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Table of Contents

Cover Page
Preliminary title Of the general definitions of rights and the promulgation of the laws
    Chapter I Of law and customs
    Chapter II Of the publication of the laws
    Chapter III Of the effects of laws
    Chapter IV Of the application and construction of laws
    Chapter V Of the repeal of laws
Book I Of persons
    Title I Of the distinction of persons, and the privation of certain civil rights in certain cases
      Chapter I Of the distinction of persons established by nature
      Chapter II Of the distinctions of persons which are established by law
    Title II Of domicil and the manner of changing the same
    Title III Of absent persons
      Chapter I Of the curatorship of absent persons
      Chapter II Of the putting into provisional possession the heirs of the absentee
      Chapter III Of the effects of absence upon the eventual rights which may belong to the absentee
      Chapter IV Of the effects of absence respecting marriage
      Chapter V Of the care of minor children whose father has disappeared
    Title IV Of husband and wife
      Chapter I On marriage
      Chapter II How marriages may be contracted or made
      Chapter III Of the nullity of marriages
      Chapter IV Of the respective rights and duties of married persons
      Chapter V Of the dissolution of marriages
      Chapter VI Of second marriages
    Title V Of the separation from bed and board
      Chapter I Of the causes of separation from bed and board
      Chapter II Of the proceedings on separation from bed and board
      Chapter III Of the provisional proceedings to which a suit for separation may give occasion
      Chapter IV Of objections to the action of separation from bed and board
      Chapter V Of the effects of separation from bed and board
    Title VI Of master and servant
      Chapter I Of the several sorts of servants
      Chapter II Of free servants
      Chapter III Of slaves
    Title VII Of father and child
      Chapter I Of children in general
      Chapter II Of legitimate children
        Section I Of legitimacy resulting from marriage
        Section II Of the manner of proving the legitimate filiation
      Chapter III Of illegitimate children
        Section I Of legitimation
        Section II Of the acknowledgment of illegitimate children
      Chapter IV Of adoption
      Chapter V Of paternal authority
        Section I Of the duties of parents towards their legitimate children, and of the duties of legitimate children towards their parents
        Section II Of the duties of parents towards their natural children, and of the duties of natural children towards their parents
    Title VIII Of minors, of their tutorship, curatorship and emancipation
      Chapter I Of tutorship
        Section I General dispositions
        Section II Of tutorship by nature
        Section III Of tutorship by will
        Section IV Of the tutorship by the effect of the law
        Section V Of dative tutorship
        Section VI Of the under tutor
        Section VII Of the causes which dispense or excuse from the tutorship
        Section VIII Of incapacity for, exclusion from and deprivation of the tutorship
        Section IX Of the administration of the tutor
      Chapter II Of the curatorship of minors
      Chapter III Of emancipation
    Title IX Of persons insane, idiots, and other persons incapable of administering their estate
      Chapter I Of the interdiction and curatorship of persons incapable of administering their estate, whether on account of insanity or of some other infirmity
      Chapter II Of the other persons to whom curators are appointed
    Title X Of communities or corporations
      Chapter I Of the nature of communities or corporations, of their use and kind
      Chapter II Of the rights and privileges of communities or corporations and of their incapacities
      Chapter III Of the dissolution of communities or corporations
Book II Of things and of the different modifications of property
    Title I Of things or estates
      Chapter I Of the distinction of things or estates
      Chapter II Of immoveables
      Chapter III Of moveables
      Chapter IV Of estates considered in their relation to those who possess them
    Title II Of absolute ownership
      Chapter I Universal principles
      Chapter II Of the right of accession to what is produced by the thing
      Chapter III Of the right of accession to what unites or incorporates itself to the thing
        Section I Of the right of accession concerning immoveables
        Section II Of the right of accession concerning moveable things
    Title III Of usufruct, use and habitation
      Chapter I Of usufruct
        Section I General definitions
        Section II Of the rights of the usufructuary
        Section III Of the obligations of the usufructuary
        Section IV Of the obligations of the owner
        Section V How usufruct expires
      Chapter II Of the use and habitation
    Title IV Of predial services or services of land
      Chapter I General principles
      Chapter II Of services which originate from the natural situation of the place
      Chapter III Of services imposed by law
        Section I Of walls, fences, and ditches in common
        Section II Of the distance and of the intermediary works required for certain buildings
        Section III Of lights on the property of a neighbor
        Section IV Of the manner of carrying off rain from the roof
        Section V Of the right of passage
      Chapter IV Of services established by the act of man
        Section I Of the different kinds of services which may be established by the act of man
        Section II How services are acquired
        Section III Of the rights of the proprietor of the estate to which the service is due
        Section IV How Services are extinguished
Book III Of the different manners of acquiring the property of things
    Preliminary title General dispositions
    Title I Of successions
      Chapter I Of the different sorts of successions and heirs
      Chapter II Of legal successions
        Section I General rules
        Section II Of the succession of descendants
        Section III Of the succession of ascendants
        Section IV Of the succession of collaterals
      Chapter III Of irregular successions
      Chapter IV In what manner successions are opened
      Chapter V Of the incapacity and unworthiness of the heirs
      Chapter VI In what manner a succession is accepted and how it is renounced
        Section I Of the acceptance pure and simple
        Section II Of the acceptance of a succession with the benefit of an inventory
      Chapter VII Of the administration of vacant estates and estates ab intestato
      Chapter VIII Of partition among heirs and of the collation of goods
        Section I Of the nature of partition and in what manner it is made
        Section II Of the collation of goods
        Section III Of the payment of debts
        Section IV Of the effect of partition and of its rescision
    Title II Of donations inter vivos (between living persons) and mortis causa (in prospect of death)
      Chapter I General dispositions
      Chapter II Of the capacity necessary for disposing of and receiving by donation inter vivos or mortis causa
      Chapter III Of the portion disposable, and of its reduction in case of excess
        Section I Of the disposable portion and the legitime
        Section II Of the reduction of dispositions inter vivos or mortis causa; of the manner in which it is made and of its effects
      Chapter IV Of dispositions reprobated by the law in donations inter vivos and mortis causa
      Chapter V Of donations inter vivos (between living)
        Section I Of the irrevocability of donations inter vivos
        Section II Of the form of donations inter vivos
        Section III Of the exceptions to the rule of the irrevocability of donations inter vivos
      Chapter VI Of dispositions mortis causa (in the prospect of death)
        Section I Of testament or codicil
        Section II Of the form of testaments and codicils
        Section III Of testamentary dispositions
        Section IV Of the institution of heir and of disinherison
        Section V Of legacies
        Section VI Of the opening and the proof of wills, and of testamentary executions
        Section VII Of the revocation of testaments and codicils and of their caducity
        Section VIII Of the interpretation of testamentary dispositions
      Chapter VII Of partitions made by parents among their descendants
      Chapter VIII Of donations made by marriage contract to the husband or wife, and to the children to be born of the marriage
      Chapter IX Of donations between married persons, either by marriage contract, or during the marriage
    Title III Of contracts and of conventional obligations in general
      Chapter I Preliminary dispositions
      Chapter II Of the conditions essential to the validity of agreements
        Section I Of consent
        Section II Of the capability of the parties contracting
        Section III Of the object and the matter of contracts
        Section IV Of the cause
      Chapter III Of the effect of obligations
        Section I General dispositions
        Section II Of the obligation of giving
        Section III Of the obligations of doing or of not doing
        Section IV Of the damages resulting from the non execution of the obligation
        Section V Of the interpretation of the agreements
        Section VI Of the effect of agreements with regard to persons not parties to them
      Chapter IV Of the different kinds of obligations
        Section I Of conditional obligations
          § 1 Of the condition in general and of its different kinds
          § 2 Of the suspensive condition
          § 3 Of the dissolving condition
        Section II Of obligations to be performed at a certain term
        Section III Of the alternative obligations
        Section IV Of obligations in solido or jointly and severally
          § 1 Of the obligation in solido between creditors
          § 2 Of the obligation in solido on the part of debtors
        Section V Of obligations divisible and indivisible
          § 1 Of the effects of a divisible obligation
          § 2 Of the effect of the indivisible obligation
        Section VI Of obligations with penal clauses
      Chapter V Of the extinction of obligations
        Section I Of payment
          § 1 Of payment in general
          § 2 Of payment with subrogation
          § 3 Of the imputation of payments
          § 4 Of tenders of payment, and consignment
          § 5 Of the surrender of property
        Section II Of novation
        Section III Of the remission of the debt
        Section IV Of compensation
        Section V Of confusion
        Section VI Of the loss of the thing due
        Section VII Of the action of nullity or of rescission of agreements
      Chapter VI Of the proof of obligations and of that of payment
        Section I Of the literal proof
          § 1 Of the authentic title
          § 2 Of the acts under private signature
          § 3 Of copies of titles
          § 4 Of recognitive and confirmative acts
        Section II Of testimonial proof
        Section III Of presumptions
          § 1 Of presumptions established by law
          § 2 Of presumption not established by law
        Section IV Of the confession of the party
        Section V Of the proof by oath
    Title IV Of engagements formed without agreements, or of quasi contracts and quasi offences
      Section I Of the quasi contract
      Section II Of quasi crimes or offences
    Title V Of marriage contract
      Chapter I General dispositions
      Chapter II Of the various kinds of matrimonial agreements
        Section I Of donations made in consideration of marriage
        Section II Of dowry or marriage portion
        Section III Of paraphernalia or extra dotal effects
        Section IV Of the partnership or community of acquests or gains
      Chapter III Of the separation of property
    Title VI Of sale
      Chapter I Of the nature and form of the contract of sale, and of the manner in which it is to be performed
      Chapter II Of persons capable of buying and selling, and of things which may be sold
      Chapter III Of the obligations of the seller
        Section I Of the tradition or delivery of the thing sold
        Section II Of the warranty, in case of eviction of the thing sold
        Section III Of the warranty of the defects of the thing sold or of the redhibitory vices
      Chapter IV Of the obligations of the buyer
      Chapter V Of the nullity and rescissions of the sale
        Section I Of the power or right of redemption
        Section II Of the rescission of sales on account of lesion
      Chapter VI Of sales by cant or auction
      Chapter VII Of the assignment or transfer of debts and other incorporeal rights
    Title VII Of exchange
    Title VIII Of letting and hiring
      Chapter I Of the several species of contracts for letting and hiring
      Chapter II Of the contract for letting out things
        Section I Of the form and duration of leases
        Section II Of the obligations of the lessor
        Section III Of the obligations of the lessee
        Section IV Of the dissolution of leases
      Chapter III Of the letting out of labour or industry
        Section I Of the hiring of servants and workmen
        Section II Of carriers and watermen
        Section III Of plots for buildings and other works
    Title IX Of partnership
      Chapter I General dispositions
      Chapter II Of the various kinds of partnerships
      Chapter III Of the obligations of partners towards each other, and towards third persons
        Section I Of the obligations of partners towards each other
        Section II Of the obligations of partners towards third persons
      Chapter IV Of the different manners in which partnerships end
    Title X Of loan
      Chapter I Of the loan for use or commodatum
        Section I Of the nature of the loan for use
        Section II Of the engagements of the borrower for use
        Section III Of the engagements of the lender for use
      Chapter II Of the loan for consumption or mutuum
        Section I Of the nature of the loan for consumption
        Section II Of the obligations of the lender for consumption
        Section III Of the engagements of the borrower for consumption
      Chapter III Of loan on interest
    Title XI Of deposit and sequestration
      Chapter I Of deposit in general and of its divers kinds
      Chapter II Of the deposit properly so called
        Section I Of the nature and essence of the contract of deposit
        Section II Of the obligations of the depository
        Section III Of the obligations of him by whom the deposit has been made
        Section IV Of the necessary deposit
      Chapter III Of sequestration
        Section I Of its different species
        Section II Of the conventional sequestration
        Section III Of the judicial sequestration or deposit
    Title XII Of aleatory contracts
    Title XIII Of mandate or commission
      Chapter I Of the nature of proxies, mandates and commissions
      Chapter II What persons may be appointed attornies in fact
      Chapter III Of the obligations of a person acting under a power of attorney
      Chapter IV Of the obligations of the principal who acts by his attorney in fact
      Chapter V How the procuration expires
    Title XIV Of suretyship
      Chapter I Of the nature and extent of suretyship
      Chapter II Of the effects of suretyship
        Section I Of the effects of suretyship between the creditor and the surety
        Section II Of the effects of suretyship between the debtor and the surety
        Section III Respecting the effects of suretyship between the sureties
      Chapter III Of the extinction of suretyship
      Chapter IV Of the legal and judicial sureties
    Title XV Of transactions
    Title XVI Of respite
    Title XVII Of compromises or arbitration
    Title XVIII Of pledge
    Title XIX Of privileges and mortgages
      Chapter I Of the nature of a mortgage and of its several sorts
      Chapter II Who may mortgage and what thing may be mortgaged
      Chapter III Of the effects of mortgage
        Section I Of the effects of mortgage with regard to the debtor
        Section II Of the effects of mortgages against third possessors and of the action of mortgage
        Section III Of the registering of mortgages and of the register kept for that purpose
      Chapter IV Of the order of privileges and mortgages
        Section I Of the preference and order of privileges
      Chapter V How privileges or mortgages expire or are extinguished
    Title XX Of occupancy, possession and prescription
      Chapter I Of occupancy
      Chapter II Of possession
      Chapter III Of prescription
        Section I Of the possession required to establish prescription
        Section II Of the causes which suspend or interrupt prescriptions
        Section III Of the several species of prescription
    Title XXI Of the title by judgment or seizure
Manuscript index
Manuscript index Part 2




Art. 1. By community or corporation is meant the assembly of several persons united in one body organised conformably to law, or with the permission of the legislature.

Art. 2. According to this definition, communities or corporations are composed of persons either of the same or of different orders, with the exception however that no corporation comprehends persons of all the orders.
Thus the inhabitants of a city, of a borough, of a village taken collectively and considered with respect to their common interests, form a community of inhabitants; but a whole nation cannot be included under this name, nor indeed the inhabitants of a province, because the collection of all the individuals includes all the orders of the nation or of the province, and what concerns the public good, whether in the conduct of individuals, or in that of communities or corporations; whilst these last are confined to some species of particular advantage; and every one of them is distinguished from the other individuals and bodies of the same place.

Art. 3. The use of communities or corporations is to contribute by the union and assistance of several persons, to the promotion of some public advantage, although they be at the same time established for the common good of those who are members of the said corporation.
Thus the first rule of their policy is, that they are advantageous and useful to the state by which they are established, and that they be established only by the order, or with the leave of the legislature.
Without this order or permission they cannot be considered otherwise than as private societies, which do not enjoy the full extent of the advantages which are by law, granted to political bodies.

Art. 4. Communities or corporations are of two principal kinds; the ecclesiastical and the lay corporations, and this distinction results as well from the quality of the persons who generally compose these kinds of communities or corporations, as from the difference of the object of their establishment.

Art. 5. Ecclesiastical communities or corporations are those whose establishment relates only to religion, such are the congregations of the different religious persuasions; lay communities or corporations are those which relate to temporal police.
Such are the corporations of the cities, the companies for the advancement of commerce and agriculture, literary societies, colleges or universities founded for the instruction of youth and the like.



Art. 6. Communities or corporations must not only be authorised by the legislature, but a name must be given to them; and it is in that name they must sue or be sued, and do all their legal acts, although a slight alteration in this name be not important.

Art. 7. Communities legally established are substituted for persons, and their union which renders common to all those who compose them, their interests, their rights and their previliges, is the reason why they are considered as one single whole.
Hence it follows that they may possess an estate, and have a common treasury for the purpose of depositing their money; that they are capable of receiving legacies and donations; that they may make valid contracts, obligate others, and obligate themselves towards others; exercise the rights which belong to them, manage their own affairs, appear in courts of justice and indeed enact statutes and regulations for their own government, provided said statutes and regulations be not contrary to the laws of the political society of which they are members.

Art. 8. As communities or corporations are established for a public good whose cause never ceases, they are by their nature perpetual, and for this they are always the same; without the body being in any wise altered by the change of all the persons who compose such communities.
Thus in case a community or corporation shall be reduced to a single person, this person shall represent the community and shall exercise all rights with which he is invested until other persons shall be appointed to fill up the vacant places; and it is this which distinguishes communities or corporations from partnership, which is a kind of community between several persons, but only for a time.

Art. 9. Hence originates the right of perpetual succession which is equally of the nature of communities or corporations, and by which they transmit forever to their successors or assigns, their rights and previleges as well as the estate which they may possess.
The right of electing other members in the place of those who have retired from the corporation, is a consequence from the same principle.
This right is impliedly attached to the constitution of every community or corporation regularly established.

Art. 10. Communities or corporations are intellectual beings different and distinct from all the persons who compose them.

Art. 11. The estate and rights of a community or corporation belong so completely to the body, that none of the individuals who compose it has any right of ownership in them, nor can dispose of any part of them.
In this respect the thing belonging to a body, is very different from a thing which is common to several individuals, as respects the share which every one has in the partnership which exists between them.

Art. 12. According to the above rule, what is due to a corporation, is not due to any of the individuals who compose it, and vice versa.
A creditor of a corporation cannot of course, compel any of the members thereof, to pay what may be due to him by the said corporation, he can demand his payment of the corporation only, through their president, syndic or attorney in fact; and he can seize no other effects but such as belong to the said corporation, provided the debt has been contracted by the corporation, through their president, syndic or attorney in fact, for if all the individuals who compose the corporation have signed the deed personally, every one of them may be compelled to make payment, either for his individual portion or in solidum, when it has been stipulated expressly that the debt was contracted in solidum.

Art. 13. From the circumstance that a corporation is an intellectual being, it follows that they cannot personally transact all that they have a right legally to do, as has been above observed, wherefore it becomes necessary for every corporation to appoint some of their members to whom they may entrust the direction and care of their affairs, under the name of mayor, president, syndics, directors, or others, according to the statutes and qualities of such corporations.

Art. 14. The attornies in fact or officers thus appointed by communities or corporations for the direction and care of their affairs, have their respective duties pointed out by their nomination, and exercise them according to the general regulations and particular statutes of the community or corporation of which they are the heads.
These attornies or officers by contracting, bind the communities to which they belong in such things as do not exceed the limits of the administration which is entrusted to them.
Their act is supposed to be the act of the corporation and it is at their domicil that the citations and petitions which any one has to present against the corporation, are to be left.
If the powers of said attornies or officers have not been expressly determined, they are regulated in the same manner as those of other mandataries.

Art. 15. Communities or corporations being intellectual persons they are subject to various kinds of incapacities some of which are inherent to their nature, others are established by law.

Art. 16. A community or corporation cannot be administrator, guardian or testamentary executor, nor fulfil any other office of personal trust. A community cannot be attorney in fact, nor detain an estate for the use of another, for such a trust is foreign to the institution of a community. A community cannot be put in jail, for its existence being ideal, nobody can arrest or confine it.

Art. 17. In the same manner, a community or corporation cannot bring an action for assault and battery or for other like injuries; for a corporation can neither beat nor be beaten in its political capacity.

Art. 18. A corporation cannot commit the crime of treason or any other crime or offence in its political capacity, although its members may be guilty of those crimes in their individual and respective capacities.

Art. 19. In communities and corporations the act of the majority is considered as the act of the whole.

Art. 20. The statutes and regulations which communities and corporations enact for their police and discipline, are obligatory upon all their respective members who are bound to obey them, provided said statutes contain nothing contrary to the laws, to public liberty, or to the interest of others.
Statutes acquire the force of laws, if they have been approved or enforced by an act of the legislature which has a right to restrict or limit said approbation, as they may deem it convenient.

Art. 21. Communities or corporations unauthorised by law or by an act of the legislature, enjoy no public character and cannot appear in a court of justice, but in the individual name of all the members who compose it, and not as a political body. Although these communities or corporations may acquire and possess estates, and have common interests as well as all other private societies.



Art. 22. A community or corporation legally established may be dissolved:
1. By an act of the legislature, if they deem it necessary or convenient to the public interest in all cases in which the existence of said corporation is not warranted by treaties;
2. By the forfeiture of their charter when the community or corporation abuses their privileges, or refuses to accomplish the conditions on which such priviliges were granted, in which case the corporation becomes null and void, by the effect of the violation of the conditions of the act of incorporation.




Art. 1. On entend par communauté ou corporation, l'assemblée de plusieurs personnes unies en un corps formé conformément à la loi, ou avec la permission de la législature.

Art. 2. Suivant cette définition, les communautés ou corporations sont composées de personnes d'un même ordre, ou d'ordres différens, mais de manière cependant qu'aucune ne comprend des personnes de tous les ordres.
Ainsi les habitans d'une ville, d'un village, d'un bourg, pris collectivement, et considérés par rapport à leurs intérêts communs, forment une communauté d'habitans, mais on ne peut comprendre sous ce nom, une nation entière, ni même les habitans d'une province, parce que la collection de tous les individus, renferme tous les ordres de la nation ou de la province, et ce qui regarde le bien public, soit dans la conduite des particuliers soit dans celle des communautés ou corporations, au lieu que ces dernières se bornent à quelque espèce de bien particulier, et que chacune d'elles est distinguée des autres particuliers et corps du même lieu.

Art. 3. L'usage des communautés ou corporations est de pourvoir par le concours et le secours de plusieurs personnes, à quelque bien utile au public, quoiqu'elles soient aussi établies pour le bien commun de ceux qui en sont membres.
Ainsi la première règle de leur police, est qu'elles procurent quelque avantage, et quelque utilité à l'Etat qui les établit, et qu'elles ne le soient que par l'ordre ou la permission de la Législature; sans cet ordre ou permission, elles ne peuvent être considérées que comme des sociétés particulières qui ne jouissent pas de la plénitude des avantages que la loi accorde aux corps politiques.

Art. 4. On distingue les communautés ou corporations en deux espèces principales; les ecclésiastiques et les laïques; et cette distinction résulte tant de la qualité des personnes qui composent ordinairement chacune de ces espèces de communautés ou corporations, que de la différence de l'objet de leur établissement.

Art. 5. Les communautés ou corporations ecclésiastiques, sont celles dont l'établissement se rapporte uniquement à la religion, telles sont les congrégations des différens cultes; les communautés ou corporations laïques, sont celles qui n'ont rapport qu'à la police temporelle, telles que les corporations des villes, les compagnies pour l'avancement du commerce ou de l'agriculture, les sociétés littéraires, les collèges ou universités fondés pour l'instruction de la jeunesse et autres semblables.



Art. 6. Les communautés ou corporations doivent être non-seulement autorisées par la législature, mais il doit leur être donné un nom et c'est sous ce nom qu'elles doivent agir, ou être actionnées en justice et faire tous leurs actes légaux; quoiqu'une légère altération dans ce nom, ne soit pas importante.

Art. 7. Les communautés légitimement établies, tiennent lieu de personnes et leur union qui rend communs à tous ceux qui les composent, leurs intérêts, leurs droits et leurs privilèges, fait qu'on les considère comme un seul tout.
De là il suit, qu'elles peuvent posséder des biens et avoir un coffre commun pour y mettre leurs deniers, qu'elles sont capables de legs et donations, qu'elles peuvent valablement contracter, obliger les autres et s'obliger envers eux, exercer les droits qui leur appartiennent, traiter de leurs affaires, agir en justice, même se faire des statuts et règlemens, pourvu qu'ils ne soient pas contraires aux lois de la société politique dont elles font partie.

Art. 8. Comme les communautés ou corporations sont établies pour un bien public dont la cause subsiste toujours, elles sont, de leur nature, perpétuelles; aussi subsistent-elles les même sans que le changement de toutes les personnes qui les composent, changent rien au corps.
Ainsi, dans le cas où une communauté ou corporation serait réduite à une seule personne, cette personne la représenterait et en exercerait les droits qui subsisteraient toujours en elle, en attendant que d'autres remplissent les places vacantes; c'est ce qui distingue les communautés ou corporations, d'avec les sociétés qui sont bien une espèce de communauté entre plusieurs personnes, mais seulement pour un tems.

Art. 9. De la vient le droit de succession perpétuelle qui est également de la nature des communautés ou corporations, et par lequel elles transmettent à perpétuité, à leurs successeurs ou ayans cause, leurs droits, privilèges, ainsi que les biens qu'elles peuvent posséder.
Le droit d'élire d'autres membres au lieu et place de ceux qui ont quitté la corporation, est une conséquence du même principe; ce droit est implicitement attaché à la constitution de toute communauté ou corporation régulièrement établie.

Art. 10. Les communautés ou corporations sont des êtres intellectuels différens et distincts de toutes les personnes qui les composent.

Art. 11. Les biens et les droits d'une communauté ou corporation appartiennent tellement au corps, qu'aucun des particuliers qui la composent, n'y a aucun droit de propriété et n'en peut disposer en rien.
En cela la chose appartenant à un corps, est très-différente d'une chose qui serait commune à plusieurs particuliers pour la part que chacun a en la communauté qui est entre eux.

Art. 12. En conséquence de la règle ci-dessus, ce qui est dû à un corps, n'est dû aucunement à aucun des particuliers dont le corps est composé, et vice versa.
Le créancier de ce corps ne peut donc point exiger de chacun des particuliers de ce corps, ce qui lui est dû par le corps, il ne peut faire condamner au payement que le corps dans la personne de son président, syndic ou procureur, et il ne peut saisir que les effets qui appartiennent au corps; pourvu qu'il n'y ait que le corps qui ait contracté la dette, par le ministère de son président, syndic ou procureur, car si tous les particuliers qui composent le corps, ont signé au contrat, personnellement, chacun d'eux peut être contraint au payement, ou pour sa portion virile, ou solidairement, lorsque la solidité a été expressément stipulée.

Art. 13. De ce qu'un corps est une personne intellectuelle, il s'ensuit qu'il ne peut pas faire par lui-même tout ce qu'il lui est permis de faire légalement, comme il a été dit ci-dessus; c'est pourquoi il est de la nature de chaque corps, de nommer quelques-uns de ses membres, à qui il confie la direction et le soin de ses affaires, sous le nom de maire, président, syndic, directeur ou autres, selon les statuts et la qualité des communautés.

Art. 14. Les procureurs ou officiers ainsi nommés par les communautés ou corporations, pour la direction et le soin de leurs affaires, ont leurs fonctions respectives réglées par leur nomination et les exercent suivant les règlemens généraux et les statuts particuliers de la communauté ou corporation dont ils sont chefs.
Ces procureurs ou officiers, en contractant, obligent les corps auxquels ils appartiennent dans les choses qui n'excèdent pas les bornes de l'administration qui leur est confiée; leur fait est censé le fait du corps; et c'est à leur personne ou à leur domicile que sont données les citations sur les demandes que quelqu'un a à former contre le corps.
Si les pouvoirs de ces procureurs ou officiers n'ont pas été expressément fixés, ils se règlent de la même manière que ceux des autres mandataires.

Art. 15. Les communautés ou corporations étant des personnes intellectuelles, il en résulte contre elles diverses sortes d'incapacités dont les unes sont inhérentes à leur nature, et d'autres sont établies par la loi.

Art. 16. Une communauté ou corporation ne peut être administratrice, tutrice ou exécutrice testamentaire, ni remplir aucune autre charge personnelle; elle ne peut être chargée de procuration, ni détenir des biens pour l'usage d'un autre, car une pareille charge est hors de son institution; elle ne peut être mise en prison, car son existence étant purement ideale, personne ne peut l'appréhender ou l'arrêter.

Art. 17. De même une communauté ou corporation ne peut former une action d'attaquer et batterie, ou pour autre semblables injures, car une corporation ne peut ni battre ni être battue dans son corps politique.

Art. 18. Une corporation ne peut commettre le crime de trahison ou tout autre crime ou délit dans sa capacité politique, quoique ses membres puissent les commettre dans leur capacité individuelle et respective.

Art. 19. Dans les communautés ou corporations, l'acte de la majorité est considéré comme l'acte de la totalité.

Art. 20. Les statuts et règlemens que les communautés ou corporations font pour leur police et discipline, sont obligatoires pour tous leurs membres respectivement, lesquels sont tenus d'y obéir, pourvu que ces statuts ne contiennent rien de contraire aux lois, à la liberté publique et à l'intérêt d'autrui.
Ces statuts acquièrent force de loi, s'ils ont été approuvés ou mis en vigueur par un acte de la Législature qui peut opposer à son approbation, telle restriction ou limitation qu'elle juge convenable.

Art. 21. Les communautés ou corporations qui ne sont point autorisées par la loi ou par un acte de la Législature, ne jouissent d'aucun caractère public, et ne peuvent agir en justice qu'au nom individuel de tous les membres qui les composent et non comme corps politiques, quoique ces communautés ou corporations puissent acquérir et posséder des biens, et avoir des intérêts communs comme dans toutes les autres sociétés particulières.



Art. 22. Une communauté ou corporation légalement établie peut être dissoute:
1o. Par un acte de la Législature, si elle le croit nécessaire ou convenable à l'intérêt public, dans tous les cas où l'existence de cette corporation n'est pas garantie par les traités;
2o. Par la forfaiture de sa charte, lorsque cette communauté ou corporation fait abus de ses franchises, ou qu'elle néglige ou refuse d'exécuter les conditions auxquelles elles lui ont été accordées, dans lequel cas la corporation devient nulle par l'effet de la violation des clauses de l'incorporation.

< Previous | Next >© Manuscript notes copyright 1968 by Louis V. de la Vergne.
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