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Table of Contents

Cover Page
Preliminary title Of the general definitions of rights and the promulgation of the laws
    Chapter I Of law and customs
    Chapter II Of the publication of the laws
    Chapter III Of the effects of laws
    Chapter IV Of the application and construction of laws
    Chapter V Of the repeal of laws
Book I Of persons
    Title I Of the distinction of persons, and the privation of certain civil rights in certain cases
      Chapter I Of the distinction of persons established by nature
      Chapter II Of the distinctions of persons which are established by law
    Title II Of domicil and the manner of changing the same
    Title III Of absent persons
      Chapter I Of the curatorship of absent persons
      Chapter II Of the putting into provisional possession the heirs of the absentee
      Chapter III Of the effects of absence upon the eventual rights which may belong to the absentee
      Chapter IV Of the effects of absence respecting marriage
      Chapter V Of the care of minor children whose father has disappeared
    Title IV Of husband and wife
      Chapter I On marriage
      Chapter II How marriages may be contracted or made
      Chapter III Of the nullity of marriages
      Chapter IV Of the respective rights and duties of married persons
      Chapter V Of the dissolution of marriages
      Chapter VI Of second marriages
    Title V Of the separation from bed and board
      Chapter I Of the causes of separation from bed and board
      Chapter II Of the proceedings on separation from bed and board
      Chapter III Of the provisional proceedings to which a suit for separation may give occasion
      Chapter IV Of objections to the action of separation from bed and board
      Chapter V Of the effects of separation from bed and board
    Title VI Of master and servant
      Chapter I Of the several sorts of servants
      Chapter II Of free servants
      Chapter III Of slaves
    Title VII Of father and child
      Chapter I Of children in general
      Chapter II Of legitimate children
        Section I Of legitimacy resulting from marriage
        Section II Of the manner of proving the legitimate filiation
      Chapter III Of illegitimate children
        Section I Of legitimation
        Section II Of the acknowledgment of illegitimate children
      Chapter IV Of adoption
      Chapter V Of paternal authority
        Section I Of the duties of parents towards their legitimate children, and of the duties of legitimate children towards their parents
        Section II Of the duties of parents towards their natural children, and of the duties of natural children towards their parents
    Title VIII Of minors, of their tutorship, curatorship and emancipation
      Chapter I Of tutorship
        Section I General dispositions
        Section II Of tutorship by nature
        Section III Of tutorship by will
        Section IV Of the tutorship by the effect of the law
        Section V Of dative tutorship
        Section VI Of the under tutor
        Section VII Of the causes which dispense or excuse from the tutorship
        Section VIII Of incapacity for, exclusion from and deprivation of the tutorship
        Section IX Of the administration of the tutor
      Chapter II Of the curatorship of minors
      Chapter III Of emancipation
    Title IX Of persons insane, idiots, and other persons incapable of administering their estate
      Chapter I Of the interdiction and curatorship of persons incapable of administering their estate, whether on account of insanity or of some other infirmity
      Chapter II Of the other persons to whom curators are appointed
    Title X Of communities or corporations
      Chapter I Of the nature of communities or corporations, of their use and kind
      Chapter II Of the rights and privileges of communities or corporations and of their incapacities
      Chapter III Of the dissolution of communities or corporations
Book II Of things and of the different modifications of property
    Title I Of things or estates
      Chapter I Of the distinction of things or estates
      Chapter II Of immoveables
      Chapter III Of moveables
      Chapter IV Of estates considered in their relation to those who possess them
    Title II Of absolute ownership
      Chapter I Universal principles
      Chapter II Of the right of accession to what is produced by the thing
      Chapter III Of the right of accession to what unites or incorporates itself to the thing
        Section I Of the right of accession concerning immoveables
        Section II Of the right of accession concerning moveable things
    Title III Of usufruct, use and habitation
      Chapter I Of usufruct
        Section I General definitions
        Section II Of the rights of the usufructuary
        Section III Of the obligations of the usufructuary
        Section IV Of the obligations of the owner
        Section V How usufruct expires
      Chapter II Of the use and habitation
    Title IV Of predial services or services of land
      Chapter I General principles
      Chapter II Of services which originate from the natural situation of the place
      Chapter III Of services imposed by law
        Section I Of walls, fences, and ditches in common
        Section II Of the distance and of the intermediary works required for certain buildings
        Section III Of lights on the property of a neighbor
        Section IV Of the manner of carrying off rain from the roof
        Section V Of the right of passage
      Chapter IV Of services established by the act of man
        Section I Of the different kinds of services which may be established by the act of man
        Section II How services are acquired
        Section III Of the rights of the proprietor of the estate to which the service is due
        Section IV How Services are extinguished
Book III Of the different manners of acquiring the property of things
    Preliminary title General dispositions
    Title I Of successions
      Chapter I Of the different sorts of successions and heirs
      Chapter II Of legal successions
        Section I General rules
        Section II Of the succession of descendants
        Section III Of the succession of ascendants
        Section IV Of the succession of collaterals
      Chapter III Of irregular successions
      Chapter IV In what manner successions are opened
      Chapter V Of the incapacity and unworthiness of the heirs
      Chapter VI In what manner a succession is accepted and how it is renounced
        Section I Of the acceptance pure and simple
        Section II Of the acceptance of a succession with the benefit of an inventory
      Chapter VII Of the administration of vacant estates and estates ab intestato
      Chapter VIII Of partition among heirs and of the collation of goods
        Section I Of the nature of partition and in what manner it is made
        Section II Of the collation of goods
        Section III Of the payment of debts
        Section IV Of the effect of partition and of its rescision
    Title II Of donations inter vivos (between living persons) and mortis causa (in prospect of death)
      Chapter I General dispositions
      Chapter II Of the capacity necessary for disposing of and receiving by donation inter vivos or mortis causa
      Chapter III Of the portion disposable, and of its reduction in case of excess
        Section I Of the disposable portion and the legitime
        Section II Of the reduction of dispositions inter vivos or mortis causa; of the manner in which it is made and of its effects
      Chapter IV Of dispositions reprobated by the law in donations inter vivos and mortis causa
      Chapter V Of donations inter vivos (between living)
        Section I Of the irrevocability of donations inter vivos
        Section II Of the form of donations inter vivos
        Section III Of the exceptions to the rule of the irrevocability of donations inter vivos
      Chapter VI Of dispositions mortis causa (in the prospect of death)
        Section I Of testament or codicil
        Section II Of the form of testaments and codicils
        Section III Of testamentary dispositions
        Section IV Of the institution of heir and of disinherison
        Section V Of legacies
        Section VI Of the opening and the proof of wills, and of testamentary executions
        Section VII Of the revocation of testaments and codicils and of their caducity
        Section VIII Of the interpretation of testamentary dispositions
      Chapter VII Of partitions made by parents among their descendants
      Chapter VIII Of donations made by marriage contract to the husband or wife, and to the children to be born of the marriage
      Chapter IX Of donations between married persons, either by marriage contract, or during the marriage
    Title III Of contracts and of conventional obligations in general
      Chapter I Preliminary dispositions
      Chapter II Of the conditions essential to the validity of agreements
        Section I Of consent
        Section II Of the capability of the parties contracting
        Section III Of the object and the matter of contracts
        Section IV Of the cause
      Chapter III Of the effect of obligations
        Section I General dispositions
        Section II Of the obligation of giving
        Section III Of the obligations of doing or of not doing
        Section IV Of the damages resulting from the non execution of the obligation
        Section V Of the interpretation of the agreements
        Section VI Of the effect of agreements with regard to persons not parties to them
      Chapter IV Of the different kinds of obligations
        Section I Of conditional obligations
          § 1 Of the condition in general and of its different kinds
          § 2 Of the suspensive condition
          § 3 Of the dissolving condition
        Section II Of obligations to be performed at a certain term
        Section III Of the alternative obligations
        Section IV Of obligations in solido or jointly and severally
          § 1 Of the obligation in solido between creditors
          § 2 Of the obligation in solido on the part of debtors
        Section V Of obligations divisible and indivisible
          § 1 Of the effects of a divisible obligation
          § 2 Of the effect of the indivisible obligation
        Section VI Of obligations with penal clauses
      Chapter V Of the extinction of obligations
        Section I Of payment
          § 1 Of payment in general
          § 2 Of payment with subrogation
          § 3 Of the imputation of payments
          § 4 Of tenders of payment, and consignment
          § 5 Of the surrender of property
        Section II Of novation
        Section III Of the remission of the debt
        Section IV Of compensation
        Section V Of confusion
        Section VI Of the loss of the thing due
        Section VII Of the action of nullity or of rescission of agreements
      Chapter VI Of the proof of obligations and of that of payment
        Section I Of the literal proof
          § 1 Of the authentic title
          § 2 Of the acts under private signature
          § 3 Of copies of titles
          § 4 Of recognitive and confirmative acts
        Section II Of testimonial proof
        Section III Of presumptions
          § 1 Of presumptions established by law
          § 2 Of presumption not established by law
        Section IV Of the confession of the party
        Section V Of the proof by oath
    Title IV Of engagements formed without agreements, or of quasi contracts and quasi offences
      Section I Of the quasi contract
      Section II Of quasi crimes or offences
    Title V Of marriage contract
      Chapter I General dispositions
      Chapter II Of the various kinds of matrimonial agreements
        Section I Of donations made in consideration of marriage
        Section II Of dowry or marriage portion
        Section III Of paraphernalia or extra dotal effects
        Section IV Of the partnership or community of acquests or gains
      Chapter III Of the separation of property
    Title VI Of sale
      Chapter I Of the nature and form of the contract of sale, and of the manner in which it is to be performed
      Chapter II Of persons capable of buying and selling, and of things which may be sold
      Chapter III Of the obligations of the seller
        Section I Of the tradition or delivery of the thing sold
        Section II Of the warranty, in case of eviction of the thing sold
        Section III Of the warranty of the defects of the thing sold or of the redhibitory vices
      Chapter IV Of the obligations of the buyer
      Chapter V Of the nullity and rescissions of the sale
        Section I Of the power or right of redemption
        Section II Of the rescission of sales on account of lesion
      Chapter VI Of sales by cant or auction
      Chapter VII Of the assignment or transfer of debts and other incorporeal rights
    Title VII Of exchange
    Title VIII Of letting and hiring
      Chapter I Of the several species of contracts for letting and hiring
      Chapter II Of the contract for letting out things
        Section I Of the form and duration of leases
        Section II Of the obligations of the lessor
        Section III Of the obligations of the lessee
        Section IV Of the dissolution of leases
      Chapter III Of the letting out of labour or industry
        Section I Of the hiring of servants and workmen
        Section II Of carriers and watermen
        Section III Of plots for buildings and other works
    Title IX Of partnership
      Chapter I General dispositions
      Chapter II Of the various kinds of partnerships
      Chapter III Of the obligations of partners towards each other, and towards third persons
        Section I Of the obligations of partners towards each other
        Section II Of the obligations of partners towards third persons
      Chapter IV Of the different manners in which partnerships end
    Title X Of loan
      Chapter I Of the loan for use or commodatum
        Section I Of the nature of the loan for use
        Section II Of the engagements of the borrower for use
        Section III Of the engagements of the lender for use
      Chapter II Of the loan for consumption or mutuum
        Section I Of the nature of the loan for consumption
        Section II Of the obligations of the lender for consumption
        Section III Of the engagements of the borrower for consumption
      Chapter III Of loan on interest
    Title XI Of deposit and sequestration
      Chapter I Of deposit in general and of its divers kinds
      Chapter II Of the deposit properly so called
        Section I Of the nature and essence of the contract of deposit
        Section II Of the obligations of the depository
        Section III Of the obligations of him by whom the deposit has been made
        Section IV Of the necessary deposit
      Chapter III Of sequestration
        Section I Of its different species
        Section II Of the conventional sequestration
        Section III Of the judicial sequestration or deposit
    Title XII Of aleatory contracts
    Title XIII Of mandate or commission
      Chapter I Of the nature of proxies, mandates and commissions
      Chapter II What persons may be appointed attornies in fact
      Chapter III Of the obligations of a person acting under a power of attorney
      Chapter IV Of the obligations of the principal who acts by his attorney in fact
      Chapter V How the procuration expires
    Title XIV Of suretyship
      Chapter I Of the nature and extent of suretyship
      Chapter II Of the effects of suretyship
        Section I Of the effects of suretyship between the creditor and the surety
        Section II Of the effects of suretyship between the debtor and the surety
        Section III Respecting the effects of suretyship between the sureties
      Chapter III Of the extinction of suretyship
      Chapter IV Of the legal and judicial sureties
    Title XV Of transactions
    Title XVI Of respite
    Title XVII Of compromises or arbitration
    Title XVIII Of pledge
    Title XIX Of privileges and mortgages
      Chapter I Of the nature of a mortgage and of its several sorts
      Chapter II Who may mortgage and what thing may be mortgaged
      Chapter III Of the effects of mortgage
        Section I Of the effects of mortgage with regard to the debtor
        Section II Of the effects of mortgages against third possessors and of the action of mortgage
        Section III Of the registering of mortgages and of the register kept for that purpose
      Chapter IV Of the order of privileges and mortgages
        Section I Of the preference and order of privileges
      Chapter V How privileges or mortgages expire or are extinguished
    Title XX Of occupancy, possession and prescription
      Chapter I Of occupancy
      Chapter II Of possession
      Chapter III Of prescription
        Section I Of the possession required to establish prescription
        Section II Of the causes which suspend or interrupt prescriptions
        Section III Of the several species of prescription
    Title XXI Of the title by judgment or seizure
Manuscript index
Manuscript index Part 2




Art. 1. The property of things or goods is acquired.
1st,  By paternal power, this matter has been treated of in the title of father and child.
2d,  By successions.
3d,  By obligations resulting from contracts or covenants.
4th,  By obligations which result from the mere deed of the person without any covenant, such as quasi contracts or quasi offences.
5th,  By accession or incorporation; of this mention has been made in the title of property.
6th,  By occupancy and prescription.
7th,  By judgmnet or by seizure.





Art. 1. Hereditary succession is the manner in which the estate, rights and charges of the deceased, pass to other persons who replace them.

Art. 2. Succession signifies also the estate, rights and charges which a person leaves after his death, whether the property exceeds the charges or the charges exceed the property.

Art. 3. Finally succession signifies also that right by which the heir can take possession of the estate of the deceased, such as it may be.

Art. 4. There are three sorts of successions: to wit.
Testamentary successions;
Legal successions;
And, irregular successions.

Art. 5. Testamentary succession is that which results from an institution of heir, contained in a testament executed in the form prescribed by law. It is treated of this sort of succession under the title of donations inter vivos and mortis causa.

Art. 6. Legal succession is that which the law has established in favor of the nearest relation of the deceased.

Art. 7. Irregular succession is that which is established by law in favor of certain persons, or of the territory, in defect of heirs either legal or instituted by testament.
These two last sorts of successions are the objects of the present title.

Art. 8. The heir whatever be his quality whether legal or testamentary or otherwise, is the person who has become the universal successor of the deceased, possessed of all his property and rights, and held of the charges which that estate is subjected to.

Art. 9. The law does not take into consideration the origin nor the nature of the property in order to regulate the successions.





Art. 10. If there is no testament or institution of heir, or if the institution is null or without effect, the succession is then open in favor of the heirs legitimate by the mere operation of the law.

Art. 11. There are three classes of legal heirs, to wit:
The children and other lawful descendants.
The fathers and mothers and other lawful ascendants.
And the collateral kindred.

Art. 12. The nearest relation in the descending, ascending or collateral line, conformable to the rules hereafter established, is called to the legal succession.

Art. 13. The propinquity of consanguinity is established by the number of generations, and each generation is called a degree.

Art. 14. The series of degrees form the line, the series of degrees between persons who descend from one another, is called direct or lineal consanguinity; and the series of degrees between persons who do not descend from one another, but spring from a common ancestor, is called collateral line or collateral consanguinity.
The direct line is divided into direct line descending and direct line ascending. The first is that which connects the ancestor with those who descend from him; the second is that which connects a person with those from whom he descends.

Art. 15. In the direct line there are as many degrees as there are generations. Thus the son is, with regard to the father, in the first degree, the grand son in the second, and vice versa with regard to the father and grand father, towards the sons and grand sons.

Art. 16. In the collateral line the degrees are counted by the generations from one of the relatives up to the common ancestor exclusively, and from the common ancestor to the other relation.
Thus two brothers are related in the second degree; uncle and nephew, in the third degree; the cousins german, in the forth, and so on.

Art. 17. In matter of legal successions, no difference of sex, and no right of primogeniture are known; but they are regulated by the most perfect equality.

Art. 18. Representation is a fiction of the law, the effect of which is to put the representative in the place, degree, and rights of the represented.

Art. 19. Representation takes place ad infinitum in the direct descending line.
It is admitted in all cases, whether the children of the deceased concur with the descendants of a before deceased child, or whether all the children having died before him, the descendants of the said children be between them in equal or unequal degrees.

Art. 20. The representation does not take place in favor of the ascendants; the nearest relation in the degree always excluding those of a degree superior when more remote.

Art. 21. In the collateral line, a representation is admitted only in favor of the nephews or nieces, coming to the succession of their uncles and aunts, in place of their fathers or mothers before deceased.

Art. 22. Such representation has three principal effects in favor of the nephews or nieces coming to the succession of their uncles and aunts, to wit:
First, to make them participate to the said succession with the brothers and sisters of the deceased.
Secondly, to give them a preference in such succession over brothers of the half blood, when they are children of a brother or sister of the whole blood.
Thirdly, to give them a preference over the uncles or aunts of the deceased.

Art. 23. When representation takes place in the direct descending line, the partition is made by roots.  If the same root has produced several branches, the sub division is likewise made by roots in each branch, and the members of the same branch partake between them by heads. In the collateral line, on the contrary, the partition is not made by roots as aforesaid, except when the nephews or nieces by representation of their fathers or mothers before deceased, come to partake with the brothers or sisters of the deceased; but not so, when they have only to partake between them to the exclusion of other collaterals or otherwise.

Art. 24. Persons deceased only can be represented; persons alive cannot.

Art. 25. One can represent a person to the succession of whom he has renounced.
Thus it is not necessary that the children who succeed by representation, should have been heirs of their father or mother.  Although they should have renounced to their succession, they are nevertheless fit to represent them in the succession of their grand father or other ascendants.

Art. 26. When a person has been disinherited by his father or mother, his children cannot represent him in the succession of their grand father or other ascendants, if he is alive at the time of opening the succession; but they can represent him, if deceased before.




 La propriété des biens ou des choses s'acquiert:
1°. Par la puissance paternelle; il en a été traité au titre des Pères et des Enfans;
2°. Par succession;
3°. Par les obligations qui naissent des contrats ou conventions;
4°. Par les obligations qui résultent du seul fait de l'homme, sans convention, tels que les quasi contrats ou quasi délits;
. Par l'accession ou l'incorporation; il en a été traité au titre de la pleine propriété;
6°. Par l'occupation et la prescription;
7°. Par jugement ou par voie de saisie arrêt, ou saisie exécution.





Art. 1. Les successions sont les manières dont les biens, les droits et les charges des personnes qui meurent passent à d'autres personnes qui les remplacent.

Art. 2. On appelle aussi succession ou hérédité la masse des biens, des droits et des charges qu'une personne laisse après sa mort, soit que les biens excèdent les charges, soit que les charges excèdent les biens.

Art. 3. Enfin on appelle aussi hérédité ou succession, le droit qu'a l'héritier de recueillir les biens et les droits d'un défunt, tels qu'ils peuvent être.

Art. 4. Il y a trois sortes de succession; savoir:
La succession testametaire;
La succession légitime;
Et la succession irrégulière.

Art. 5. La succession testamentaire, est celle qui résulte d'un testament revêtu des formes prescrites par la loi; il est traité de cette succession au titre des donations entre vifs et pour cause de mort.

Art. 6. La succession légitime est celle que la loi établit en faveur des parens légitimes les plus proches du défunt.

Art. 7. Et la succession irrégulière est celle que la loi établit en faveur de certaines personnes, ou du territoire, à défaut d'héritiers légitimes ou institués.
Ces deux dernières espèces de succession sont l'objet du présent titre.

Art. 8. L'héritier quel qu'il soit, institué, légitime ou autre, s'entend de celui qui est le successeur universel de tous les biens et de tous les droits d'un défunt et qui est tenu des charges de ces mêmes biens.

Art. 9. La loi ne considère ni l'origine ni la nature des biens pour en régler la succession.





Art. 10. S'il n'y a pas d'institution d'héritier, ou si l'institution est nulle ou sans effet, la succession s'ouvre en faveur des héritiers légitimes par le seul effet de la loi.

Art. 11. Il y a trois ordres d'héritiers légitimes; savoir:
Les enfans et descendans légitimes;
Les pères et mères et autres descendans légitimes;
Et les collatéraux.

Art. 12. Le parent le plus proche dans les lignes descendante, ascendante ou collatérale, suivant les règles ci-après établies, est celui qui est appelé à la succession légitime du défunt.

Art. 13. La proximité de parenté s'etablit par le nombre de générations: chaque génération s'appelle un degré.

Art. 14. La suite des degrés forme la ligne.
On appelle ligne directe la suite des degrés entre personnes qui descendent l'une de l'autre, et ligne collatérate, la suite des degrés entre personnes qui ne descendent pas les unes des autres, mais qui descendent d'un auteur commun.
On distingue la ligne directe, en ligne directe descendante et ligne directe ascendante.
La première est celle qui lie le chef avec ceux qui descendent de lui; la deuxième est celle qui lie une personne avec ceux dont elle descend.

Art. 15. En ligne directe, on compte autant de degrés qu'il y a de générations entre les personnes; ainsi le fils est, à l'égard du père, au premier degré; le petit-fils au second, et réciproquement du père et de l' aïeul, à l'égard des fils et petit-fils.

Art. 16. En ligne collatérale, les degrés se comptent par les générations depuis l'un des parens jusque et non compris l'auteur commun, et depuis celui-ci jusqu'à l'autre parent.
Ainsi deux frères sont au deuxième degré; l'oncle et le neveu sont au troisième degré; les cousins germains au quatrième: ainsi de suite.

Art. 17. En matière de succession légitime, on ne connait ni différence de sexe ni de primogéniture: la plus parfaite égalité doit en être la base.

Art. 18. La représentation est une fiction de la loi, dont l'effet est de faire entrer les représentans dans la place, dans le degré et dans les droits du représenté.

Art. 19. La représentation a lieu à l'infini dans la ligne directe descendante.
Elle est admise dans tous les cas, soit que les enfans du défunt concourent avec les descendans d'un enfant prédécédé, soit que tous les enfans étant morts avant lui, les descendans desdits enfans se trouvent entre eux en degrés égaux ou inégaux.

Art. 20. La représentation n'a pas lieu en faveur des ascendans; le plus proche en degré, dans les lignes paternelle ou maternelle excluant toujours ceux d'un degré supérieur ou plus éloigné.

Art. 21. En collatérale, la représentation n'est admise qu'en faveur des seuls neveux et nièces venant à la succession de leurs oncles ou tantes, au lieu et place de leurs père et mère prédécédés.

Art. 22. Cette représentation a trois effets principaux en faveur des neveux ou nièces, venant à la succession de leurs oncles ou tantes; savoir:
Le premier, de les faire concourir dans ladite succession avec les frères et sœurs du défunt;
Le second, de leur donner la préférence dans cette succession, sur un frère ou une sœur consanguins ou utérins, lorsqu'ils sont enfans d'un frère germain ou d'une sœur germaine;
Et le troisième, de leur donner la préférence sur les oncles ou tantes du défunt.

Art. 23. Lorsque la représentation a lieu en ligne directe descendante, le partage s'opère par souche; si une même souche a produit plusieurs branches, la subdivision se fait aussi par souche dans chaque branche, et les membres de la même branche partagent entre eux par tètes.
Mais en collatérale, le partage ne se fait par souche, comme il est dit ci-dessus, que quand les neveux ou nièces, par représentation de leurs pères ou mères prédécédés, viennent réellement à partager avec les frères ou sœurs du défunt, mais non lorsqu'ils n'ont à partager qu'entre eux par exclusion d'autres collatéraux ou autrement.

Art. 24. On ne représente que les personnes décédées et non celles qui sont en vie.

Art. 25. On peut représenter celui à la succession duquel on a renoncé.
Ainsi il n'est pas nécessaire que les enfans qui succèdent par représentation, ayent été héritiers de leurs père ou mère. Quoiqu'ils ayent renoncé à leur succession, ils ne laissent pas de pouvoir les représenter en la succession de leur aïeul ou autres ascendans.

Art. 26. Lorsque quelqu'un a été exhérédé par son père ou sa mère, ou exclu de leur succession pour cause d'indignité, ses enfans ne peuvent le représenter dans la succession de leur aïeul ou autre ascendant, s'il est vivant, à l'instant de l'ouverture de la succession; mais ils peuvent le représenter valablement lorsqu'il est prédécédé.

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