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Table of Contents

Cover Page
Preliminary title Of the general definitions of rights and the promulgation of the laws
    Chapter I Of law and customs
    Chapter II Of the publication of the laws
    Chapter III Of the effects of laws
    Chapter IV Of the application and construction of laws
    Chapter V Of the repeal of laws
Book I Of persons
    Title I Of the distinction of persons, and the privation of certain civil rights in certain cases
      Chapter I Of the distinction of persons established by nature
      Chapter II Of the distinctions of persons which are established by law
    Title II Of domicil and the manner of changing the same
    Title III Of absent persons
      Chapter I Of the curatorship of absent persons
      Chapter II Of the putting into provisional possession the heirs of the absentee
      Chapter III Of the effects of absence upon the eventual rights which may belong to the absentee
      Chapter IV Of the effects of absence respecting marriage
      Chapter V Of the care of minor children whose father has disappeared
    Title IV Of husband and wife
      Chapter I On marriage
      Chapter II How marriages may be contracted or made
      Chapter III Of the nullity of marriages
      Chapter IV Of the respective rights and duties of married persons
      Chapter V Of the dissolution of marriages
      Chapter VI Of second marriages
    Title V Of the separation from bed and board
      Chapter I Of the causes of separation from bed and board
      Chapter II Of the proceedings on separation from bed and board
      Chapter III Of the provisional proceedings to which a suit for separation may give occasion
      Chapter IV Of objections to the action of separation from bed and board
      Chapter V Of the effects of separation from bed and board
    Title VI Of master and servant
      Chapter I Of the several sorts of servants
      Chapter II Of free servants
      Chapter III Of slaves
    Title VII Of father and child
      Chapter I Of children in general
      Chapter II Of legitimate children
        Section I Of legitimacy resulting from marriage
        Section II Of the manner of proving the legitimate filiation
      Chapter III Of illegitimate children
        Section I Of legitimation
        Section II Of the acknowledgment of illegitimate children
      Chapter IV Of adoption
      Chapter V Of paternal authority
        Section I Of the duties of parents towards their legitimate children, and of the duties of legitimate children towards their parents
        Section II Of the duties of parents towards their natural children, and of the duties of natural children towards their parents
    Title VIII Of minors, of their tutorship, curatorship and emancipation
      Chapter I Of tutorship
        Section I General dispositions
        Section II Of tutorship by nature
        Section III Of tutorship by will
        Section IV Of the tutorship by the effect of the law
        Section V Of dative tutorship
        Section VI Of the under tutor
        Section VII Of the causes which dispense or excuse from the tutorship
        Section VIII Of incapacity for, exclusion from and deprivation of the tutorship
        Section IX Of the administration of the tutor
      Chapter II Of the curatorship of minors
      Chapter III Of emancipation
    Title IX Of persons insane, idiots, and other persons incapable of administering their estate
      Chapter I Of the interdiction and curatorship of persons incapable of administering their estate, whether on account of insanity or of some other infirmity
      Chapter II Of the other persons to whom curators are appointed
    Title X Of communities or corporations
      Chapter I Of the nature of communities or corporations, of their use and kind
      Chapter II Of the rights and privileges of communities or corporations and of their incapacities
      Chapter III Of the dissolution of communities or corporations
Book II Of things and of the different modifications of property
    Title I Of things or estates
      Chapter I Of the distinction of things or estates
      Chapter II Of immoveables
      Chapter III Of moveables
      Chapter IV Of estates considered in their relation to those who possess them
    Title II Of absolute ownership
      Chapter I Universal principles
      Chapter II Of the right of accession to what is produced by the thing
      Chapter III Of the right of accession to what unites or incorporates itself to the thing
        Section I Of the right of accession concerning immoveables
        Section II Of the right of accession concerning moveable things
    Title III Of usufruct, use and habitation
      Chapter I Of usufruct
        Section I General definitions
        Section II Of the rights of the usufructuary
        Section III Of the obligations of the usufructuary
        Section IV Of the obligations of the owner
        Section V How usufruct expires
      Chapter II Of the use and habitation
    Title IV Of predial services or services of land
      Chapter I General principles
      Chapter II Of services which originate from the natural situation of the place
      Chapter III Of services imposed by law
        Section I Of walls, fences, and ditches in common
        Section II Of the distance and of the intermediary works required for certain buildings
        Section III Of lights on the property of a neighbor
        Section IV Of the manner of carrying off rain from the roof
        Section V Of the right of passage
      Chapter IV Of services established by the act of man
        Section I Of the different kinds of services which may be established by the act of man
        Section II How services are acquired
        Section III Of the rights of the proprietor of the estate to which the service is due
        Section IV How Services are extinguished
Book III Of the different manners of acquiring the property of things
    Preliminary title General dispositions
    Title I Of successions
      Chapter I Of the different sorts of successions and heirs
      Chapter II Of legal successions
        Section I General rules
        Section II Of the succession of descendants
        Section III Of the succession of ascendants
        Section IV Of the succession of collaterals
      Chapter III Of irregular successions
      Chapter IV In what manner successions are opened
      Chapter V Of the incapacity and unworthiness of the heirs
      Chapter VI In what manner a succession is accepted and how it is renounced
        Section I Of the acceptance pure and simple
        Section II Of the acceptance of a succession with the benefit of an inventory
      Chapter VII Of the administration of vacant estates and estates ab intestato
      Chapter VIII Of partition among heirs and of the collation of goods
        Section I Of the nature of partition and in what manner it is made
        Section II Of the collation of goods
        Section III Of the payment of debts
        Section IV Of the effect of partition and of its rescision
    Title II Of donations inter vivos (between living persons) and mortis causa (in prospect of death)
      Chapter I General dispositions
      Chapter II Of the capacity necessary for disposing of and receiving by donation inter vivos or mortis causa
      Chapter III Of the portion disposable, and of its reduction in case of excess
        Section I Of the disposable portion and the legitime
        Section II Of the reduction of dispositions inter vivos or mortis causa; of the manner in which it is made and of its effects
      Chapter IV Of dispositions reprobated by the law in donations inter vivos and mortis causa
      Chapter V Of donations inter vivos (between living)
        Section I Of the irrevocability of donations inter vivos
        Section II Of the form of donations inter vivos
        Section III Of the exceptions to the rule of the irrevocability of donations inter vivos
      Chapter VI Of dispositions mortis causa (in the prospect of death)
        Section I Of testament or codicil
        Section II Of the form of testaments and codicils
        Section III Of testamentary dispositions
        Section IV Of the institution of heir and of disinherison
        Section V Of legacies
        Section VI Of the opening and the proof of wills, and of testamentary executions
        Section VII Of the revocation of testaments and codicils and of their caducity
        Section VIII Of the interpretation of testamentary dispositions
      Chapter VII Of partitions made by parents among their descendants
      Chapter VIII Of donations made by marriage contract to the husband or wife, and to the children to be born of the marriage
      Chapter IX Of donations between married persons, either by marriage contract, or during the marriage
    Title III Of contracts and of conventional obligations in general
      Chapter I Preliminary dispositions
      Chapter II Of the conditions essential to the validity of agreements
        Section I Of consent
        Section II Of the capability of the parties contracting
        Section III Of the object and the matter of contracts
        Section IV Of the cause
      Chapter III Of the effect of obligations
        Section I General dispositions
        Section II Of the obligation of giving
        Section III Of the obligations of doing or of not doing
        Section IV Of the damages resulting from the non execution of the obligation
        Section V Of the interpretation of the agreements
        Section VI Of the effect of agreements with regard to persons not parties to them
      Chapter IV Of the different kinds of obligations
        Section I Of conditional obligations
          § 1 Of the condition in general and of its different kinds
          § 2 Of the suspensive condition
          § 3 Of the dissolving condition
        Section II Of obligations to be performed at a certain term
        Section III Of the alternative obligations
        Section IV Of obligations in solido or jointly and severally
          § 1 Of the obligation in solido between creditors
          § 2 Of the obligation in solido on the part of debtors
        Section V Of obligations divisible and indivisible
          § 1 Of the effects of a divisible obligation
          § 2 Of the effect of the indivisible obligation
        Section VI Of obligations with penal clauses
      Chapter V Of the extinction of obligations
        Section I Of payment
          § 1 Of payment in general
          § 2 Of payment with subrogation
          § 3 Of the imputation of payments
          § 4 Of tenders of payment, and consignment
          § 5 Of the surrender of property
        Section II Of novation
        Section III Of the remission of the debt
        Section IV Of compensation
        Section V Of confusion
        Section VI Of the loss of the thing due
        Section VII Of the action of nullity or of rescission of agreements
      Chapter VI Of the proof of obligations and of that of payment
        Section I Of the literal proof
          § 1 Of the authentic title
          § 2 Of the acts under private signature
          § 3 Of copies of titles
          § 4 Of recognitive and confirmative acts
        Section II Of testimonial proof
        Section III Of presumptions
          § 1 Of presumptions established by law
          § 2 Of presumption not established by law
        Section IV Of the confession of the party
        Section V Of the proof by oath
    Title IV Of engagements formed without agreements, or of quasi contracts and quasi offences
      Section I Of the quasi contract
      Section II Of quasi crimes or offences
    Title V Of marriage contract
      Chapter I General dispositions
      Chapter II Of the various kinds of matrimonial agreements
        Section I Of donations made in consideration of marriage
        Section II Of dowry or marriage portion
        Section III Of paraphernalia or extra dotal effects
        Section IV Of the partnership or community of acquests or gains
      Chapter III Of the separation of property
    Title VI Of sale
      Chapter I Of the nature and form of the contract of sale, and of the manner in which it is to be performed
      Chapter II Of persons capable of buying and selling, and of things which may be sold
      Chapter III Of the obligations of the seller
        Section I Of the tradition or delivery of the thing sold
        Section II Of the warranty, in case of eviction of the thing sold
        Section III Of the warranty of the defects of the thing sold or of the redhibitory vices
      Chapter IV Of the obligations of the buyer
      Chapter V Of the nullity and rescissions of the sale
        Section I Of the power or right of redemption
        Section II Of the rescission of sales on account of lesion
      Chapter VI Of sales by cant or auction
      Chapter VII Of the assignment or transfer of debts and other incorporeal rights
    Title VII Of exchange
    Title VIII Of letting and hiring
      Chapter I Of the several species of contracts for letting and hiring
      Chapter II Of the contract for letting out things
        Section I Of the form and duration of leases
        Section II Of the obligations of the lessor
        Section III Of the obligations of the lessee
        Section IV Of the dissolution of leases
      Chapter III Of the letting out of labour or industry
        Section I Of the hiring of servants and workmen
        Section II Of carriers and watermen
        Section III Of plots for buildings and other works
    Title IX Of partnership
      Chapter I General dispositions
      Chapter II Of the various kinds of partnerships
      Chapter III Of the obligations of partners towards each other, and towards third persons
        Section I Of the obligations of partners towards each other
        Section II Of the obligations of partners towards third persons
      Chapter IV Of the different manners in which partnerships end
    Title X Of loan
      Chapter I Of the loan for use or commodatum
        Section I Of the nature of the loan for use
        Section II Of the engagements of the borrower for use
        Section III Of the engagements of the lender for use
      Chapter II Of the loan for consumption or mutuum
        Section I Of the nature of the loan for consumption
        Section II Of the obligations of the lender for consumption
        Section III Of the engagements of the borrower for consumption
      Chapter III Of loan on interest
    Title XI Of deposit and sequestration
      Chapter I Of deposit in general and of its divers kinds
      Chapter II Of the deposit properly so called
        Section I Of the nature and essence of the contract of deposit
        Section II Of the obligations of the depository
        Section III Of the obligations of him by whom the deposit has been made
        Section IV Of the necessary deposit
      Chapter III Of sequestration
        Section I Of its different species
        Section II Of the conventional sequestration
        Section III Of the judicial sequestration or deposit
    Title XII Of aleatory contracts
    Title XIII Of mandate or commission
      Chapter I Of the nature of proxies, mandates and commissions
      Chapter II What persons may be appointed attornies in fact
      Chapter III Of the obligations of a person acting under a power of attorney
      Chapter IV Of the obligations of the principal who acts by his attorney in fact
      Chapter V How the procuration expires
    Title XIV Of suretyship
      Chapter I Of the nature and extent of suretyship
      Chapter II Of the effects of suretyship
        Section I Of the effects of suretyship between the creditor and the surety
        Section II Of the effects of suretyship between the debtor and the surety
        Section III Respecting the effects of suretyship between the sureties
      Chapter III Of the extinction of suretyship
      Chapter IV Of the legal and judicial sureties
    Title XV Of transactions
    Title XVI Of respite
    Title XVII Of compromises or arbitration
    Title XVIII Of pledge
    Title XIX Of privileges and mortgages
      Chapter I Of the nature of a mortgage and of its several sorts
      Chapter II Who may mortgage and what thing may be mortgaged
      Chapter III Of the effects of mortgage
        Section I Of the effects of mortgage with regard to the debtor
        Section II Of the effects of mortgages against third possessors and of the action of mortgage
        Section III Of the registering of mortgages and of the register kept for that purpose
      Chapter IV Of the order of privileges and mortgages
        Section I Of the preference and order of privileges
      Chapter V How privileges or mortgages expire or are extinguished
    Title XX Of occupancy, possession and prescription
      Chapter I Of occupancy
      Chapter II Of possession
      Chapter III Of prescription
        Section I Of the possession required to establish prescription
        Section II Of the causes which suspend or interrupt prescriptions
        Section III Of the several species of prescription
    Title XXI Of the title by judgment or seizure
Manuscript index
Manuscript index Part 2


Art. 44. The owner of the thing subject to the usufruct, is bound to deliver said thing to the usufructuary or to let him take possession of the same.

Art. 45. He is bound neither to occasion any trouble or any obstacle to the enjoyment of the usufructuary, nor to impair the rights of the usufructuary either by his own deed, or in any manner whatever.

Art. 46. He is not at liberty either before or after the delivery of the thing, to make any alteration on premises or things subject to the usufruct, whereby the condition of the usufructuary may become worse, although the estate itself may be bettered by them. Hence he cannot raise the buildings nor cause any other to be erected in a place where there was none, unless it be with the consent of the usufructuary. He may still less cut down any trees of a wood, demolish a building, or make any other alteration to the injury of the usufructuary. And if he does, he shall be bound to make good the losses and damages which may result.

Art. 47. The owner of an estate subject to the usufruct, cannot lay said estate under any service, unless it be done in such a manner, as to be no injury to the usufructuary.

Art. 48. If the usufructuary cannot have the enjoyment because of some obstacle which the proprietor is bound to remove, the latter shall make good the losses and damages which are sustained by the non enjoyment, as if there be an eviction or any other disturbance against which the proprietor is bound to warrant, or if he refuses the usufructuary any necessary services which he is bound to render him.

Art. 49. The proprietor is not bound to re-build or restore to good condition that which happens to be demolished or damaged at the time that the usufruct is acquired, unless it happened by a fraud of his, or unless he was obliged by the title to put the things in a good condition.

Art. 50. The proprietor may mortgage or sell his estate, without the consent of the usufructuary, but he is prohibited from doing it in such circumstances and under such conditions as may be injurious to the enjoyment of the usufructuary.



Art. 51. The right of the usufruct expires by the death of the usufructuary.

Art. 52. If the title of the usufruct has limited the right to it to commence or determine at a certain time, or in the event of a certain condition, the right will not commence or determine till the condition shall have happened or the time shall be elapsed.

Art. 53. If the usufructuary is charged to restore the usufruct to another person, his right to the usufruct will determine, whenever the time for making said restitution arrives.

Art. 54. The usufruct granted until a third person shall arrive at a certain age, lasts until that time, although the third person should die before the age is fixed on.

Art. 55. The usufruct which is granted to corporations, or other companies which do not die, lasts only thirty years.

Art. 56. The usufruct expires before the death of the usufructuary, by the extinction of the thing subject to the usufruct.
Thus the usufruct which is assigned upon a building, expires, if the building is destroyed by fire or any other accident, or if it falls down through the decay of years.
In this case the usufructuary would not even have the usufruct of the materials of this building, nor the place in which it stood. For the usufruct is to be restrained to what is specified in the title. But if the usufruct be assigned upon an estate of which the building is a part, the usufructuary shall enjoy both the soil and the materials.

Art. 57. If it happens that a part of the house be destroyed and that there remains another part of it, the usufruct will be preserved of that part of the house which remains, and of the place on which stood the part of the house which is destroyed, for the said place makes part of the said house and is an accessory to the part of it that remains.

Art. 58. Although the thing subject to the usufruct may be sold by the proprietor, or by his creditors upon an order of seizure, this sale makes no alteration in the right of the usufructuary, who continues to enjoy the same, unless he has formally renounced it. But if the thing subject to the usufruct, was mortgaged by the person who granted such usufruct, before he granted it, the usufructuary may be evicted of his right in consequence of the claim of the mortgage creditors; but in that case the usufructuary has his action against the proprietor of the thing upon which the usufruct was assigned, as has been said in the third section of the present title. In the same manner the usufructuary may be deprived of his usufruct by the seizure and sale which may be made of the same by his own creditors.

Art. 59. The usufruct may be forfeited likewise by the non enjoyment of this right by the usufructuary during thirty years.

Art. 60. The usufruct is again extinguished by the circumstance of the usufruct and property being vested in one and the same person. The reason is that no stipulated services can be due by a thing to the owner of said thing.

Art. 61. In fine the usufruct may cease by the abuse which the usufructuary makes in his enjoyment either in committing waste on the estate or in suffering it to go to decay, for want of repairs. In such case the judge may according to circumstances, order that the proprietor shall re-enter into the enjoyment of the property subject to the usufruct, on condition that he shall pay annually to the usufructuary or his representatives, a sum which shall be fixed on by the judge in proportion to the importance of the usufruct, until the time when the usufruct was to expire.

Art. 62. When the whole of the usufruct has expired the thing which was subject to it returns to and becomes again incorporated with the property, and from that time the person who had only the bare property, begins to enter into a full and entire property of the thing.


Art. 44. Le propriétaire de la chose grévée d'usufruit, est tenu de délivrer cette chose à l'usufruitier, ou de souffrir qu'il s'en mette en possession.

Art. 45. Il ne doit apporter aucun trouble, aucun obstacle à la jouissance de l'usufruitier, ni nuire par son fait, ni de quelque manière que ce soit, à ses droits.

Art. 46. Il ne peut avant ou après la délivrance, faire aucuns changemens dans les lieux ou aux choses sujettes à l'usufruit, par où il empire la condition de l'usufruitier, quoique ce fut pour y faire des améliorations.
Ainsi il ne peut hausser un bâtiment, ni en faire un nouveau dans un fonds où il n'y en avait point, si ce n'est du consentement de l'usufruitier. Il peut encore moins dégrader un bois, démolir un édifice, ni faire d'autres changemens qui nuisent à l'usufruitier.
Et s'il le fait, il sera tenu des dommages intérêts qu'il aura causés.

Art. 47. Le propriétaire du fonds grévé d'usufruit, ne peut y imposer de servitude, à moins qu'il ne le fasse de manière à ne pas nuire à l'usufruitier.

Art. 48. Si l'usufruitier ne pouvait jouir par un obstacle que le propriétaire dut faire cesser, il sera tenu des dommages intérêts de la non jouissance, comme s'il y avait quelque éviction ou autre trouble dont il fut garant, ou s'il refusait à l'usufruitier quelque servitude nécessaire qu'il dut lui donner.

Art. 49. Le propriétaire n'est pas tenu de remettre en bon état, ce qui se trouve ou démoli ou endommagé au tems que l'usufruit est acquis, si ce n'est que ce fut pour son dol, ou qu'il fut chargé par le titre, de remettre les choses en bon état.

Art. 50. Le propriétaire peut hypothéquer ou vendre son bien, sans le consentement de l'usufruitier, mais il ne lui est pas permis de le faire dans des circonstances, ou sous des clauses qui préjudicient à la jouissance de celui-ci.



Art. 51. Le droit de l'usufruit finit par la mort de l'usufruitier.

Art. 52. Si le titre de l'usufruitier en borne le droit, pour commencer et finir à un certain tems ou à l'événement d'une certaine condition, le droit ne commencera ou ne cessera que lorsque la condition sera arrivée ou le tems expiré.

Art. 53. Si l'usufruitier est chargé de rendre l'usufruit à une autre personne, son usufruit finira lorsque cette restitution devra être faite.

Art. 54. L'usufruit accordé jusqu'à ce qu'un tiers ait atteint un âge fixé, dure jusqu'à cette époque, encore que le tiers soit mort avant l'âge fixé.

Art. 55. L'usufruit qui est accordé à des corporations ou autres associations qui ne meurent pas, ne dure que trente ans.

Art. 56. L'usufruit finit avant la mort de l'usufruitier, par l'extinction de la chose qui y est sujette.
Ainsi l'usufruit qui n'est établi que sur un bâtiment, finit si ce bâtiment vient à être détruit par un incendie ou autre accident, ou à s'écrouler de vétusté.
En ce cas, l'usufruitier n'aura pas même d'usufruit sur les matériaux de ce bâtiment, ni sur le terrain où il était situé; son usufruit devant être restreint à ce qui se trouve spécialement énoncé dans son titre.
Mais si l'usufruit était établi sur un domaine dont le bâtiment faisait partie, l'usufruitier jouira du sol et des matériaux.

Art. 57. S'il arrive qu'une partie d'une maison vienne à être détruite, et qu'il en reste une autre partie, l'usufruit se conserve sur ce qui reste, et sur la place où était ce qui a été détruit; car cette place fesait partie de la maison et est un accessoire de la portion qui en reste.

Art. 58. Quoique la chose sujette à l'usufruit, puisse être vendue par le propriétaire ou par ses créanciers, sur saisie, cette vente n'apporte aucun changement dans le droit de l'usufruitier qui continue à jouir de son usufruit, s'il n'y a pas formellement renoncé.
Mais si la chose sujette à l'usufruit, a été hypothéquée par celui qui a constitué cet usufruit, antérieurement à cette constitution, l'usufruitier peut se trouver évincé de son droit par l'effet des poursuites des créanciers hypothécaires, sauf son recours contre le propriétaire de la chose affectée à l'usufruit , comme il a été dit dans la section 3éme. du présent titre.
De même l'usufruitier peut être privé de son usufruit, par la saisie et vente qu'en peuvent faire ses propres créanciers.

Art. 59. L'usufruit se perd encore par le défaut de jouissance de ce droit de la part de l'usufruitier pendant trente ans.

Art. 60. Il s'éteint aussi par la consolidation à la propriété, c'est-à-dire quand l'usufruit et la propriété concourent en la même personne; la raison est qu'une chose ne peut devoir une servitude à celui à qui elle appartient.

Art. 61. Enfin l'usufruit peut cesser par l'abus que l'usufruitier fait de sa jouissance, soit en commettant des dégradations sur le fonds, soit en le laissant dépérir faute d'entretien.
Dans ces divers cas, le juge peut, suivant la gravité des circonstances, ordonner la rentrée du propriétaire dans la jouissance de l'objet qui est grévé d'usufruit, à la charge de payer annuellement à l'usufruitier ou à ses ayans cause, une somme qui sera déterminée par le juge, en proportion de l'importance de l'usufruit et jusqu'à l'instant où l'usufruit devra cesser.

Art. 62. Quand tout l'usufruit est fini, la chose qui y était sujette, retourne et se réunit à la propriété, et dès lors celui qui n'avait que la propriété nue, commence à entrer dans une pleine et entière propriété de la chose.

< Previous | Next >© Manuscript notes copyright 1968 by Louis V. de la Vergne.
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