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Table of Contents

Cover Page
Foreword
Abbreviations
Synopsis
Preliminary title Of the general definitions of rights and the promulgation of the laws
    Chapter I Of law and customs
    Chapter II Of the publication of the laws
    Chapter III Of the effects of laws
    Chapter IV Of the application and construction of laws
    Chapter V Of the repeal of laws
Book I Of persons
    Title I Of the distinction of persons, and the privation of certain civil rights in certain cases
      Chapter I Of the distinction of persons established by nature
      Chapter II Of the distinctions of persons which are established by law
    Title II Of domicil and the manner of changing the same
    Title III Of absent persons
      Chapter I Of the curatorship of absent persons
      Chapter II Of the putting into provisional possession the heirs of the absentee
      Chapter III Of the effects of absence upon the eventual rights which may belong to the absentee
      Chapter IV Of the effects of absence respecting marriage
      Chapter V Of the care of minor children whose father has disappeared
    Title IV Of husband and wife
      Chapter I On marriage
      Chapter II How marriages may be contracted or made
      Chapter III Of the nullity of marriages
      Chapter IV Of the respective rights and duties of married persons
      Chapter V Of the dissolution of marriages
      Chapter VI Of second marriages
    Title V Of the separation from bed and board
      Chapter I Of the causes of separation from bed and board
      Chapter II Of the proceedings on separation from bed and board
      Chapter III Of the provisional proceedings to which a suit for separation may give occasion
      Chapter IV Of objections to the action of separation from bed and board
      Chapter V Of the effects of separation from bed and board
    Title VI Of master and servant
      Chapter I Of the several sorts of servants
      Chapter II Of free servants
      Chapter III Of slaves
    Title VII Of father and child
      Chapter I Of children in general
      Chapter II Of legitimate children
        Section I Of legitimacy resulting from marriage
        Section II Of the manner of proving the legitimate filiation
      Chapter III Of illegitimate children
        Section I Of legitimation
        Section II Of the acknowledgment of illegitimate children
      Chapter IV Of adoption
      Chapter V Of paternal authority
        Section I Of the duties of parents towards their legitimate children, and of the duties of legitimate children towards their parents
        Section II Of the duties of parents towards their natural children, and of the duties of natural children towards their parents
    Title VIII Of minors, of their tutorship, curatorship and emancipation
      Chapter I Of tutorship
        Section I General dispositions
        Section II Of tutorship by nature
        Section III Of tutorship by will
        Section IV Of the tutorship by the effect of the law
        Section V Of dative tutorship
        Section VI Of the under tutor
        Section VII Of the causes which dispense or excuse from the tutorship
        Section VIII Of incapacity for, exclusion from and deprivation of the tutorship
        Section IX Of the administration of the tutor
      Chapter II Of the curatorship of minors
      Chapter III Of emancipation
    Title IX Of persons insane, idiots, and other persons incapable of administering their estate
      Chapter I Of the interdiction and curatorship of persons incapable of administering their estate, whether on account of insanity or of some other infirmity
      Chapter II Of the other persons to whom curators are appointed
    Title X Of communities or corporations
      Chapter I Of the nature of communities or corporations, of their use and kind
      Chapter II Of the rights and privileges of communities or corporations and of their incapacities
      Chapter III Of the dissolution of communities or corporations
Book II Of things and of the different modifications of property
    Title I Of things or estates
      Chapter I Of the distinction of things or estates
      Chapter II Of immoveables
      Chapter III Of moveables
      Chapter IV Of estates considered in their relation to those who possess them
    Title II Of absolute ownership
      Chapter I Universal principles
      Chapter II Of the right of accession to what is produced by the thing
      Chapter III Of the right of accession to what unites or incorporates itself to the thing
        Section I Of the right of accession concerning immoveables
        Section II Of the right of accession concerning moveable things
    Title III Of usufruct, use and habitation
      Chapter I Of usufruct
        Section I General definitions
        Section II Of the rights of the usufructuary
        Section III Of the obligations of the usufructuary
        Section IV Of the obligations of the owner
        Section V How usufruct expires
      Chapter II Of the use and habitation
    Title IV Of predial services or services of land
      Chapter I General principles
      Chapter II Of services which originate from the natural situation of the place
      Chapter III Of services imposed by law
        Section I Of walls, fences, and ditches in common
        Section II Of the distance and of the intermediary works required for certain buildings
        Section III Of lights on the property of a neighbor
        Section IV Of the manner of carrying off rain from the roof
        Section V Of the right of passage
      Chapter IV Of services established by the act of man
        Section I Of the different kinds of services which may be established by the act of man
        Section II How services are acquired
        Section III Of the rights of the proprietor of the estate to which the service is due
        Section IV How Services are extinguished
Book III Of the different manners of acquiring the property of things
    Preliminary title General dispositions
    Title I Of successions
      Chapter I Of the different sorts of successions and heirs
      Chapter II Of legal successions
        Section I General rules
        Section II Of the succession of descendants
        Section III Of the succession of ascendants
        Section IV Of the succession of collaterals
      Chapter III Of irregular successions
      Chapter IV In what manner successions are opened
      Chapter V Of the incapacity and unworthiness of the heirs
      Chapter VI In what manner a succession is accepted and how it is renounced
        Section I Of the acceptance pure and simple
        Section II Of the acceptance of a succession with the benefit of an inventory
      Chapter VII Of the administration of vacant estates and estates ab intestato
      Chapter VIII Of partition among heirs and of the collation of goods
        Section I Of the nature of partition and in what manner it is made
        Section II Of the collation of goods
        Section III Of the payment of debts
        Section IV Of the effect of partition and of its rescision
    Title II Of donations inter vivos (between living persons) and mortis causa (in prospect of death)
      Chapter I General dispositions
      Chapter II Of the capacity necessary for disposing of and receiving by donation inter vivos or mortis causa
      Chapter III Of the portion disposable, and of its reduction in case of excess
        Section I Of the disposable portion and the legitime
        Section II Of the reduction of dispositions inter vivos or mortis causa; of the manner in which it is made and of its effects
      Chapter IV Of dispositions reprobated by the law in donations inter vivos and mortis causa
      Chapter V Of donations inter vivos (between living)
        Section I Of the irrevocability of donations inter vivos
        Section II Of the form of donations inter vivos
        Section III Of the exceptions to the rule of the irrevocability of donations inter vivos
      Chapter VI Of dispositions mortis causa (in the prospect of death)
        Section I Of testament or codicil
        Section II Of the form of testaments and codicils
        Section III Of testamentary dispositions
        Section IV Of the institution of heir and of disinherison
        Section V Of legacies
        Section VI Of the opening and the proof of wills, and of testamentary executions
        Section VII Of the revocation of testaments and codicils and of their caducity
        Section VIII Of the interpretation of testamentary dispositions
      Chapter VII Of partitions made by parents among their descendants
      Chapter VIII Of donations made by marriage contract to the husband or wife, and to the children to be born of the marriage
      Chapter IX Of donations between married persons, either by marriage contract, or during the marriage
    Title III Of contracts and of conventional obligations in general
      Chapter I Preliminary dispositions
      Chapter II Of the conditions essential to the validity of agreements
        Section I Of consent
        Section II Of the capability of the parties contracting
        Section III Of the object and the matter of contracts
        Section IV Of the cause
      Chapter III Of the effect of obligations
        Section I General dispositions
        Section II Of the obligation of giving
        Section III Of the obligations of doing or of not doing
        Section IV Of the damages resulting from the non execution of the obligation
        Section V Of the interpretation of the agreements
        Section VI Of the effect of agreements with regard to persons not parties to them
      Chapter IV Of the different kinds of obligations
        Section I Of conditional obligations
          § 1 Of the condition in general and of its different kinds
          § 2 Of the suspensive condition
          § 3 Of the dissolving condition
        Section II Of obligations to be performed at a certain term
        Section III Of the alternative obligations
        Section IV Of obligations in solido or jointly and severally
          § 1 Of the obligation in solido between creditors
          § 2 Of the obligation in solido on the part of debtors
        Section V Of obligations divisible and indivisible
          § 1 Of the effects of a divisible obligation
          § 2 Of the effect of the indivisible obligation
        Section VI Of obligations with penal clauses
      Chapter V Of the extinction of obligations
        Section I Of payment
          § 1 Of payment in general
          § 2 Of payment with subrogation
          § 3 Of the imputation of payments
          § 4 Of tenders of payment, and consignment
          § 5 Of the surrender of property
        Section II Of novation
        Section III Of the remission of the debt
        Section IV Of compensation
        Section V Of confusion
        Section VI Of the loss of the thing due
        Section VII Of the action of nullity or of rescission of agreements
      Chapter VI Of the proof of obligations and of that of payment
        Section I Of the literal proof
          § 1 Of the authentic title
          § 2 Of the acts under private signature
          § 3 Of copies of titles
          § 4 Of recognitive and confirmative acts
        Section II Of testimonial proof
        Section III Of presumptions
          § 1 Of presumptions established by law
          § 2 Of presumption not established by law
        Section IV Of the confession of the party
        Section V Of the proof by oath
    Title IV Of engagements formed without agreements, or of quasi contracts and quasi offences
      Section I Of the quasi contract
      Section II Of quasi crimes or offences
    Title V Of marriage contract
      Chapter I General dispositions
      Chapter II Of the various kinds of matrimonial agreements
        Section I Of donations made in consideration of marriage
        Section II Of dowry or marriage portion
        Section III Of paraphernalia or extra dotal effects
        Section IV Of the partnership or community of acquests or gains
      Chapter III Of the separation of property
    Title VI Of sale
      Chapter I Of the nature and form of the contract of sale, and of the manner in which it is to be performed
      Chapter II Of persons capable of buying and selling, and of things which may be sold
      Chapter III Of the obligations of the seller
        Section I Of the tradition or delivery of the thing sold
        Section II Of the warranty, in case of eviction of the thing sold
        Section III Of the warranty of the defects of the thing sold or of the redhibitory vices
      Chapter IV Of the obligations of the buyer
      Chapter V Of the nullity and rescissions of the sale
        Section I Of the power or right of redemption
        Section II Of the rescission of sales on account of lesion
      Chapter VI Of sales by cant or auction
      Chapter VII Of the assignment or transfer of debts and other incorporeal rights
    Title VII Of exchange
    Title VIII Of letting and hiring
      Chapter I Of the several species of contracts for letting and hiring
      Chapter II Of the contract for letting out things
        Section I Of the form and duration of leases
        Section II Of the obligations of the lessor
        Section III Of the obligations of the lessee
        Section IV Of the dissolution of leases
      Chapter III Of the letting out of labour or industry
        Section I Of the hiring of servants and workmen
        Section II Of carriers and watermen
        Section III Of plots for buildings and other works
    Title IX Of partnership
      Chapter I General dispositions
      Chapter II Of the various kinds of partnerships
      Chapter III Of the obligations of partners towards each other, and towards third persons
        Section I Of the obligations of partners towards each other
        Section II Of the obligations of partners towards third persons
      Chapter IV Of the different manners in which partnerships end
    Title X Of loan
      Chapter I Of the loan for use or commodatum
        Section I Of the nature of the loan for use
        Section II Of the engagements of the borrower for use
        Section III Of the engagements of the lender for use
      Chapter II Of the loan for consumption or mutuum
        Section I Of the nature of the loan for consumption
        Section II Of the obligations of the lender for consumption
        Section III Of the engagements of the borrower for consumption
      Chapter III Of loan on interest
    Title XI Of deposit and sequestration
      Chapter I Of deposit in general and of its divers kinds
      Chapter II Of the deposit properly so called
        Section I Of the nature and essence of the contract of deposit
        Section II Of the obligations of the depository
        Section III Of the obligations of him by whom the deposit has been made
        Section IV Of the necessary deposit
      Chapter III Of sequestration
        Section I Of its different species
        Section II Of the conventional sequestration
        Section III Of the judicial sequestration or deposit
    Title XII Of aleatory contracts
    Title XIII Of mandate or commission
      Chapter I Of the nature of proxies, mandates and commissions
      Chapter II What persons may be appointed attornies in fact
      Chapter III Of the obligations of a person acting under a power of attorney
      Chapter IV Of the obligations of the principal who acts by his attorney in fact
      Chapter V How the procuration expires
    Title XIV Of suretyship
      Chapter I Of the nature and extent of suretyship
      Chapter II Of the effects of suretyship
        Section I Of the effects of suretyship between the creditor and the surety
        Section II Of the effects of suretyship between the debtor and the surety
        Section III Respecting the effects of suretyship between the sureties
      Chapter III Of the extinction of suretyship
      Chapter IV Of the legal and judicial sureties
    Title XV Of transactions
    Title XVI Of respite
    Title XVII Of compromises or arbitration
    Title XVIII Of pledge
    Title XIX Of privileges and mortgages
      Chapter I Of the nature of a mortgage and of its several sorts
      Chapter II Who may mortgage and what thing may be mortgaged
      Chapter III Of the effects of mortgage
        Section I Of the effects of mortgage with regard to the debtor
        Section II Of the effects of mortgages against third possessors and of the action of mortgage
        Section III Of the registering of mortgages and of the register kept for that purpose
      Chapter IV Of the order of privileges and mortgages
        Section I Of the preference and order of privileges
      Chapter V How privileges or mortgages expire or are extinguished
    Title XX Of occupancy, possession and prescription
      Chapter I Of occupancy
      Chapter II Of possession
      Chapter III Of prescription
        Section I Of the possession required to establish prescription
        Section II Of the causes which suspend or interrupt prescriptions
        Section III Of the several species of prescription
    Title XXI Of the title by judgment or seizure
Index
Manuscript index
Manuscript index Part 2

CHAPTER IV - OF SERVICES ESTABLISHED BY THE ACT OF MAN

 

SECTION I - OF THE DIFFERENT KINDS OF SERVICES WHICH MAY BE ESTABLISHED BY THE ACT OF MAN

Art. 49. Proprietors have a right to establish on their estates or in favor of their estates, such services as they deem proper: Provided nevertheless that the services be not imposed on the person or in favor of the person, but only on an estate or in favor of an estate, and Provided moreover, that said services imply nothing contrary to public order.
The use and extent of services thus established, are regulated by the title by which they are established, and if there be no title, by the following rules:

Art. 50. All services are established either for the use of houses or for the use of lands.
Those of the first kind are called urban services whether the buildings to which they are due be situated in the city or in the country.
Those of the second kind are called rural services.

Art. 51. All services are either perpetual or interrupted.
Perpetual services are those whose use is or may be continual without the act of man.
Such are aqueducts, common sewers, prospects and the like.
Interrupted services, are such as need the act of man to be exercised.
Such are the rights of passage, well, pasture and the like.

Art. 52. Again, services are either visible and apparent or non apparent.
Apparent services are such as are to be perceivable by exterior works, such as a door, a window, an aqueduct.
Non apparant services are such as have no exterior sign of their existence, such for instance as the prohibition of building on an estate, or of building above a particular height.

 

SECTION II - HOW SERVICES ARE ACQUIRED

Art. 53. Perpetual and apparent services may be acquired by title or by a possession of thirty years.

Art. 54. Perpetual non apparent services and interrupted services, whether apparent or not, can be established only by a title.
Immemorial possession itself is not sufficient to acquire them.

Art. 55. The intention of the father of the family is equal to a title, with respect to perpetual and apparent services.

Art. 56. The intention of the father of the family is never presumed ill it has been proved, that both estates now divided have belonged to the same proprietor and that it is by him that the things have been placed in the situation from which the services result.

Art. 57. If the proprietor of two estates between which there exist an apparent sign of service, sell one of the said estates, and if the deed of sale be silent respecting the service, the same shall continue to exist actively or passively in favor of or upon the estate which has been sold.

Art. 58. The title by which such services are established as cannot be acquired by prescription, can be replaced only by a title by which said service is acknowledged by the owner of the estate which owes the services.

Art. 59. When a service is established every thing which is necessary to use such service is supposed to be granted at the same time with the service.
Thus the service of drawing water out of a spring, carries necessarily with it the right of passage.

 

SECTION III - OF THE RIGHTS OF THE PROPRIETOR OF THE ESTATE TO WHICH THE SERVICE IS DUE

Art. 60. He to whom a service is due, has a right to make all the works necessary to use and preserve the same.

Art. 61. Said works are at his expense, and not at the expense of the owner of the estate which owes the service, unless the title by which the service is established shews the contrary.

Art. 62. Even in cases where the owner of the estate which owes the service, is bound by the title to make at his own expense the necessary works for the use and preservation of the services, he may always exonerate himself by giving up the estate which owes the service, to the owner of the estate to which the service is due.

Art. 63. If the estate for which the service has been established, comes to be divided, the service remain due for each portion, without however making worse the condition of the estate subject to the services.
Thus for instance, in case of a right of passage, all the proprietors are bound to exercise that right through the same place.

Art. 64. The proprietor of the estate which owes the service, can do nothing tending to diminish its use, or to make it more inconvenient.
Thus he cannot change the estate of the premises, nor transfer the exercise of the services to a place different from that on which it was assigned in the first instance.
Yet if this primitive assignation has become more burthensome to the proprietor of the estate which owes the service, or if he is thereby prevented from making on his estate, some advantageous repairs, he may offer to the proprietor of the other estate, a place equally convenient, for the exercise of his rights, and the owner of the estate to which the service is due cannot refuse it.

Art. 65. On the other hand, he who has a right of service, can use it only according to his title, without being at liberty to make either on the estate which owes the service, or on the estate to which the service is due, and alteration by which the condition of the first may be made worse.

 

SECTION IV - HOW SERVICES ARE EXTINGUISHED

Art. 66. Services are at an end when the things are in such a situation that they can no longer be used.

Art. 67. Services revive if the things are re-established in such a manner that they may be used, unless a sufficient time be elapsed already to give reason to suppose the extinction of the service, as is said in the following articles.

Art. 68. A right to service is extinguished by the non enjoyment of the same during thirty years.

Art. 69. The thirty years begin according to the various kinds of services, either from the day when the enjoyment of said service has ceased, in the case of an interrupted service, or from the day when an act contrary to the service has been done, in the case of a perpetual service.

Art. 70. The mode of service is subject to prescription as well as the service itself.

Art. 71. If the estate in whose favor the service is established, belongs to several, and has never been divided, the enjoyment of one bars prescription with respect to all.

Art. 72. If among the co-proprietors there be one against whom prescription cannot run, as for instance a minor, he shall preserve the right of all the others.

CHAPITRE IV - DES SERVITUDES ÉTABLIES PAR LE FAIT DE L'HOMME

 

SECTION I - DES DIVERSES ESPÈCES DE SERVITUDES QUI PEUVENT ÊTRE ÉTABLIES PAR LE FAIT DE L'HOMME

Art. 49. Il est permis aux propriétaires d'établir sur leurs propriétés ou en faveur de leurs propriétés, telles servitudes que bon leur semble pourvu néanmoins que ces servitudes ne soient imposées ni à la personne, ni en faveur de la personne, mais seulement à un fonds ou pour un fonds, et pourvu que ces services n'ayent d'ailleurs rien de contraire à l'ordre public.
L'usage et l'étendue des servitudes ainsi établies, se règlent par le titre qui les constitue, et à défaut de titre, par les règles si-après.

Art. 50. Toutes les servitudes sont établies ou pour l'usage des bâtimens, ou pour celui des fonds de terres.
Celles de la première espèce s'appellent urbaines, soit que les bâtimens auxquels elles sont dues, soient situés à la ville ou à la campagne.
Celles de la seconde espèce s'appellent rurales.

Art. 51. Toutes les servitudes sont continues ou discontinues.
Les servitudes continues sont celles dont l'usage est ou peut être continuel, sans avoir besoin de fait actuel de l'homme.
Telles sont les conduits d'eau, les égouts, les vues et autres de cette espèce.
Les servitudes discontinues, sont celles qui ont besoin du fait actuel de l'homme pour être exercées.
Tels sont les droits de passage, puisage, pacage et autres semblables.

Art. 52. Les servitudes sont encore ou visibles ou apparentes ou non apparentes.
Les servitudes apparentes sont celles qui s'annoncent par des ouvrages extérieurs, tels qu'une porte, une fenêtre, un aqueduc.
Les servitudes non apparentes sont celles qui n'ont pas de signes extérieurs de leur existence; comme par exemple, la prohibition de bâtir sur un fonds, ou de ne bâtir qu'à une hauteur déterminée.

 

SECTION II - COMMENT S'ACQUIÈRENT LES SERVITUDES

Art. 53. Les servitudes continues et apparentes s'acquièrent par titre ou par la possession de trente ans.

Art. 54. Les servitudes continues non apparentes et les servitudes discontinues apparentes, ou non apparentes ne peuvent s'établir que par titre.
La possession même immémoriale ne suffit pas pour les acquérir.

Art. 55. La destination du père de famille vaut titre à l'égard des servitudes continues et apparentes.

Art. 56. Il n'y a destination du père de famille que lorsqu'il est prouvé que les deux fonds actuellement divisés, ont appartenu au même propriétaire, et que c'est par lui que les choses ont été mises dans l'état duquel résulte la servitude.

Art. 57. Si le propriétaire de deux héritages entre lesquels existe un signe apparent de servitude, dispose de l'un des héritages, sans que le contrat contienne aucune convention relative à la servitude, elle continue d'exister activement ou passivement en faveur du fonds aliéné ou sur le fonds aliéné.

Art. 58. Le titre constitutif de la servitude, à l'égard de celles qui ne peuvent s'acquérir par la prescription, ne peut être remplacé que par un titre récognitif de la servitude et émané du propriétaire du fonds asservi.

Art. 59. Quand on établit une servitude, on est censé accorder tout ce qui est nécessaire pour en user.
Ainsi la servitude de puiser de l'eau à la fontaine d'autrui, emporte nécessairement le droit de passage.

 

SECTION III - DES DROITS DU PROPRIÉTAIRE DU FONDS AUQUEL LA SERVITUDE EST DUE

Art. 60. Celui auquel est dû une servitude, a droit de faire tous les ouvrages nécessaires pour en user et pour la conserver.

Art. 61. Ces ouvrages sont à ses frais et non à ceux du propriétaire du fond assujetti, à moins que le titre d'établissement de la servitude ne dise le contraire.

Art. 62. Dans le cas même où le propriétaire du fonds assujetti, est chargé par le titre de faire, à ses frais, les ouvrages nécessaires pour l'usage et la conservation de la servitude, il peut toujours s'affranchir de la charge, en abandonnant le fonds assujetti au propriétaire du fonds auquel la servitudes est due.

Art. 63. Si l'héritage pour lequel la servitude a été établie, vient à être divisé, la servitude reste due pour chaque portion, sans néanmoins que la condition du fonds assujetti soit aggravée.
Ainsi par exemple, s'il s'agit d'un droit de passage, tous les co-propriétaires sont obligés de l'exercer par le même endroit.

Art. 64. Le propriétaire du fonds débiteur de la servitude, ne peut rien faire qui tende à en diminuer l'usage, ou à la rendre plus incommode.
Ainsi il ne peut changer l'état des lieux, ni transporter l'exercice de la servitude dans un endroit différent de celui où elle a été primitivement assignée.
Mais cependant si cette assignation primitive était devenue plus onéreuse au propriétaire du fonds assujetti, ou si elle empêchait d'y faire des réparations avantageuses, il pourrait offrir au propriétaire de l'autre fonds, un endroit aussi commode pour l'exercice de ses droits, et celui-ci ne pourrait pas le refuser.

Art. 65. De son côté, celui qui a un droit de servitude, ne peut en user que suivant son titre, sans pouvoir faire, ni dans le fonds qui doit la servitude, ni dans le fonds à qui elle est due, des changemens qui aggravent la condition du premier.

 

SECTION  IV - COMMENT LES SERVITUDES S'ÉTEIGNENT

Art. 66. Les servitudes cessent lorsque les choses se trouvent en tel état qu'on ne peut plus en user.

Art. 67. Elles revivent, si les choses sont rétablies de manière qu'on puisse en user, à moins qu'il ne se soit déjà écoulé un espace suffisant pour faire présumer l'extinction de la servitude, ainsi qu'il est dit dans les articles suivans.

Art. 68. La servitude est éteinte par le non usage pendant trente ans.

Art. 69. Les trente ans commencent à courir, selon les diverses espèces de servitude, ou du jour où l'on a cessé de jouir, lorsqu'il s'agit de servitudes discontinues, ou du jour où il a été fait un acte contraire à la servitude, lorsqu'il s'agit de servitudes continues.

Art. 70. Le mode de la servitude peut se prescrire comme la servitude elle-même.

Art. 71. Si l'héritage en faveur duquel la servitude est etablie appartient à plusieurs par indivis, la jouissance de l'un empêche la prescription à l'égard de tous.

Art. 72. Si parmi les co-propriétaires, il s'en trouve un contre lequel la prescription n'ait pu courir, comme un mineur, il aura conservé le droit de tous les autres.

< Previous | Next >© Manuscript notes copyright 1968 by Louis V. de la Vergne.
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