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Table of Contents

Cover Page
Preliminary title Of the general definitions of rights and the promulgation of the laws
    Chapter I Of law and customs
    Chapter II Of the publication of the laws
    Chapter III Of the effects of laws
    Chapter IV Of the application and construction of laws
    Chapter V Of the repeal of laws
Book I Of persons
    Title I Of the distinction of persons, and the privation of certain civil rights in certain cases
      Chapter I Of the distinction of persons established by nature
      Chapter II Of the distinctions of persons which are established by law
    Title II Of domicil and the manner of changing the same
    Title III Of absent persons
      Chapter I Of the curatorship of absent persons
      Chapter II Of the putting into provisional possession the heirs of the absentee
      Chapter III Of the effects of absence upon the eventual rights which may belong to the absentee
      Chapter IV Of the effects of absence respecting marriage
      Chapter V Of the care of minor children whose father has disappeared
    Title IV Of husband and wife
      Chapter I On marriage
      Chapter II How marriages may be contracted or made
      Chapter III Of the nullity of marriages
      Chapter IV Of the respective rights and duties of married persons
      Chapter V Of the dissolution of marriages
      Chapter VI Of second marriages
    Title V Of the separation from bed and board
      Chapter I Of the causes of separation from bed and board
      Chapter II Of the proceedings on separation from bed and board
      Chapter III Of the provisional proceedings to which a suit for separation may give occasion
      Chapter IV Of objections to the action of separation from bed and board
      Chapter V Of the effects of separation from bed and board
    Title VI Of master and servant
      Chapter I Of the several sorts of servants
      Chapter II Of free servants
      Chapter III Of slaves
    Title VII Of father and child
      Chapter I Of children in general
      Chapter II Of legitimate children
        Section I Of legitimacy resulting from marriage
        Section II Of the manner of proving the legitimate filiation
      Chapter III Of illegitimate children
        Section I Of legitimation
        Section II Of the acknowledgment of illegitimate children
      Chapter IV Of adoption
      Chapter V Of paternal authority
        Section I Of the duties of parents towards their legitimate children, and of the duties of legitimate children towards their parents
        Section II Of the duties of parents towards their natural children, and of the duties of natural children towards their parents
    Title VIII Of minors, of their tutorship, curatorship and emancipation
      Chapter I Of tutorship
        Section I General dispositions
        Section II Of tutorship by nature
        Section III Of tutorship by will
        Section IV Of the tutorship by the effect of the law
        Section V Of dative tutorship
        Section VI Of the under tutor
        Section VII Of the causes which dispense or excuse from the tutorship
        Section VIII Of incapacity for, exclusion from and deprivation of the tutorship
        Section IX Of the administration of the tutor
      Chapter II Of the curatorship of minors
      Chapter III Of emancipation
    Title IX Of persons insane, idiots, and other persons incapable of administering their estate
      Chapter I Of the interdiction and curatorship of persons incapable of administering their estate, whether on account of insanity or of some other infirmity
      Chapter II Of the other persons to whom curators are appointed
    Title X Of communities or corporations
      Chapter I Of the nature of communities or corporations, of their use and kind
      Chapter II Of the rights and privileges of communities or corporations and of their incapacities
      Chapter III Of the dissolution of communities or corporations
Book II Of things and of the different modifications of property
    Title I Of things or estates
      Chapter I Of the distinction of things or estates
      Chapter II Of immoveables
      Chapter III Of moveables
      Chapter IV Of estates considered in their relation to those who possess them
    Title II Of absolute ownership
      Chapter I Universal principles
      Chapter II Of the right of accession to what is produced by the thing
      Chapter III Of the right of accession to what unites or incorporates itself to the thing
        Section I Of the right of accession concerning immoveables
        Section II Of the right of accession concerning moveable things
    Title III Of usufruct, use and habitation
      Chapter I Of usufruct
        Section I General definitions
        Section II Of the rights of the usufructuary
        Section III Of the obligations of the usufructuary
        Section IV Of the obligations of the owner
        Section V How usufruct expires
      Chapter II Of the use and habitation
    Title IV Of predial services or services of land
      Chapter I General principles
      Chapter II Of services which originate from the natural situation of the place
      Chapter III Of services imposed by law
        Section I Of walls, fences, and ditches in common
        Section II Of the distance and of the intermediary works required for certain buildings
        Section III Of lights on the property of a neighbor
        Section IV Of the manner of carrying off rain from the roof
        Section V Of the right of passage
      Chapter IV Of services established by the act of man
        Section I Of the different kinds of services which may be established by the act of man
        Section II How services are acquired
        Section III Of the rights of the proprietor of the estate to which the service is due
        Section IV How Services are extinguished
Book III Of the different manners of acquiring the property of things
    Preliminary title General dispositions
    Title I Of successions
      Chapter I Of the different sorts of successions and heirs
      Chapter II Of legal successions
        Section I General rules
        Section II Of the succession of descendants
        Section III Of the succession of ascendants
        Section IV Of the succession of collaterals
      Chapter III Of irregular successions
      Chapter IV In what manner successions are opened
      Chapter V Of the incapacity and unworthiness of the heirs
      Chapter VI In what manner a succession is accepted and how it is renounced
        Section I Of the acceptance pure and simple
        Section II Of the acceptance of a succession with the benefit of an inventory
      Chapter VII Of the administration of vacant estates and estates ab intestato
      Chapter VIII Of partition among heirs and of the collation of goods
        Section I Of the nature of partition and in what manner it is made
        Section II Of the collation of goods
        Section III Of the payment of debts
        Section IV Of the effect of partition and of its rescision
    Title II Of donations inter vivos (between living persons) and mortis causa (in prospect of death)
      Chapter I General dispositions
      Chapter II Of the capacity necessary for disposing of and receiving by donation inter vivos or mortis causa
      Chapter III Of the portion disposable, and of its reduction in case of excess
        Section I Of the disposable portion and the legitime
        Section II Of the reduction of dispositions inter vivos or mortis causa; of the manner in which it is made and of its effects
      Chapter IV Of dispositions reprobated by the law in donations inter vivos and mortis causa
      Chapter V Of donations inter vivos (between living)
        Section I Of the irrevocability of donations inter vivos
        Section II Of the form of donations inter vivos
        Section III Of the exceptions to the rule of the irrevocability of donations inter vivos
      Chapter VI Of dispositions mortis causa (in the prospect of death)
        Section I Of testament or codicil
        Section II Of the form of testaments and codicils
        Section III Of testamentary dispositions
        Section IV Of the institution of heir and of disinherison
        Section V Of legacies
        Section VI Of the opening and the proof of wills, and of testamentary executions
        Section VII Of the revocation of testaments and codicils and of their caducity
        Section VIII Of the interpretation of testamentary dispositions
      Chapter VII Of partitions made by parents among their descendants
      Chapter VIII Of donations made by marriage contract to the husband or wife, and to the children to be born of the marriage
      Chapter IX Of donations between married persons, either by marriage contract, or during the marriage
    Title III Of contracts and of conventional obligations in general
      Chapter I Preliminary dispositions
      Chapter II Of the conditions essential to the validity of agreements
        Section I Of consent
        Section II Of the capability of the parties contracting
        Section III Of the object and the matter of contracts
        Section IV Of the cause
      Chapter III Of the effect of obligations
        Section I General dispositions
        Section II Of the obligation of giving
        Section III Of the obligations of doing or of not doing
        Section IV Of the damages resulting from the non execution of the obligation
        Section V Of the interpretation of the agreements
        Section VI Of the effect of agreements with regard to persons not parties to them
      Chapter IV Of the different kinds of obligations
        Section I Of conditional obligations
          § 1 Of the condition in general and of its different kinds
          § 2 Of the suspensive condition
          § 3 Of the dissolving condition
        Section II Of obligations to be performed at a certain term
        Section III Of the alternative obligations
        Section IV Of obligations in solido or jointly and severally
          § 1 Of the obligation in solido between creditors
          § 2 Of the obligation in solido on the part of debtors
        Section V Of obligations divisible and indivisible
          § 1 Of the effects of a divisible obligation
          § 2 Of the effect of the indivisible obligation
        Section VI Of obligations with penal clauses
      Chapter V Of the extinction of obligations
        Section I Of payment
          § 1 Of payment in general
          § 2 Of payment with subrogation
          § 3 Of the imputation of payments
          § 4 Of tenders of payment, and consignment
          § 5 Of the surrender of property
        Section II Of novation
        Section III Of the remission of the debt
        Section IV Of compensation
        Section V Of confusion
        Section VI Of the loss of the thing due
        Section VII Of the action of nullity or of rescission of agreements
      Chapter VI Of the proof of obligations and of that of payment
        Section I Of the literal proof
          § 1 Of the authentic title
          § 2 Of the acts under private signature
          § 3 Of copies of titles
          § 4 Of recognitive and confirmative acts
        Section II Of testimonial proof
        Section III Of presumptions
          § 1 Of presumptions established by law
          § 2 Of presumption not established by law
        Section IV Of the confession of the party
        Section V Of the proof by oath
    Title IV Of engagements formed without agreements, or of quasi contracts and quasi offences
      Section I Of the quasi contract
      Section II Of quasi crimes or offences
    Title V Of marriage contract
      Chapter I General dispositions
      Chapter II Of the various kinds of matrimonial agreements
        Section I Of donations made in consideration of marriage
        Section II Of dowry or marriage portion
        Section III Of paraphernalia or extra dotal effects
        Section IV Of the partnership or community of acquests or gains
      Chapter III Of the separation of property
    Title VI Of sale
      Chapter I Of the nature and form of the contract of sale, and of the manner in which it is to be performed
      Chapter II Of persons capable of buying and selling, and of things which may be sold
      Chapter III Of the obligations of the seller
        Section I Of the tradition or delivery of the thing sold
        Section II Of the warranty, in case of eviction of the thing sold
        Section III Of the warranty of the defects of the thing sold or of the redhibitory vices
      Chapter IV Of the obligations of the buyer
      Chapter V Of the nullity and rescissions of the sale
        Section I Of the power or right of redemption
        Section II Of the rescission of sales on account of lesion
      Chapter VI Of sales by cant or auction
      Chapter VII Of the assignment or transfer of debts and other incorporeal rights
    Title VII Of exchange
    Title VIII Of letting and hiring
      Chapter I Of the several species of contracts for letting and hiring
      Chapter II Of the contract for letting out things
        Section I Of the form and duration of leases
        Section II Of the obligations of the lessor
        Section III Of the obligations of the lessee
        Section IV Of the dissolution of leases
      Chapter III Of the letting out of labour or industry
        Section I Of the hiring of servants and workmen
        Section II Of carriers and watermen
        Section III Of plots for buildings and other works
    Title IX Of partnership
      Chapter I General dispositions
      Chapter II Of the various kinds of partnerships
      Chapter III Of the obligations of partners towards each other, and towards third persons
        Section I Of the obligations of partners towards each other
        Section II Of the obligations of partners towards third persons
      Chapter IV Of the different manners in which partnerships end
    Title X Of loan
      Chapter I Of the loan for use or commodatum
        Section I Of the nature of the loan for use
        Section II Of the engagements of the borrower for use
        Section III Of the engagements of the lender for use
      Chapter II Of the loan for consumption or mutuum
        Section I Of the nature of the loan for consumption
        Section II Of the obligations of the lender for consumption
        Section III Of the engagements of the borrower for consumption
      Chapter III Of loan on interest
    Title XI Of deposit and sequestration
      Chapter I Of deposit in general and of its divers kinds
      Chapter II Of the deposit properly so called
        Section I Of the nature and essence of the contract of deposit
        Section II Of the obligations of the depository
        Section III Of the obligations of him by whom the deposit has been made
        Section IV Of the necessary deposit
      Chapter III Of sequestration
        Section I Of its different species
        Section II Of the conventional sequestration
        Section III Of the judicial sequestration or deposit
    Title XII Of aleatory contracts
    Title XIII Of mandate or commission
      Chapter I Of the nature of proxies, mandates and commissions
      Chapter II What persons may be appointed attornies in fact
      Chapter III Of the obligations of a person acting under a power of attorney
      Chapter IV Of the obligations of the principal who acts by his attorney in fact
      Chapter V How the procuration expires
    Title XIV Of suretyship
      Chapter I Of the nature and extent of suretyship
      Chapter II Of the effects of suretyship
        Section I Of the effects of suretyship between the creditor and the surety
        Section II Of the effects of suretyship between the debtor and the surety
        Section III Respecting the effects of suretyship between the sureties
      Chapter III Of the extinction of suretyship
      Chapter IV Of the legal and judicial sureties
    Title XV Of transactions
    Title XVI Of respite
    Title XVII Of compromises or arbitration
    Title XVIII Of pledge
    Title XIX Of privileges and mortgages
      Chapter I Of the nature of a mortgage and of its several sorts
      Chapter II Who may mortgage and what thing may be mortgaged
      Chapter III Of the effects of mortgage
        Section I Of the effects of mortgage with regard to the debtor
        Section II Of the effects of mortgages against third possessors and of the action of mortgage
        Section III Of the registering of mortgages and of the register kept for that purpose
      Chapter IV Of the order of privileges and mortgages
        Section I Of the preference and order of privileges
      Chapter V How privileges or mortgages expire or are extinguished
    Title XX Of occupancy, possession and prescription
      Chapter I Of occupancy
      Chapter II Of possession
      Chapter III Of prescription
        Section I Of the possession required to establish prescription
        Section II Of the causes which suspend or interrupt prescriptions
        Section III Of the several species of prescription
    Title XXI Of the title by judgment or seizure
Manuscript index
Manuscript index Part 2


Art. 8. The right of ownership gives in general to the owner by right of accession, all that unites and incorporates itself to his property.
But this general rule is susceptible of several modifications, according as the thing to which the union is made, is moveable or immoveable, and, according to the various ways in which said union takes place.



Art. 9. The property of the soil carries with it the property of what is over and under it.
The owner may make upon it, all the plantations and erect all the buildings which he thinks proper, save the exceptions established under the title of servitudes or services.
He may construct below the soil all manner of works, digging as deep as he deems convenient, and draw from the holes dug in the ground, all the benefits which may accrue, under such modifications as may result from the regulations of the police.

Art. 10. All the constructions, plantations, and works made on or within the soil, are supposed to be done by the owner, and at his expence, and to belong to him unless the contrary be proved.
Nevertheless a third person may, by possession alone, when the same is sufficient to operate prescription, acquire the property whether of a subterraneous piece of ground under the building of another, or of any other part of the building.

Art. 11. If the owner of the soil has made thereon constructions, plantations and works, with materials which did not belong to him, he has a right to keep the same on condition of reimbursing their value to the owner and paying damages if the case require it.

Art. 12. When plantations, constructions, and works have been made by a third person and out of said person's own materials, the owner of the soil has a right to keep them, or to compel this third person to take away or demolish the same.
If the owner requires the demolition of said works they shall be demolished at the expence of the person who erected them, without any indemnification, said person may even be sentenced to pay damages if the case require it, for the prejudice which the owner of the soil may have sustained.
If the owner keeps the works, he owes to the owner of the materials nothing but the reimbursement of their value and the price of the workmanship, without any regard to the greater or less value which the soil may have acquired thereby.
Nevertheless if the plantations, edifices, or works may have been done by a third person evicted but not sentenced to make restitution of the fruits, because said person possessed bona fide, the owner shall not have a right to demand the suppression of the said works, plantations or edifices, but he shall have his choice either to reimburse the value of the materials, and the price of workmanship, or to reimburse a sum equal to the enhanced value of the soil.

Art. 13. The sand bars and accretions, which form themselves successively and imperceptibly to any soil situated on the shore of a river or creek are called alluvions.
The alluvion belongs to the owner of the soil situated on the edge of the water, whether it be a river or a creek, and whether the same be navigable or not.

Art. 14. The same rule applies to derelictions formed by running water retiring imperceptibly from one of its shores and encroaching on the other, the owner of the land adjoining the uncovered shore has a right to the dereliction, nor can the owner of the opposite shore claim on this side, the land which he has there lost.
This right does not take place in case of derelictions of the sea.

Art. 15. If the river or creek whether navigable or not, carries away by a sudden irruption, a considerable tract of land from an adjoining field, which said tract of land is susceptible of being identified, by carrying the same on a field lower down, or on the opposite shore, the owner of the tract of land thus carried away may claim his property, provided he does it within the year, or even after the year has elapsed, if the person to whose land the soil thus carried away, has been united, has not yet taken possession of the same.

Art. 16. If a river or creek whether navigable or not, by opening itself a new bed, cuts off and embraces the field of any individual owner of the shore, and makes it an island, the owner shall keep the property of his field.

Art. 17. If a river or creek whether navigable or not, opens itself a new bed by leaving its former channel, the owners of the soil newly occupied, shall take by way of indemnification, the former bed of the river every one in proportion to the quantity of land he has lost.
They shall again take their former property, if the river or creek returns to its former channel.

Art. 18. Pigeons, bees and fish, which go from one pigeon house, hive or fish pond into another pigeon house, hive or fish pond, belong to the owner of those things, provided said pigeons, bees or fish have not been attracted thither by fraud or artifice.



Art. 19. The right of accession, when it extends to two moveable things belonging to two different owners, rests altogether upon principles of natural equity.
The following rules shall direct the determination of the judge, in unforeseen cases, according to the peculiar circumstances of said cases.

Art. 20. When two things, belonging to different owners and which have been united in such a manner as to form a whole, are nevertheless of a nature to be separated, so that one may exist without the other, the whole belongs to the owner of the thing which forms the principal part, subject to his reimbursing to the other, the value of the thing which has been united to his own.

Art. 21. The part which is considered as principal is that to which the other has been united only for the use, ornament or completion of the other.
Thus the diamond is the principal part with reference to the gold in which it is set.
The coat itself with reference to the lace lining and embroidery.

Art. 22. Nevertheless equity requires that there should be some exception to the preceding rule, when the thing united is much more precious than the principal thing, and when it has been made use of unknown to the owner. In such case the owner may demand that the thing be separated and returned to him; even though there should thence result some injury to the thing to which it has been united.

Art. 23. If the two things united to form one whole, the one cannot be considered as the accession of the other, the most considerable in value, or in bulk, if the value be nearly equal, shall be considered as the principal.

Art. 24. If an artificer or any person whatever has employed materials which did not belong to him, in the making of a thing of a new kind, whether the materials may or not receive their former shape, the person who was the owner of the substance, has a right to claim the thing which was made out of it on reimbursing the price of the workmanship.

Art. 25. The rule established in the preceding article, does not apply when the workmanship is so important that is surpasses by far the value of the materials which have been employed. Industry then is considered as the principal part, and gives the workman a right to keep the thing which he has worked, on condition of reimbursing the price of the materials which were employed.

Art. 26. When a person has employed materials, part of which did, and part of which did not belong to him, in making a thing of a new kind, without either part of the materials being entirely destroyed, but in such a manner that they cannot be separated without inconvenience, the thing is common to both proprietors, to the one as to the materials which belonged to him, and to the other both as to the materials which belonged to him, and as to the price of the workmanship.

Art. 27. When a thing has been formed by a mixture of several materials belonging to different proprietors, each of which cannot be considered as the principal substance, the person unknown to whom the materials have been mixed may require the division of the same.
If the materials cannot be separated without inconvenience, their owners acquire in common the property of the thing, in proportion to the quantity, quality and value of the materials belonging to every one of them.

Art. 28. If the materials belonging to one of the proprietors, be far superior to the others both in quantity and value, in that case the proprietor of the most valuable materials, may claim the thing resulting from the mixture on reimbursing to the other the value of his materials.

Art. 29. When a thing belongs in common to the proprietors of the materials with which it has been formed, it must be sold at auction for the common benefit.

Art. 30. In all cases when the proprietor whose materials have been employed unknown to him, in making a thing of another kind, has a right to claim the property of that thing, he is at liberty to demand either that the materials be returned to him, in the same species, quantity, weight, measure and quality, or that their value be paid.

Art. 31. Against those who shall have employed materials belonging to others, unknown to them, may also be recovered damages according to circumstances and they are still liable to be prosecuted criminally, should the case require it.


Art. 8. Le droit de propriété donne en général au propriétaire par droit d'accession, tout ce qui s'unit ou s'incorpore à sa chose.
Mais cette règle générale reçoit plusieurs modifications, selon que la chose à laquelle se fait l'union, est immobilière ou mobilière, et suivant les diverses manières dont l'union se fait.



Art. 9. La propriété du sol emporte la propriété du dessus et du dessous.
Le propriétaire peut faire au-dessus toutes les plantations et constructions qu'il juge à propos, sauf les exceptions établies au titre des servitudes ou services fonciers.
Il peut faire au-dessous, toutes les constructions et les fouilles qu'il juge à propos, et tirer de ces fouilles, tous les profits qu'elles peuvent produire, sauf les modifications résultant des règlemens de police.

Art. 10. Toutes les constructions, plantations, et ouvrages faits sur le sol, ou dans son intérieur, sont présumés faits par le propriétaire et à ses frais et lui appartenir, si le contraire n'est prouvé.
Néanmoins un tiers peut acquérir par la seule possession, lorsqu'elle est suffisante pour opérer la prescription, la propriété soit d'un souterrain sous le bâtiment d'autrui, soit de toute autre partie du bâtiment.

Art. 11. Si le propriétaire du sol, y a fait des constructions, plantations et ouvrages, avec des matériaux qui ne lui appartiennent pas, il a le droit de les retenir, à la charge d'en payer la valeur au propriétaire et des dommages intérêts, s'il y a lieu.

Art. 12. Lorsque les plantations, constructions et ouvrages ont  été faits par un tiers, et avec ses matériaux, le propriétaire du fonds a le droit de les retenir, ou d'obliger ce tiers, à les retirer ou à les démolir.
Si le propriétaire en demande la suppression, elle est faite, aux frais de celui qui les a faites, sans aucune indemnité. Il peut même être condamné à des dommages intérêts, s'il y a lieu, pour le préjudice que peut avoir éprouvé le propriétaire du fonds.
Si le propriétaire les retient, il ne doit au propriétaire des matériaux, que le remboursement de leur valeur et du prix de la main d'œuvre, sans égard à la plus ou moins grande valeur que le fonds en a pur recevoir.
Néanmoins si les plantations, constructions et ouvrages ont été faits par un tiers évincé qui n'aurait pas été condamné à la restitution des fruits, attendu sa bonne foi, le propriétaire ne pourra demander la suppression desdits ouvrages, plantations et constructions, mais il aura le choix, ou de rembourser la valeur des matériaux et du prix de la main d'œuvre, ou de rembourser une somme égale à celle dont le fonds a augmenté de valeur.

Art. 13. Les attérissemens et accroissemens qui se forment successivement et imperceptiblement aux fonds riverains d'un fleuve ou d'une rivière, s'appellent alluvion.
L'alluvion profite au propriétaire riverain, soit qu'il s'agisse d'un fleuve ou d'une rivière navigable ou non.

Art. 14. Il en est de même des relais que forme l'eau courante qui se retire insensiblement de l'une de ses rives, en se portant sur l'autre, le propriétaire de la rive découverte profite de l'alluvion, sans que le riverain du côté opposé, y puisse venir réclamer le terrain qu'il a perdu.
Ce droit n'a pas lieu à l'égard des relais de la mer.

Art. 15. Si le fleuve ou la rivière navigable ou non, emporte par une force subite, un morceau considérable et reconnaissable d'un champ riverain, en le portant sur un champ inférieur, ou sur la rive opposée, le propriétaire de la partie enlevée peut réclamer sa propriété; pourvu qu'il fasse sa réclamation dans l'année, ou même après ce laps de tems, si celui auquel le champ a été uni, n'en a pas encore pris possession.

Art. 16. Si un fleuve ou une rivière navigable ou non, en se formant un bras nouveau, coupe et embrasse le champ d'un propriétaire riverain et on fait une île, ce propriétaire conserve la propriété de son champ.

Art. 17. Si le fleuve ou la rivière navigable ou non, se forme un nouveau cours, en abandonnant son ancien lit, les propriétaires des fonds nouvellement occupés, prendront à titre d'indemnité, l'ancien lit abandonné, chacun dans la proportion du terrain qui lui a été enlevé.
Ils reprendront leur ancienne propriété, si le fleuve ou la rivière vient à reprendre son lit.

Art. 18. Les pigeons, les mouches à miel, et les poissons qui passent dans un autre colombier, ruche ou étang, appartiennent au propriétaire de ces objets, pourvu qu'ils n'y ayent pas été attirés par fraude et artifice.



Art. 19. Le droit d'accession lorsqu'il a pour objet deux choses mobilières appartenant à deux maîtres différens, est entièrement subordonné aux principes de l'équité naturelle.
Les règles suivantes serviront au juge pour se déterminer dans les cas non prévus, suivant les circonstances particulières.

Art. 20. Lorsque deux choses appartenant à différens maîtres, qui ont été unies de manière à former un tout, sont néanmoins séparables, en sorte que l'une puisse subsister sans l'autre, le tout appartient an maître de la chose qui forme la partie principale, à la charge de payer à l'autre, la valeur de la chose qui a été unie.

Art. 21. La partie qui est réputée principale est celle à laquelle l'autre n'a été unie que pour l'usage, l'ornement ou le complément de l'autre.
Ainsi le diamant est la partie principale relativement à l'or dans lequel il a été enchassé.
L'habit relativement au galon, à la doublure et à la broderie.

Art. 22. L'équité veut néanmoins que la règle précédente reçoive exception, quand la chose unie est beaucoup plus précieuse que la chose principale, et quand elle a été employée à l'insçu du propriétaire; dans ce cas celui-ci peut demander que la chose unie soit séparée pour lui être rendue, même quand il pourrait en résulter quelque dégradation de la chose à laquelle elle à été jointe.

Art. 23. Si des deux choses unies pour former un seul tout, l'une ne peut point être regardée comme l'accessoire de l'autre, celle-là est réputée principale qui est la plus considérable en valeur, ou en volume, si les valeurs sont à peu près égales.

Art. 24. Si un artisan ou une personne quelconque a employé une matière qui ne lui appartenait pas, à former une chose d'une nouvelle espèce, soit que la matière puisse ou non reprendre sa première forme, celui qui en était le propriétaire, a le droit de réclamer la chose qui en a été formée, en remboursant le prix de la main d'œuvre.

Art. 25. La règle établie dans l'article ci-dessus, cesse, lorsque la main d'œuvre est tellement importante, qu'elle surpasse de beaucoup la valeur de la matière employée, l'industrie est alors réputée la partie principale et donne le droit à l'ouvrier, de retenir la chose travaillée, en remboursant le prix de la matière employée.

Art. 26. Lorsqu'une personne a employé en partie la matière qui lui appartenait et en partie celle qui ne lui appartenait pas, à former une chose d'une nouvelle espèce, sans que ni l'une ni l'autre des deux matières soit entièrement détruite, mais de manière qu'elles ne puissent pas se séparer sans inconvénient, la chose est commune aux deux propriétaires, en raison quant à l'un, de la matière qui lui appartenait; quant à l'autre, en raison à la fois, et de la matière qui lui appartenait, et du prix de sa main d'œuvre.

Art. 27. Lorsqu'une chose a été formée par le mélange de plusieurs matières appartenant à différens propriétaires, mains dont chacune ne peut être regardée comme la matière principale, si les matières peuvent être séparées, celui à l'insçu duquel les matières ont été mélangées, peut en demander la division.
Si les matières ne peuvent être séparées sans inconvénient, ils on acquièrent en commun la propriété dans la proportion de la quantité, de la qualité et de la valeur des matières appartenant à chacun d'eux.

Art. 28. Si la matière appartenant à l'un des propriétaires, était le beaucoup supérieure à l'autre, par la quantité et le prix, en ce cas le propriétaire de la matière supérieure en valeur, pourrait réclamer la chose provenue du mélange, en remboursant à l'autre la valeur de sa matière.

Art. 29. Lorsque la chose reste en commun entre les propriétaires des matières dont elle a été formée, elle doit être vendue à l'enchère publique au profit commun.

Art. 30. Dans tous les cas où le propriétaire dont la matière a été employée à son insçu, à former une chose d'une autre espèce, peut réclamer la propriété de cette chose, il a le droit de demander la restitution de sa matière en même nature, quantité, poids, mesure et bonté, ou sa valeur.

Art. 31. Ceux qui auront employé des matières appartenant à d'autres et à leur insçu pourront aussi être condamnés des dommages intérêts, s'il y a lieu, sans préjudice des poursuites par la voie criminelle, si le cas y échet.

< Previous | Next >© Manuscript notes copyright 1968 by Louis V. de la Vergne.
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