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Table of Contents

Cover Page
Foreword
Abbreviations
Synopsis
Preliminary title Of the general definitions of rights and the promulgation of the laws
    Chapter I Of law and customs
    Chapter II Of the publication of the laws
    Chapter III Of the effects of laws
    Chapter IV Of the application and construction of laws
    Chapter V Of the repeal of laws
Book I Of persons
    Title I Of the distinction of persons, and the privation of certain civil rights in certain cases
      Chapter I Of the distinction of persons established by nature
      Chapter II Of the distinctions of persons which are established by law
    Title II Of domicil and the manner of changing the same
    Title III Of absent persons
      Chapter I Of the curatorship of absent persons
      Chapter II Of the putting into provisional possession the heirs of the absentee
      Chapter III Of the effects of absence upon the eventual rights which may belong to the absentee
      Chapter IV Of the effects of absence respecting marriage
      Chapter V Of the care of minor children whose father has disappeared
    Title IV Of husband and wife
      Chapter I On marriage
      Chapter II How marriages may be contracted or made
      Chapter III Of the nullity of marriages
      Chapter IV Of the respective rights and duties of married persons
      Chapter V Of the dissolution of marriages
      Chapter VI Of second marriages
    Title V Of the separation from bed and board
      Chapter I Of the causes of separation from bed and board
      Chapter II Of the proceedings on separation from bed and board
      Chapter III Of the provisional proceedings to which a suit for separation may give occasion
      Chapter IV Of objections to the action of separation from bed and board
      Chapter V Of the effects of separation from bed and board
    Title VI Of master and servant
      Chapter I Of the several sorts of servants
      Chapter II Of free servants
      Chapter III Of slaves
    Title VII Of father and child
      Chapter I Of children in general
      Chapter II Of legitimate children
        Section I Of legitimacy resulting from marriage
        Section II Of the manner of proving the legitimate filiation
      Chapter III Of illegitimate children
        Section I Of legitimation
        Section II Of the acknowledgment of illegitimate children
      Chapter IV Of adoption
      Chapter V Of paternal authority
        Section I Of the duties of parents towards their legitimate children, and of the duties of legitimate children towards their parents
        Section II Of the duties of parents towards their natural children, and of the duties of natural children towards their parents
    Title VIII Of minors, of their tutorship, curatorship and emancipation
      Chapter I Of tutorship
        Section I General dispositions
        Section II Of tutorship by nature
        Section III Of tutorship by will
        Section IV Of the tutorship by the effect of the law
        Section V Of dative tutorship
        Section VI Of the under tutor
        Section VII Of the causes which dispense or excuse from the tutorship
        Section VIII Of incapacity for, exclusion from and deprivation of the tutorship
        Section IX Of the administration of the tutor
      Chapter II Of the curatorship of minors
      Chapter III Of emancipation
    Title IX Of persons insane, idiots, and other persons incapable of administering their estate
      Chapter I Of the interdiction and curatorship of persons incapable of administering their estate, whether on account of insanity or of some other infirmity
      Chapter II Of the other persons to whom curators are appointed
    Title X Of communities or corporations
      Chapter I Of the nature of communities or corporations, of their use and kind
      Chapter II Of the rights and privileges of communities or corporations and of their incapacities
      Chapter III Of the dissolution of communities or corporations
Book II Of things and of the different modifications of property
    Title I Of things or estates
      Chapter I Of the distinction of things or estates
      Chapter II Of immoveables
      Chapter III Of moveables
      Chapter IV Of estates considered in their relation to those who possess them
    Title II Of absolute ownership
      Chapter I Universal principles
      Chapter II Of the right of accession to what is produced by the thing
      Chapter III Of the right of accession to what unites or incorporates itself to the thing
        Section I Of the right of accession concerning immoveables
        Section II Of the right of accession concerning moveable things
    Title III Of usufruct, use and habitation
      Chapter I Of usufruct
        Section I General definitions
        Section II Of the rights of the usufructuary
        Section III Of the obligations of the usufructuary
        Section IV Of the obligations of the owner
        Section V How usufruct expires
      Chapter II Of the use and habitation
    Title IV Of predial services or services of land
      Chapter I General principles
      Chapter II Of services which originate from the natural situation of the place
      Chapter III Of services imposed by law
        Section I Of walls, fences, and ditches in common
        Section II Of the distance and of the intermediary works required for certain buildings
        Section III Of lights on the property of a neighbor
        Section IV Of the manner of carrying off rain from the roof
        Section V Of the right of passage
      Chapter IV Of services established by the act of man
        Section I Of the different kinds of services which may be established by the act of man
        Section II How services are acquired
        Section III Of the rights of the proprietor of the estate to which the service is due
        Section IV How Services are extinguished
Book III Of the different manners of acquiring the property of things
    Preliminary title General dispositions
    Title I Of successions
      Chapter I Of the different sorts of successions and heirs
      Chapter II Of legal successions
        Section I General rules
        Section II Of the succession of descendants
        Section III Of the succession of ascendants
        Section IV Of the succession of collaterals
      Chapter III Of irregular successions
      Chapter IV In what manner successions are opened
      Chapter V Of the incapacity and unworthiness of the heirs
      Chapter VI In what manner a succession is accepted and how it is renounced
        Section I Of the acceptance pure and simple
        Section II Of the acceptance of a succession with the benefit of an inventory
      Chapter VII Of the administration of vacant estates and estates ab intestato
      Chapter VIII Of partition among heirs and of the collation of goods
        Section I Of the nature of partition and in what manner it is made
        Section II Of the collation of goods
        Section III Of the payment of debts
        Section IV Of the effect of partition and of its rescision
    Title II Of donations inter vivos (between living persons) and mortis causa (in prospect of death)
      Chapter I General dispositions
      Chapter II Of the capacity necessary for disposing of and receiving by donation inter vivos or mortis causa
      Chapter III Of the portion disposable, and of its reduction in case of excess
        Section I Of the disposable portion and the legitime
        Section II Of the reduction of dispositions inter vivos or mortis causa; of the manner in which it is made and of its effects
      Chapter IV Of dispositions reprobated by the law in donations inter vivos and mortis causa
      Chapter V Of donations inter vivos (between living)
        Section I Of the irrevocability of donations inter vivos
        Section II Of the form of donations inter vivos
        Section III Of the exceptions to the rule of the irrevocability of donations inter vivos
      Chapter VI Of dispositions mortis causa (in the prospect of death)
        Section I Of testament or codicil
        Section II Of the form of testaments and codicils
        Section III Of testamentary dispositions
        Section IV Of the institution of heir and of disinherison
        Section V Of legacies
        Section VI Of the opening and the proof of wills, and of testamentary executions
        Section VII Of the revocation of testaments and codicils and of their caducity
        Section VIII Of the interpretation of testamentary dispositions
      Chapter VII Of partitions made by parents among their descendants
      Chapter VIII Of donations made by marriage contract to the husband or wife, and to the children to be born of the marriage
      Chapter IX Of donations between married persons, either by marriage contract, or during the marriage
    Title III Of contracts and of conventional obligations in general
      Chapter I Preliminary dispositions
      Chapter II Of the conditions essential to the validity of agreements
        Section I Of consent
        Section II Of the capability of the parties contracting
        Section III Of the object and the matter of contracts
        Section IV Of the cause
      Chapter III Of the effect of obligations
        Section I General dispositions
        Section II Of the obligation of giving
        Section III Of the obligations of doing or of not doing
        Section IV Of the damages resulting from the non execution of the obligation
        Section V Of the interpretation of the agreements
        Section VI Of the effect of agreements with regard to persons not parties to them
      Chapter IV Of the different kinds of obligations
        Section I Of conditional obligations
          § 1 Of the condition in general and of its different kinds
          § 2 Of the suspensive condition
          § 3 Of the dissolving condition
        Section II Of obligations to be performed at a certain term
        Section III Of the alternative obligations
        Section IV Of obligations in solido or jointly and severally
          § 1 Of the obligation in solido between creditors
          § 2 Of the obligation in solido on the part of debtors
        Section V Of obligations divisible and indivisible
          § 1 Of the effects of a divisible obligation
          § 2 Of the effect of the indivisible obligation
        Section VI Of obligations with penal clauses
      Chapter V Of the extinction of obligations
        Section I Of payment
          § 1 Of payment in general
          § 2 Of payment with subrogation
          § 3 Of the imputation of payments
          § 4 Of tenders of payment, and consignment
          § 5 Of the surrender of property
        Section II Of novation
        Section III Of the remission of the debt
        Section IV Of compensation
        Section V Of confusion
        Section VI Of the loss of the thing due
        Section VII Of the action of nullity or of rescission of agreements
      Chapter VI Of the proof of obligations and of that of payment
        Section I Of the literal proof
          § 1 Of the authentic title
          § 2 Of the acts under private signature
          § 3 Of copies of titles
          § 4 Of recognitive and confirmative acts
        Section II Of testimonial proof
        Section III Of presumptions
          § 1 Of presumptions established by law
          § 2 Of presumption not established by law
        Section IV Of the confession of the party
        Section V Of the proof by oath
    Title IV Of engagements formed without agreements, or of quasi contracts and quasi offences
      Section I Of the quasi contract
      Section II Of quasi crimes or offences
    Title V Of marriage contract
      Chapter I General dispositions
      Chapter II Of the various kinds of matrimonial agreements
        Section I Of donations made in consideration of marriage
        Section II Of dowry or marriage portion
        Section III Of paraphernalia or extra dotal effects
        Section IV Of the partnership or community of acquests or gains
      Chapter III Of the separation of property
    Title VI Of sale
      Chapter I Of the nature and form of the contract of sale, and of the manner in which it is to be performed
      Chapter II Of persons capable of buying and selling, and of things which may be sold
      Chapter III Of the obligations of the seller
        Section I Of the tradition or delivery of the thing sold
        Section II Of the warranty, in case of eviction of the thing sold
        Section III Of the warranty of the defects of the thing sold or of the redhibitory vices
      Chapter IV Of the obligations of the buyer
      Chapter V Of the nullity and rescissions of the sale
        Section I Of the power or right of redemption
        Section II Of the rescission of sales on account of lesion
      Chapter VI Of sales by cant or auction
      Chapter VII Of the assignment or transfer of debts and other incorporeal rights
    Title VII Of exchange
    Title VIII Of letting and hiring
      Chapter I Of the several species of contracts for letting and hiring
      Chapter II Of the contract for letting out things
        Section I Of the form and duration of leases
        Section II Of the obligations of the lessor
        Section III Of the obligations of the lessee
        Section IV Of the dissolution of leases
      Chapter III Of the letting out of labour or industry
        Section I Of the hiring of servants and workmen
        Section II Of carriers and watermen
        Section III Of plots for buildings and other works
    Title IX Of partnership
      Chapter I General dispositions
      Chapter II Of the various kinds of partnerships
      Chapter III Of the obligations of partners towards each other, and towards third persons
        Section I Of the obligations of partners towards each other
        Section II Of the obligations of partners towards third persons
      Chapter IV Of the different manners in which partnerships end
    Title X Of loan
      Chapter I Of the loan for use or commodatum
        Section I Of the nature of the loan for use
        Section II Of the engagements of the borrower for use
        Section III Of the engagements of the lender for use
      Chapter II Of the loan for consumption or mutuum
        Section I Of the nature of the loan for consumption
        Section II Of the obligations of the lender for consumption
        Section III Of the engagements of the borrower for consumption
      Chapter III Of loan on interest
    Title XI Of deposit and sequestration
      Chapter I Of deposit in general and of its divers kinds
      Chapter II Of the deposit properly so called
        Section I Of the nature and essence of the contract of deposit
        Section II Of the obligations of the depository
        Section III Of the obligations of him by whom the deposit has been made
        Section IV Of the necessary deposit
      Chapter III Of sequestration
        Section I Of its different species
        Section II Of the conventional sequestration
        Section III Of the judicial sequestration or deposit
    Title XII Of aleatory contracts
    Title XIII Of mandate or commission
      Chapter I Of the nature of proxies, mandates and commissions
      Chapter II What persons may be appointed attornies in fact
      Chapter III Of the obligations of a person acting under a power of attorney
      Chapter IV Of the obligations of the principal who acts by his attorney in fact
      Chapter V How the procuration expires
    Title XIV Of suretyship
      Chapter I Of the nature and extent of suretyship
      Chapter II Of the effects of suretyship
        Section I Of the effects of suretyship between the creditor and the surety
        Section II Of the effects of suretyship between the debtor and the surety
        Section III Respecting the effects of suretyship between the sureties
      Chapter III Of the extinction of suretyship
      Chapter IV Of the legal and judicial sureties
    Title XV Of transactions
    Title XVI Of respite
    Title XVII Of compromises or arbitration
    Title XVIII Of pledge
    Title XIX Of privileges and mortgages
      Chapter I Of the nature of a mortgage and of its several sorts
      Chapter II Who may mortgage and what thing may be mortgaged
      Chapter III Of the effects of mortgage
        Section I Of the effects of mortgage with regard to the debtor
        Section II Of the effects of mortgages against third possessors and of the action of mortgage
        Section III Of the registering of mortgages and of the register kept for that purpose
      Chapter IV Of the order of privileges and mortgages
        Section I Of the preference and order of privileges
      Chapter V How privileges or mortgages expire or are extinguished
    Title XX Of occupancy, possession and prescription
      Chapter I Of occupancy
      Chapter II Of possession
      Chapter III Of prescription
        Section I Of the possession required to establish prescription
        Section II Of the causes which suspend or interrupt prescriptions
        Section III Of the several species of prescription
    Title XXI Of the title by judgment or seizure
Index
Manuscript index
Manuscript index Part 2

BOOK II - OF THINGS AND OF THE DIFFERENT MODIFICATIONS OF PROPERTY

 

TITLE I - OF THINGS OR ESTATES

 

CHAPTER I - OF THE DISTINCTION OF THINGS OR ESTATES

Art. 1. The word estate in general, is applicable to any thing in which the riches or fortunes of citizens may consist. This word is likewise relative to the word thing which is the second object of jurisprudence whose rules are applicable to persons, things and actions.

Art. 2. Things are either common or public, they either belong to corporations, or they are the property of each individual.

Art. 3. Things which are common are those whose property belongs to nobody, and which all men may freely use, conformably to the use for which nature has intended them, such are air, running water, and the sea and its shores.

Art. 4. By sea shore, we understand the space of land upon which the waters of the sea, are spread in the highest water, during the winter season.

Art. 5. From the public use of the sea shores, it follows that every one has a right to build there a cabin, to retire to, and likewise to land there, either to fish or to shelter themselves from the storm, to moor ships, to dry nets, and the like, provided, no damage arise from the same to the buildings or monuments erected by the owners of the adjoining property.

Art. 6. Public things are those the property of which belongs to a whole nation, and the use of which is allowed to all the members of the nation: Of this kind, are navigable rivers, sea ports, roads, harbours, high ways, and the bed of rivers as long as the same is covered with water.
Hence it follows that every man has a right freely to fish in the rivers, ports, roads, and harbours.

Art. 7. In the number of public things are likewise reckoned such as are for the common use of the inhabitants of a city, or of another place, and on which individuals cannot exercise any right of property, such as the walls, the ditches, the gates, the streets, and the public squares of a city.

Art. 8. The use of the shores of navigable rivers or creeks, is public; accordingly every one has a right freely to bring his ships to land there, to make fast the same to the trees which are there planted, to unload his vessels, to deposit his goods, to dry his nets, and the like.
Nevertheless the property of the river shores belong to those who possess the adjoining lands.

Art. 9. Things which belong to bodies or corporations are of common use to all those who compose said bodies or corporations respectively: such are the commons of cities, the churches of the different religious congregations and the like.
Even strangers may enjoy the use of things which belong to bodies or corporations, as in the case of the commons of cities, provided the members who compose those bodies or corporations do not object to it.

Art. 10. Things which belong to each individual respectively, form private estates and riches.

Art. 11. Things are divided in the second place into corporeal and incorporeal.
Corporeal things are such as are made manifest to the senses, which we may touch and take, which have a body whether animate or inanimate.  Of this kind are fruits, corn, gold, silver, clothes, furniture, lands, meadows, woods and houses.
Incorporeal things are such as are not manifest to the senses, and those which are conceived only by the understanding, such as the rights of inheritance, services and obligations.

Art. 12. The third and last division of things or estates, is into moveable and immoveable.

 

CHAPTER II - OF IMMOVEABLES

Art. 13. Real estate or immoveable things are in general such as cannot be carried from one place to another, or such as those which cannot move.
But this definition strictly speaking is applicable only to such things as are immoveable by their own nature and not to such as are so only by the disposition of the law.

Art. 14. There are things immoveable by their nature, others by their destination, and others by the object to which they apply.

Art. 15. A tract of land and buildings are immoveable by their nature.

Art. 16. Wind and watermills fixed upon posts, and being a part of the building are likewise immoveable, by their nature.

Art. 17. Standing crops and the fruits of trees not yet gathered, are likewise immoveable.
As soon as the corn is reaped and the fruits gathered, although not yet carried off, they are moveable.
If a part only of the crop be reaped, that part only is moveable.

Art. 18. The pipes made use of for the purpose of bring water to a house or other inheritance, are immoveable and are a part of the tenement to which they are attached.

Art. 19. Slaves in this territory are considered as immoveable by the operation of law, on account of their value and utility for the cultivation of the lands, and therefore they may be mortgaged.

Art. 20. The things which the owner of a tract of land, has placed upon it, for its service and improvement, are immoveable by destination.
Thus are immoveable by destination, when they have been placed by the owner for the service and improvement of a tract of land; to wit:
The cattle intended for cultivation;
The implements of husbandry;
The seeds, plants, fodder and manure;
The pigeons in a pigeon house;
Bee hives;
The mills, kettles, alembics, tubs, barrels and other machinery made use of in carrying on works;
The utensils necessary for working cotton and saw mills, taffia distilleries, sugar refineries and other manufactures;
Are likewise immoveable by destination all such moveables as the owner has attached to the tenement or to the building for ever.

Art. 21. The owner is supposed to have attached to his tenement or building for ever, such moveables as are affixed to the same with plaister or plaister and lime.
Or such as cannot be taken off without being broken or injured, or without breaking or injuring the part of the building or tenement to which they are attached;
Such are the wainscots, pictures and looking glasses affixed to a chimney.
With respect to statues placed by the owner in niches made on purpose in buildings, they are thereby considered as placed there for ever.

Art. 22. Are immoveable by the object to which they apply.
The usufruct of immoveable things;
The servitude or services due on a tract of land;
The actions the end of which is to claim an immoveable thing.

 

CHAPTER III - OF MOVEABLES

Art. 23. Estates are moveable by their nature or by the disposition of the law.

Art. 24. Things moveable by their nature are such as may be carried from one place to another, whether they move by themselves, as cattle, or cannot be removed without an extraneous power, as inanimate things.

Art. 25. Things moveable by the determination of the law, are obligations and actions, the object of which is to recover money due or moveables shares or interest in banks or companies of commerce or industry, or other speculations, although said companies be possessed of immoveables depending upon said enterprises; said shares or interest are considered as moveables with respect to every associate as long only as the society is in existence.
In the class of things moveable by the determination of the law, are also considered perpetual rents and annuities.

Art. 26. Every perpetual rent charge, as the consideration of the sale of immoveable property, or as the condition of the transfer of immoveable property, whether on a gratuitous or onerous title, is essentially redeemable.
The creditor has nevertheless a right to regulate the clauses and conditions of the redemption.
He may likewise stipulate that the rent shall not be reimbursed till after a certain time, which can never exceed thirty years; every other stipulation is null.

Art. 27. Boats, flat boats, ships, mills erected on boats, and generally every machine not resting upon pillars, and not being part of a house, are moveables.

Art. 28. Materials arising from the demolition of a building, those which are collected for the purpose of raising a new building, are moveables until they have been made use of by the workmen in raising a new building.

Art. 29. The word moveable furniture made use of within the provision of the law or the disposition of man comprehends only such furniture as is intended for the use and ornament of apartments, as tapestry, bed steads, chairs, looking glasses, time pieces, china and the like.
Pictures and statues which are a part of the furniture of an apartment, are likewise included, but not libraries which may happen to be there, nor plate.

Art. 30. The expression of moveable goods, that of moveables, or moveable effects, comprehend generally all that is reckoned to be moveable according to the rules before laid down.

Art. 31. The sale or gift of a house ready furnished, includes only such moveables as are the furniture of the house.

 

CHAPTER IV - OF ESTATES CONSIDERED IN THEIR RELATION TO THOSE WHO POSSESS THEM

Art. 32. Individuals have the free disposal of the estates which belong to them under the restrictions established by law.
But the estates, the property of the nation, of bodies or corporations, are administered according to laws and regulations which are peculiar to them; and it is likewise according to said laws and regulations, that the nation and corporations may sell their estates or otherwise dispose of the same.

Art. 33. The national domain properly speaking, comprehends all the landed estate, and all the rights which belong to the nation, whether the latter be in the actual enjoyment of the same or have only a right to re-enter on them.

Art. 34. Different sorts of rights may be exercised on estates;
Some have a full and entire property in an estate;
Others have simply the enjoyment of it;
Others, in fine, have only a claim to certain services due by the estate.

LIVRE II - DES BIENS ET DES DIFFÉRENTS MODIFICATIONS DE LA PROPRIÉTÉ

 

TITRE I - DES CHOSES OU DES BIENS

 

CHAPITRE I - DE LA DISTINCTION DES CHOSES OU DES BIENS

Art. 1. Le mot bien se dit en général de tout ce qui peut composer les richesses et la fortune des citoyens; ce terme est également relatif au mot chose qui est le second objet du droit dont les règles doivent s'appliquer aux personnes, aux choses et aux actions.

Art. 2. Les choses sont ou communes ou publiques; ou elles appartiennent à des corps, ou elles sont dans le domaine de chaque particulier.

Art. 3. Les choses communes sont celles dont la propriété n'appartient à personne, et dont tous les hommes peuvent se servir librement, conformément à l'usage pour lequel la nature les a destinées; telles sont l'air, l'eau courante, la mer et ses rivages.

Art. 4. On entend par rivage de la mer, l'espace de terre sur lequel s'étendent les flots de la mer dans la plus grande élévation que ses eaux ont en tems d'hiver.

Art. 5. Il résulte de l'usage public des rivages de la mer, qu'il est permis à chacun, d'y bâtir une cabane pour s'y retirer, comme aussi d'y aborder, soit pour y pêcher, soit pour s'y retirer à l'abri de la tempête; d'y attacher ses vaisseaux, et d'y faire sécher ses filets et autres usages semblables, pourvu qu'on ne cause aucun dommage aux édifices ou monumens que les riverains y ont fait construire.

Art. 6. Les choses publiques sont celles dont la propriété appartient à un peuple et dont l'usage est permis à tous les membres de la nation. De ce genre sont les rivières navigables, les ports, rades et hâvres, les grands chemins et le lit des rivières aussi long-tems qu'il est couvert par les eaux.
De là il suit qu'il est permis à chacun de pêcher librement dans les rivières, ports, rades et hâvres.

Art. 7. On met aussi au nombre des choses publiques, celles qui sont à l'usage commun des habitans d'une ville, ou d'un autre lieu et où les particuliers ne peuvent avoir aucun droit de propriété, comme sont les murs, les fossés, les portes, les rues et les places publiques d'une ville.

Art. 8. L'usage des rivages des fleuves ou rivières navigables, est public; en conséquence chacun peut librement y faire aborder ses vaisseaux, en attacher les cordages aux arbres qui y sont plantés, y décharger ses navires, y déposer ses marchandises, y faire sécher ses filets et autres usages semblables.
Cependant la propriété des rivages des rivières appartient à ceux qui ont des terrés joignantes.

Art. 9. Les choses qui appartiennent à des corps ou corporations, sont d'un usage commun à tous ceux qui composent ces corps ou corporations respectivement; telles son les communes des villes, les églises des différentes congrégations religieuses et autres semblables.
Les personnes étrangères peuvent même avoir quelquefois l'usage des biens qui appartiennent à ces corps ou corporations, comme dans le cas des communes des villes, pourvu que les membres qui composent ces corps ou corporations ne s'y opposent pas.

Art. 10. Les choses qui sont dans le domaine de chaque individu, forment les biens et les richesses particulières.

Art. 11. Les choses se divisent en second lieu en corporelles et en incorporelles.
Les corporelles sont celles qui tombent sous les sens, que nous pouvons toucher et prendre, qui ont un corps soit animé, soit inanimé; de ce genre sont, les fruits, les grains, l'or, l'argent, les habits, les meubles, les terres, prés, bois et maisons.
Les incorporelles sont toutes celles qui ne peuvent tomber sous les sens, et que nous ne concevons que par l'entendement, telles que les droits d'hérédité, de servitude et les obligations.

Art. 12. Enfin une troisième division des choses ou des biens, est en meubles et en immeubles.

 

CHAPITRE II - DES IMMEUBLES

Art. 13. Les immeubles ou choses immobilières, sont en général ceux qu'on ne peut transporter d'un lieu à un autre, ou qui ne peuvent se mouvoir.
Mais cette définition ne s'applique rigoureusement qu'aux biens qui sont immeubles par leur nature et non à ceux qui ne le sont que par la disposition de la loi.

Art. 14. Il y a des biens immeubles par leur nature, d'autres par leur destination, d'autres encore par l'objet auquel ils s'appliquent.

Art. 15. Sont immeubles par leur nature, les fonds de terre et les bâtimens.

Art. 16. Les moulins à vent et à eau fixés sur piliers et faisant partie du bâtiment, sont aussi immeubles par leur nature.

Art. 17. Les récoltes pendantes par les racines et les fruits des arbres non encore recueillis, sont pareillement immeubles.
Dès que les grains sont coupés et les fruits détachés quoique non enlevés, ils sont meubles.
Si une partie seulement de la récolte est coupée, cette partie seule est meuble.

Art. 18. Les tuyaux servant à la conduite des eaux dans une maison ou autre héritage, sont immeubles et font partie du fonds auquel ils sont attachés.

Art. 19. Les esclaves sont considérés dans ce territoire, comme immeubles par l'opération de la loi, en raison de leur valeur et de leur importance pour la culture des terres et en conséquence, ils sont sujets à être hypothéqués.                   

Art. 20. Les objets que les propriétaires d'un fonds y ont placés pour le service et l'exploitation de ce fonds, sont immeubles par destination.
Aussi sont immeubles par destination, quand ils ont été placés par le propriétaier pour le service et l'exploitation du fonds:
Les animaux attachés à la culture;
Les ustensiles aratoires;
Les semences, plants, pailles et engrais;
Les pigeons des colombiers;
Les ruches à miel;
Les moulins, chaudières, alambics,  cuves, tonnes et autres machines servant à l'exploitation;
Les ustensiles nécessaires à l'exploitation des moulins à coton, à scie, guildives, raffineries et autres manufactures;
Sont aussi immeubles par destination, tous les effets mobiliers que le propriétaire a attaché au fonds ou au bâtiment, à perpétuelle demeure.

Art. 21. Le propriétaire est censé avoir attaché à son fonds ou bâtiment, des effets mobiliers, à perpétuelle demeure:
Lorsqu'ils y sont scellés en plâtre ou à chaux et ciment;
Ou lorsqu'ils ne peuvent être détachés, sans être fracturés et détériorés, ou sans briser et détériorer la partie du bâtiment ou du fonds à laquelle ils sont attachés;
Tels peuvent être les lambris, boiseries, tableaux, peintures, glaces et trumeaux.
A l'égard des statues placées par le propriétaire dans des niches pratiquées exprès dans les bâtimens, elles sont censées par cela seul à perpetuelle demeure.

Art. 22. Sont immeubles par l'objet auquel ils s'appliquent:
L'usufruit des choses immobilières;
Les servitudes ou services fonciers;
Les actions qui tendent à revendiquer un immeuble.

 

CHAPITRE III - DES MEUBLES

Art. 23. Les meubles sont meubles par leur nature ou par la détermination de la loi.

Art. 24. Sont meubles par leur nature, les corps qui peuvent se transporter d'un lieu à un autre, soit qu'ils se meuvent par eux-mêmes, comme les animaux, soit qu'ils ne puissent changer de place que par l'effet d'une force étrangère, comme les choses inanimées.

Art. 25. Sont meubles par la détermination de la loi, les obligations et actions qui ont pour objet des sommes exigibles ou des effets mobiliers des actions ou intérêts dans les banques ou compagnies de commerce ou d'industrie ou autre spéculation, encore que des immeubles dépendans de ces entreprises appartiennent aux compagnies; ces actions ou intérêts sont réputés meubles, à l'égard de chaque associé seulement, tant que dure la société.
Sont aussi réputées meubles par la détermination de la loi, les rentes perpétuelles et viagères.

Art. 26. Toute rente établie à perpétuité pour le prix de la vente d'un immeuble ou comme condition de la cession, à titre onéreux ou gratuit, d'un fonds immobilier, est essentiellement rachetable.
Il est néanmoins permis au créancier de régler les clauses et conditions du rachat.
Il est aussi permis de stipuler que la rente ne pourra lui être remboursée qu'après un certain terme, lequel ne peut jamais excéder trente ans; toute stipulation contraire est nulle.

Art. 27. Les bateaux, bacs, navires, moulins sur bateaux, généralement toutes usines non fixées par des piliers, et ne faisant point partie de la maison, sont meubles.

Art. 28. Les matériaux provenant de la démolition d'un édifice, ceux assemblés pour en construire un nouveau, sont meubles, jusqu'à ce qu'ils soient employés par l'ouvrier dans une construction.

Art. 29. Les mots meubles meublans employés dans les dispositions de la loi ou de l'homme, ne comprennent que les meubles destinés à l'usage et à l'ornement des appartemens, comme tapisseries, lits, sièges, glaces, pendules, tables, porcelaines et autres objets de cette nature.
Les tableaux et les statues qui font partie du meuble d'un appartement y sont aussi compris, mais non les bibliothéques qui peuvent s'y trouver ni l'argenterie.

Art. 30. L'expression biens meubles, celle de mobiliers ou d'effets mobiliers comprennent généralement tout ce qui est censé meuble d'après les règles ci-dessus établies.

Art. 31. La vente ou le don d'une maison meublée ne comprend que les meubles meublans.

 

CHAPITRE IV - DES BIENS DANS LEUR RAPPORT AVEC CEUX QUI LES POSSÈDENT

Art. 32. Les particuliers ont la libre disposition des biens qui leur appartiennent, sous les modifications établies par la loi.
Mais ceux de la nation des corps ou corporations sont administrés d'après des lois et des règlemens qui leur sont propres; c'est aussi suivant les formes prescrites par ces lois et ces règlemens, que la nation et les corporations peuvent vendre leurs biens, ou autrement en disposer.

Art. 33. Le domaine national proprement dit, s'entend de toutes les propriétés foncières et de tous les droits qui appartiennent à la nation, soit qu'elle en ait la jouissance actuelle, soit qu'elle ait seulement le droit d'y rentrer.

Art. 34. On peut avoir sur les biens différentes espèces de droits;
Les uns en ont la propriété pleine et entière, d'autres une simple jouissance, d'autres enfin n'ont que des services fonciers à exiger.

< Previous | Next >© Manuscript notes copyright 1968 by Louis V. de la Vergne.
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