to order the cant or licitation.  Thus, for ordering the cant of a tenement or other immoveable, there needs not be a physical impossibility to divide it, it suffices that such division may cause inconvenience or loss to any of the co-heirs or co-proprietors.

Art. 174. The cant or licitation is not a sale; it is a mode of partaking, one of the effects of the action of partition of a thing held in common; it is the complement of the partition.

Art. 175. The cant or licitation after it is ordered, may be made amicably, and in such manner as the heirs may think fit, if they are all of age, and present in the territory, or duly represented therein, and if they agree upon the subject.
But if one of them refuses, or is under age, interdicted or absent, the cant or licitation then cannot take place but at a public sale, and after the usual advertisements.

Art. 176. After the moveables and immoveables to be partaken have been appraised and sold, if the case require it, the judge sends the parties before a notary to proceed to the partition.

Art. 177. The notary charged with the partition, first proceeds to form the mass of the estate, that is to say a full account of the objects which are to be partaken, of their value and of the charges which must be first deducted or divided among the heirs. That account is generally found by means of the inventory, if any has been made.
The notary proceeds likewise to the liquidation of the accounts which the co-parceners may have among themselves.

Art. 178. The said mass must also include the collations which each co-parcener may have to collate, conformable to the rules hereafter prescribed, for gifts so made to him, or debts by him due; and likewise the contingent property which may be among the estate.
Such doubtful property may be partaken or remain undivided for the joint account of the heirs, to be recovered by one or all of them, as they may agree.

Art. 179. If the collation is not made of the thing in nature, the co-heirs to whom it is due, take previously out of the mass of the estate, a portion equal to it.
Such previous recoveries must be made, as much as possible, upon objects of the same nature, quality and goodnes, as those which are not collated in nature, as aforesaid.

Art. 180. The mass and previous recoveries must be immediately followed by an account of all the lots; and each lot separately must itself contain a precise and clear statement of the objects composing the same.

Art. 181. There must be as many lots as there are heirs partaking by heads.
If several heirs come by right of representation, they shall be entitled to one lot only for the root which they represent, saving to them the faculty of subdividing each lot among themselves.

Art. 182. In the formation and composition of the lots, care must be taken to avoid as much as possible, the cantling of tenements and the division of cultures.
And it is convenient to include, if possible, in each lot, the same quantity of moveables, immoveables, rights and credits of the same nature and value.

Art. 183. When the lots are of unequal value, such inequality is compensated by means of a return of money, which the co-heir having a lot of more value than the other, pays to his co-heirs.

Art. 184. The lots are formed by skillful persons chosen to that effect, and sworn by the notary charged with the partition and distribution of the lost, and they are drawn among the co-heirs.

Art. 185. Before the drawing of the lots, each co-parcener is admitted to set forth his objections against their composition. In case there should occur any such or such like objections in the partitions referred to a notary, as aforesaid, it shall be the duty of such notary to suspend his proceedings; and after having reduced to writing the difficulties and pretensions of the parties, to send them before a judge for his decision.

Art. 186. If in a partition there are several minors having the same tutor or curator, it shall be necessary on account of their opposite interests, to appoint to each of them a special tutor or curator whose functions shall end with the partition.

Art. 187. The rules established for the division of masses to be partaken, are equally applicable to the subdivisions to be made between the individual co-parceners of a root.

Art. 188. Partitions made agreeably to the above rules, by tutors or curators of minors, interdicted or absent persons, are definitive, but they are only provisional, if the said rules have not been observed.

Art. 189. After the partition, delivery must be made to each of the co-parceners, of the title particular to the objects fallen to his share.
The titles of a divided property remain in the possession of the heir who has the most considerable part of it, with the obligation of assisting his co-parceners with them when required.
Titles common to the whole inheritance, shall be delivered to the person chosen by all the heirs to be the depository of them, on condition to assist them with the said documents, as often as required.
If they should not agree on that choice, such deposition shall be appointed by the judge.

Art. 190. If after the partition, a discovery should be made of some property not included in it, the partition must be amended or made over again, either in totality or of the discovered property alone.

Art. 191. If after the partition an heir should happen to come whose death had been presumed, on account of his long absence, or whose right was not known; as if a second testament unseen until then, should entitle him to inherit with the others, the first partition would be annulled and it would be necessary to make another with him of all the property remaining in nature, and of the value of whatever might have been consumed or alienated, in order that he should have the share which he was entitled to, upon the whole.

CHAPITRE VIII - DES PARTAGES ENTRE HÉRITIERS, ET DES RAPPORTS

 

SECTION I - DE LA NATURE DU PARTAGE, ET DE QUELLE MANIÈRE IL S'OPÈRE

Art. 155. Lorsque quelqu'un décède laissant en ce territoire, des biens auxquels succèdent plusieurs héritiers, soit testamentaires, soit légitimes, ou autres, ces héritiers sont saisis de ces biens et en deviennent propriétaires et possesseurs, chacun pour leur portion indivise, ce qui forme entre eux une communauté de biens.

Art. 156. Nul co-héritier our co-propriétaire par indivis d'une chose ou d'une succession, ne peut être tenu de rester toujours dans l'indivision, et chacun desdits co-héritiers ou co-propriétaires, soit majeurs ou mineurs, peut obliger les autres co-héritiers ou co-propriétaires à venir à partage des biens communs entre eux, quelque tems que cette indivision ait duré auparavant: et cette faculté s'exerce par ce qu'on appelle l'action de partage.

Art. 157. Le partage est la séparation, division et distribution qui se fait d'une chose commune entre plusieurs co-propriétaires ou co-héritiers qui en jouissaient par indivis.

Art. 158. Tout partage est définitif ou provisionnel.
Le partage définitive est celui qui est fait à demeure et irrévocablement.
Le partage provisionnel est celui que l'on fait provisoirement, soit de certaines choses, en attendant qu'on puisse partager le surplus, ou même de tout ce qui est à partager, lorsqu'on n'est pas en état d'en faire un partage irrévocable.

Art. 159. Le partage peut être demandé, quelque convention qui ait été faite de ne point le demander, car cette convention étant contraire à la nature de la communauté de biens, ne peut être valable.

Art. 160. Le partage peut être demandé même quand l'un des co-héritiers aurait joui séparément de partie des biens de la succession, s'il n'y a eu un acte de partage, ou une possession suffisante pour acquérir la prescription.

Art. 161. Il n'y a pas lieu à partage, si le défunt l'a réglé entre ses héritiers légitimes ou étrangers, et à cet égard, le juge doit suivre la volonté du défunt.
Il en est de même, si le testateur a indiqué la légitime paternelle de ses enfans, à prendre sur une ou diverses espéces de biens.

Art. 162. Le partage est regardé comme contenant aliénation et vente.
Delà il suit que lorsqu'il s'agit d'exercer, de la part des mineurs ou interdits, l'action de partage, leurs tuteurs ou curateurs doivent y être autorisés par le juge, sur l'avis de l'assemblée de famille, ainsi qu'il est prescrit pour la vente de leurs biens.

Art. 163. Un mari peut, sans sa femme, provoquer les co-héritiers de sa dite femme, au partage des meubles de la succession à elle échue, et y être provoqué: car il est le maître des actions mobiliaires de sa femme.
Mais il ne peut, sans sa femme, provoquer à un partage définitif des immeubles d'une succession à elle échue; il peut seulement, lorsqu'il a le droit de jouir desdits, biens par l'effet de son mariage, en demander un partage provisionnel.
Les co-héritiers de la femme ne peuvent provoquer le partage définitif qu'en mettant en cause le mari et la femme.

Art. 164. Non-seulement le co-héritier lui-même, mais aussi les héritiers de ce co-héritier et ses autres successeurs peuvent provoquer au partage de la succession et y être provoqués.

Art. 165. Le partage se fait en formant différens lots proportionnés au droit que chacun a dans la chose.
On peut faire cette opération à l'amiable ou par justice.

Art. 166. Lorsque tous les héritiers d'une succession sont majeurs et présens, ou valablement représentés dans le territoire, ils peuvent faire leur partage, à l'amiable et dans telle forme qu'il leur plaît s'ils en sont d'accord entre eux.
Mais s'ils ne sont pas d'accord sur le mode ou la forme du partage, ou s'il y a parmi les héritiers, quelque héritier mineur, interdit ou absent, le partage devra se faire par voie de justice, suivant les formalités qui seront ci-après prescrites.

Art. 167. Tout partage en justice, doit être précédé d'une estimation fidèle et exacte des meubles et immeubles et autres objets à partager, faite par des experts nommés à cet effet, d'office par le juge et dûment assermentés par l'officier public chargé de diriger le procès verbal d'estimation desdits experts.

Art. 168. Le procès verbal des experts doit présenter les bases de l'estimation; il doit indiquer si l'objet estimé peut être commodément partagé, de quelle manière, et fixer enfin, en cas de division, chacune des parts qu'on en peut former et leur valeur.

Art. 169. Lors de ce procès verbal, les créanciers de la succession peu vent se présenter et faire, pour la conservation de leurs droits, toute opposition que bon leur semblera.

Art. 170. Chacun des co-héritiers peut demander sa part en nature des meubles et immeubles de la succession: néanmoins s'il y a des créanciers saisissans ou opposans, ou si la majorité des co-héritiers juge la vente nécessaire pour l'acquit des dettes et charges de la succession, les meubles seront vendus à l'enchère publique après les avertissemens d'usage.

Art. 171. Quand les choses sont indivisibles de leur nature, ou qu'elles ne peuvent commodément se partager, il doit être procédé à leur vente par licitation.

Art. 172. La licitation est l'acte par lequel, un immeuble commun à plusieurs personnes et qui ne peut se partager commodément, est adjugé à l'un d'entre eux, ou même à un étranger.

Art. 173. La licitation est toujours sous-entendue dans la demande à fin de partage; c'est à-dire, que si le partage ne peut se faire commodément, ce sera une suite nécessaire d'ordonner la licitation.
Ainsi, pour ordonner la licitation d'un héritage ou autre immeuble, il n'est pas nécessaire qu'il y ait impossibilité physique de le partager: il suffit qu'en le partageant, il y ait de l'incommodité ou de la perte pour quelqu'un des co-héritiers ou co-propriétaires.

Art. 174. La licitation n'est pas une vente, mais une manière de partager, un des effets de l'action de partage d'une chose commune: le complément du partage.

Art. 175. La licitation, lorsqu'elle est ordonnée, peut se faire à l'amiable et de la manière que les héritiers jugent convenable, s'ils sont tous majeurs et présens ou valablement représentés dans le territoire, et s'ils sont tous d'accord à cet égard.
Mais si un seul d'entre eux s'y refuse, ou est mineur, interdit, ou absent, la licitation ne peut se faire qu'à l'enchère publique, après les avertissemens d'usage.

Art. 176. Après que les meubles et immeubles à partager, ont été estimés et vendus, s'il y a lieu, le juge renvoie les parties devant un notaire pour procéder au partage.

Art. 177. Le notaire chargé des partages, procède d'abord à la formation de la masse de la succession, c'est-à-dire, d'un état circonstancié des objets qui sont à partager, de leur valeur et des charges qu'il faut prélever ou partager entre les co-héritiers; ce détail se compose ordinairement en dépouillant, c'est-à-dire analysant l'inventaire, s'il y en a un de fait.
Le Notaire procède également aux comptes que les co-partageans peuvent se devoir entre eux.

Art. 178. Cette masse doit aussi contenir les rapports que chaque copartageant doit faire à la succession, suivant les règles qui seront ci-après établies, des dons qui lui ont été faits et des sommes dont il est débiteur, comme aussi les effets douteux qui se trouvent dans la succession.
Ces sortes d'effets peuvent être partagés ou rester en commun pour être recouvrés par une des parties ou par toutes, suivant qu'elles en conviennent.

Art. 179. Si le rapport n'est pas fait en nature, les co-héritiers à qui il est dû, prélèvent une portion égale sur la masse de la succession.
Les prélèvemens se font, autant que possible, en objets de même nature, qualité et bonté que les objets non rapportés en nature.

Art. 180. La masse et les prélèvemens doivent être suivis du détail de tous les lots, et chuque lot doit contenir lui-même un détail clair et précis des objets dont il est composé.

Art. 181. Il doit y avoir autant de lots qu'il y a d'héritiers partageans par tête. Si plusieurs héritiers viennent par représentation, ils n'ont qu'un seul lot pour la tête qu'ils représentent: sauf à le subdiviser entre eux.

Art. 182. Dans la formation et la composition des lots, on doit éviter, autant que possible, de morceler les héritages et de diviser les exploitations; et il convient de faire en rer dans chaque lot, s'il se peut, la même quantité de meubles, d'immeubles, de droits, ou de créances de même nature ou valeur.

Art. 183. Lorsque les lots sont inégaux en valeur, cette inégalité se compense par une soulte ou un retour que paye à ses co-héritiers, celui qui a un lot de plus grande valeur que les autres.

Art. 184. Les lots sont formés par des experts choisis à cet effet et assermentés par le notaire chargé du partage et de la distribution des lots lesquels sont tirés au sort entre les ce-héritiers.

Art. 185. Avant de procéder au tirage des lots, chaque co-partageant est admis à proposer ses réclamations contre leur formation.
Dans le cas où il y aurait de pareilles réclamations, ou autres semblables, dans les partages renvoyés à faire par-devant notaire, comme il est dit ci-dessus, le notaire devra surseoir à continuer son opération, et après avoir dressé procès-verbal des difficultés et des dires des parties, les renvoyer à y faire statuer par le juge qui aura ordonné l'opération.

Art. 186. Si, dans un partage, il y a plusieurs mineurs qui ayent le même tuteur ou curateur, comme ils se trouveront alors avoir des intérêts opposés, il leur sera nommé à chacun un tuteur ou curateur spécial et particulier, dont les fonctions se termineront avec le partage.

Art. 187. Les règles établies pour la division des masses à partager, sont également observées pour la subdivision à faire entre les souches co-partageantes.

Art. 188. Les partages faits, conformément aux règles ci-dessus prescrites, par les tuteurs ou curateurs des mineurs, des interdits ou des absens, sont définitifs: ils ne sont que provisionnels, si ces règles n'ont pas été observées.

Art. 189. Après le partage, remise doit être faite à chacun des co-partageans, des titres particuliers aux objets qui lui seront échus.
Les titres d'une propriété divisée restent à celui qui a la plus grande part, à la charge d'en aider ses co-partageans qui y auront intérêt, quand il en sera requis.
Les titres communs à toute l'hérédité, sont remis à celui que tous les héritiers ont choisi pour en être le dépositaire; à la charge d'en aider les co-partageans à toute réquisition; s'il y a difficulté sur ce choix, il sera réglé par le juge.

Art. 190. Si, depuis le partage, il paraissait des biens qu'on n'y eut pas compris, il serait reformé, ou bien il en serait fait un autre, soit du total ou de ces biens seuls.

Art. 191. S'il arrivait qu'après un partage, il survint un co-héritier dont la longue absence avait fait présumer la mort, ou de qui le droit était inconnu; comme, si un second testament qui n'avait pas paru l'appelait avec les autres à l'hérédité, ce premier partage serait annulé et il en faudrait faire un nouveau avec lui, de tous les biens qui seraient en nature et de la valeur de ceux qui auraient été consumés, afin qu'il eut du tout la part qu'il devait en avoir.

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