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Table of Contents

Cover Page
Foreword
Abbreviations
Synopsis
Preliminary title Of the general definitions of rights and the promulgation of the laws
    Chapter I Of law and customs
    Chapter II Of the publication of the laws
    Chapter III Of the effects of laws
    Chapter IV Of the application and construction of laws
    Chapter V Of the repeal of laws
Book I Of persons
    Title I Of the distinction of persons, and the privation of certain civil rights in certain cases
      Chapter I Of the distinction of persons established by nature
      Chapter II Of the distinctions of persons which are established by law
    Title II Of domicil and the manner of changing the same
    Title III Of absent persons
      Chapter I Of the curatorship of absent persons
      Chapter II Of the putting into provisional possession the heirs of the absentee
      Chapter III Of the effects of absence upon the eventual rights which may belong to the absentee
      Chapter IV Of the effects of absence respecting marriage
      Chapter V Of the care of minor children whose father has disappeared
    Title IV Of husband and wife
      Chapter I On marriage
      Chapter II How marriages may be contracted or made
      Chapter III Of the nullity of marriages
      Chapter IV Of the respective rights and duties of married persons
      Chapter V Of the dissolution of marriages
      Chapter VI Of second marriages
    Title V Of the separation from bed and board
      Chapter I Of the causes of separation from bed and board
      Chapter II Of the proceedings on separation from bed and board
      Chapter III Of the provisional proceedings to which a suit for separation may give occasion
      Chapter IV Of objections to the action of separation from bed and board
      Chapter V Of the effects of separation from bed and board
    Title VI Of master and servant
      Chapter I Of the several sorts of servants
      Chapter II Of free servants
      Chapter III Of slaves
    Title VII Of father and child
      Chapter I Of children in general
      Chapter II Of legitimate children
        Section I Of legitimacy resulting from marriage
        Section II Of the manner of proving the legitimate filiation
      Chapter III Of illegitimate children
        Section I Of legitimation
        Section II Of the acknowledgment of illegitimate children
      Chapter IV Of adoption
      Chapter V Of paternal authority
        Section I Of the duties of parents towards their legitimate children, and of the duties of legitimate children towards their parents
        Section II Of the duties of parents towards their natural children, and of the duties of natural children towards their parents
    Title VIII Of minors, of their tutorship, curatorship and emancipation
      Chapter I Of tutorship
        Section I General dispositions
        Section II Of tutorship by nature
        Section III Of tutorship by will
        Section IV Of the tutorship by the effect of the law
        Section V Of dative tutorship
        Section VI Of the under tutor
        Section VII Of the causes which dispense or excuse from the tutorship
        Section VIII Of incapacity for, exclusion from and deprivation of the tutorship
        Section IX Of the administration of the tutor
      Chapter II Of the curatorship of minors
      Chapter III Of emancipation
    Title IX Of persons insane, idiots, and other persons incapable of administering their estate
      Chapter I Of the interdiction and curatorship of persons incapable of administering their estate, whether on account of insanity or of some other infirmity
      Chapter II Of the other persons to whom curators are appointed
    Title X Of communities or corporations
      Chapter I Of the nature of communities or corporations, of their use and kind
      Chapter II Of the rights and privileges of communities or corporations and of their incapacities
      Chapter III Of the dissolution of communities or corporations
Book II Of things and of the different modifications of property
    Title I Of things or estates
      Chapter I Of the distinction of things or estates
      Chapter II Of immoveables
      Chapter III Of moveables
      Chapter IV Of estates considered in their relation to those who possess them
    Title II Of absolute ownership
      Chapter I Universal principles
      Chapter II Of the right of accession to what is produced by the thing
      Chapter III Of the right of accession to what unites or incorporates itself to the thing
        Section I Of the right of accession concerning immoveables
        Section II Of the right of accession concerning moveable things
    Title III Of usufruct, use and habitation
      Chapter I Of usufruct
        Section I General definitions
        Section II Of the rights of the usufructuary
        Section III Of the obligations of the usufructuary
        Section IV Of the obligations of the owner
        Section V How usufruct expires
      Chapter II Of the use and habitation
    Title IV Of predial services or services of land
      Chapter I General principles
      Chapter II Of services which originate from the natural situation of the place
      Chapter III Of services imposed by law
        Section I Of walls, fences, and ditches in common
        Section II Of the distance and of the intermediary works required for certain buildings
        Section III Of lights on the property of a neighbor
        Section IV Of the manner of carrying off rain from the roof
        Section V Of the right of passage
      Chapter IV Of services established by the act of man
        Section I Of the different kinds of services which may be established by the act of man
        Section II How services are acquired
        Section III Of the rights of the proprietor of the estate to which the service is due
        Section IV How Services are extinguished
Book III Of the different manners of acquiring the property of things
    Preliminary title General dispositions
    Title I Of successions
      Chapter I Of the different sorts of successions and heirs
      Chapter II Of legal successions
        Section I General rules
        Section II Of the succession of descendants
        Section III Of the succession of ascendants
        Section IV Of the succession of collaterals
      Chapter III Of irregular successions
      Chapter IV In what manner successions are opened
      Chapter V Of the incapacity and unworthiness of the heirs
      Chapter VI In what manner a succession is accepted and how it is renounced
        Section I Of the acceptance pure and simple
        Section II Of the acceptance of a succession with the benefit of an inventory
      Chapter VII Of the administration of vacant estates and estates ab intestato
      Chapter VIII Of partition among heirs and of the collation of goods
        Section I Of the nature of partition and in what manner it is made
        Section II Of the collation of goods
        Section III Of the payment of debts
        Section IV Of the effect of partition and of its rescision
    Title II Of donations inter vivos (between living persons) and mortis causa (in prospect of death)
      Chapter I General dispositions
      Chapter II Of the capacity necessary for disposing of and receiving by donation inter vivos or mortis causa
      Chapter III Of the portion disposable, and of its reduction in case of excess
        Section I Of the disposable portion and the legitime
        Section II Of the reduction of dispositions inter vivos or mortis causa; of the manner in which it is made and of its effects
      Chapter IV Of dispositions reprobated by the law in donations inter vivos and mortis causa
      Chapter V Of donations inter vivos (between living)
        Section I Of the irrevocability of donations inter vivos
        Section II Of the form of donations inter vivos
        Section III Of the exceptions to the rule of the irrevocability of donations inter vivos
      Chapter VI Of dispositions mortis causa (in the prospect of death)
        Section I Of testament or codicil
        Section II Of the form of testaments and codicils
        Section III Of testamentary dispositions
        Section IV Of the institution of heir and of disinherison
        Section V Of legacies
        Section VI Of the opening and the proof of wills, and of testamentary executions
        Section VII Of the revocation of testaments and codicils and of their caducity
        Section VIII Of the interpretation of testamentary dispositions
      Chapter VII Of partitions made by parents among their descendants
      Chapter VIII Of donations made by marriage contract to the husband or wife, and to the children to be born of the marriage
      Chapter IX Of donations between married persons, either by marriage contract, or during the marriage
    Title III Of contracts and of conventional obligations in general
      Chapter I Preliminary dispositions
      Chapter II Of the conditions essential to the validity of agreements
        Section I Of consent
        Section II Of the capability of the parties contracting
        Section III Of the object and the matter of contracts
        Section IV Of the cause
      Chapter III Of the effect of obligations
        Section I General dispositions
        Section II Of the obligation of giving
        Section III Of the obligations of doing or of not doing
        Section IV Of the damages resulting from the non execution of the obligation
        Section V Of the interpretation of the agreements
        Section VI Of the effect of agreements with regard to persons not parties to them
      Chapter IV Of the different kinds of obligations
        Section I Of conditional obligations
          § 1 Of the condition in general and of its different kinds
          § 2 Of the suspensive condition
          § 3 Of the dissolving condition
        Section II Of obligations to be performed at a certain term
        Section III Of the alternative obligations
        Section IV Of obligations in solido or jointly and severally
          § 1 Of the obligation in solido between creditors
          § 2 Of the obligation in solido on the part of debtors
        Section V Of obligations divisible and indivisible
          § 1 Of the effects of a divisible obligation
          § 2 Of the effect of the indivisible obligation
        Section VI Of obligations with penal clauses
      Chapter V Of the extinction of obligations
        Section I Of payment
          § 1 Of payment in general
          § 2 Of payment with subrogation
          § 3 Of the imputation of payments
          § 4 Of tenders of payment, and consignment
          § 5 Of the surrender of property
        Section II Of novation
        Section III Of the remission of the debt
        Section IV Of compensation
        Section V Of confusion
        Section VI Of the loss of the thing due
        Section VII Of the action of nullity or of rescission of agreements
      Chapter VI Of the proof of obligations and of that of payment
        Section I Of the literal proof
          § 1 Of the authentic title
          § 2 Of the acts under private signature
          § 3 Of copies of titles
          § 4 Of recognitive and confirmative acts
        Section II Of testimonial proof
        Section III Of presumptions
          § 1 Of presumptions established by law
          § 2 Of presumption not established by law
        Section IV Of the confession of the party
        Section V Of the proof by oath
    Title IV Of engagements formed without agreements, or of quasi contracts and quasi offences
      Section I Of the quasi contract
      Section II Of quasi crimes or offences
    Title V Of marriage contract
      Chapter I General dispositions
      Chapter II Of the various kinds of matrimonial agreements
        Section I Of donations made in consideration of marriage
        Section II Of dowry or marriage portion
        Section III Of paraphernalia or extra dotal effects
        Section IV Of the partnership or community of acquests or gains
      Chapter III Of the separation of property
    Title VI Of sale
      Chapter I Of the nature and form of the contract of sale, and of the manner in which it is to be performed
      Chapter II Of persons capable of buying and selling, and of things which may be sold
      Chapter III Of the obligations of the seller
        Section I Of the tradition or delivery of the thing sold
        Section II Of the warranty, in case of eviction of the thing sold
        Section III Of the warranty of the defects of the thing sold or of the redhibitory vices
      Chapter IV Of the obligations of the buyer
      Chapter V Of the nullity and rescissions of the sale
        Section I Of the power or right of redemption
        Section II Of the rescission of sales on account of lesion
      Chapter VI Of sales by cant or auction
      Chapter VII Of the assignment or transfer of debts and other incorporeal rights
    Title VII Of exchange
    Title VIII Of letting and hiring
      Chapter I Of the several species of contracts for letting and hiring
      Chapter II Of the contract for letting out things
        Section I Of the form and duration of leases
        Section II Of the obligations of the lessor
        Section III Of the obligations of the lessee
        Section IV Of the dissolution of leases
      Chapter III Of the letting out of labour or industry
        Section I Of the hiring of servants and workmen
        Section II Of carriers and watermen
        Section III Of plots for buildings and other works
    Title IX Of partnership
      Chapter I General dispositions
      Chapter II Of the various kinds of partnerships
      Chapter III Of the obligations of partners towards each other, and towards third persons
        Section I Of the obligations of partners towards each other
        Section II Of the obligations of partners towards third persons
      Chapter IV Of the different manners in which partnerships end
    Title X Of loan
      Chapter I Of the loan for use or commodatum
        Section I Of the nature of the loan for use
        Section II Of the engagements of the borrower for use
        Section III Of the engagements of the lender for use
      Chapter II Of the loan for consumption or mutuum
        Section I Of the nature of the loan for consumption
        Section II Of the obligations of the lender for consumption
        Section III Of the engagements of the borrower for consumption
      Chapter III Of loan on interest
    Title XI Of deposit and sequestration
      Chapter I Of deposit in general and of its divers kinds
      Chapter II Of the deposit properly so called
        Section I Of the nature and essence of the contract of deposit
        Section II Of the obligations of the depository
        Section III Of the obligations of him by whom the deposit has been made
        Section IV Of the necessary deposit
      Chapter III Of sequestration
        Section I Of its different species
        Section II Of the conventional sequestration
        Section III Of the judicial sequestration or deposit
    Title XII Of aleatory contracts
    Title XIII Of mandate or commission
      Chapter I Of the nature of proxies, mandates and commissions
      Chapter II What persons may be appointed attornies in fact
      Chapter III Of the obligations of a person acting under a power of attorney
      Chapter IV Of the obligations of the principal who acts by his attorney in fact
      Chapter V How the procuration expires
    Title XIV Of suretyship
      Chapter I Of the nature and extent of suretyship
      Chapter II Of the effects of suretyship
        Section I Of the effects of suretyship between the creditor and the surety
        Section II Of the effects of suretyship between the debtor and the surety
        Section III Respecting the effects of suretyship between the sureties
      Chapter III Of the extinction of suretyship
      Chapter IV Of the legal and judicial sureties
    Title XV Of transactions
    Title XVI Of respite
    Title XVII Of compromises or arbitration
    Title XVIII Of pledge
    Title XIX Of privileges and mortgages
      Chapter I Of the nature of a mortgage and of its several sorts
      Chapter II Who may mortgage and what thing may be mortgaged
      Chapter III Of the effects of mortgage
        Section I Of the effects of mortgage with regard to the debtor
        Section II Of the effects of mortgages against third possessors and of the action of mortgage
        Section III Of the registering of mortgages and of the register kept for that purpose
      Chapter IV Of the order of privileges and mortgages
        Section I Of the preference and order of privileges
      Chapter V How privileges or mortgages expire or are extinguished
    Title XX Of occupancy, possession and prescription
      Chapter I Of occupancy
      Chapter II Of possession
      Chapter III Of prescription
        Section I Of the possession required to establish prescription
        Section II Of the causes which suspend or interrupt prescriptions
        Section III Of the several species of prescription
    Title XXI Of the title by judgment or seizure
Index
Manuscript index
Manuscript index Part 2

 A DIGEST OF THE CIVIL LAW

 

PRELIMINARY TITLE - OF THE GENERAL DEFINITIONS OF RIGHTS AND THE PROMULGATION OF THE LAWS

 

CHAPTER I - OF LAW AND CUSTOMS

Art. 1. Law is a solemn expression of Legislative will, upon a subject of general interest and interior regulation.

Art. 2. It orders and permits and forbids;- it announces rewards and punishments;- its provisions generally relate, not to solitary or singular cases, but to what passes in the ordinary course of affairs.

Art. 3. Customs result from a long series of actions constantly repeated, which have by such repetition, and by uninterrupted acquiescence acquired the force of a tacit and common consent.

 

CHAPTER II - OF THE PUBLICATION OF THE LAWS

Art. 4. As laws cannot be obligatory without being known, they shall be promulgated by the Governor of the Territory.
The laws shall be directed to the authorities entrusted with their execution or application, and to such other persons as the law has designated or may designate in the form and manner which is or may be prescribed, to insure their most extensive publicity.
The Clerks of all the courts of justice of this territory, shall insert in a register to be kept for that purpose, the title of all the laws which shall have been directed to them, together with the day on which they shall have received them.

Art. 5. The laws shall be executed through every part of this territory, from the moment their promulgation shall be known.

Art. 6. The promulgation made by the Governor shall be supposed to be known in the parish where the government shall be sitting, three days after the day of promulgation; and in every one of the other parishes, after the expiration of the said delay, with the addition of one day for every four leagues between the city in which the promulgation shall have been made, and the place where the court for every parish is held.

 

CHAPTER III - OF THE EFFECTS OF LAWS

Art. 7. A law can dispose only for the future; it can have no retrospective operation; nor can it impair the obligation of contracts.

Art. 8. Nevertheless a law explanatory or declaratory of a former law, may regulate the past, without prejudice, however, to final judgments, to transactions and to awards or arbitrations which have acquired the force of final judgments.

Art. 9. The law is obligatory upon all inhabitants of the territory indiscriminately; the foreigner, whilst residing there, and his property within its limits, are subject to it.

Art. 10. The form and force of acts and written instruments, depend upon the laws and usages of the places where they are passed or executed.

Art. 11. Individuals cannot by their conventions, derogate from the force of laws made for the preservation of pubic order or good morals.

Art. 12. The prohibiting laws import a nullity, though it be not formally expressed.

 

CHAPTER IV - OF THE APPLICATION AND CONSTRUCTION OF LAWS

Art. 13. When a law is clear and free from all ambiguity, the letter of it is not to be disregarded, under the pretext of pursuing its spirit.

Art. 14. The words of a law are generally to be understood in their most known and usual signification, without attending so much to the niceties of grammar rules as to their general and popular use.

Art. 15. Terms of art or technical terms and phrases, are to be interpreted according to their received meaning and acceptation with the learned in each art, trade and profession.

Art. 16. Where the words of a law are dubious, their meaning may be sought by examining the context, with which the ambiguous words, phrases and sentences may be compared in order to ascertain their true meaning.

Art. 17. Laws in pari materia or upon the same subject matter, must be construed with a reference to each other: what is clear in one statute, may be called in aid to explain what is doubtful in another.

Art. 18. The most universal and effectual way of discovering the true meaning of a law, when its expressions are dubious, is by considering the reason and spirit of it, or the cause which induced the legislature to enact it.

Art. 19. When to prevent the commission of a particular class of frauds, the law declares certain acts void, its provisions are not to be dispensed with, on the ground that the particular act in question, has been proved not to be fraudulent.

Art. 20. The distinction between odious laws, and laws entitled to favor, made with a view of narrowing, or extending their construction, is a gross abuse.

Art. 21. In civil matters, where there is no express law, the judge is bound to proceed and decide according to equity.  To decide equitably an appeal is to be made to natural law and reason, or received usages, where positive law is silent.

Art. 22. The judge cannot, in a criminal matter, supply by construction, any thing omitted in the law.

 

CHAPTER V - OF THE REPEAL OF LAWS

Art. 23. Laws may be repealed, either entirely or partially, by other laws.

Art. 24. The repeal is either express or implied.
It is express, when it is literally declared by a subsequent law.
It is implied, when the new law contains provisions contrary to or irreconcileable with those of the former law.

DIGESTE DE LA LOI CIVILE

 

TITRE PRELIMINAIRE - DES DÉFINITIONS GÉNÉRALES DU DROIT ET DE LA PROMULGATION DES LOIS

 

CHAPITRE I - DE LA LOI ET DES COUTUMES  

Art. 1. La Loi est une déclaration solemnelle de la volonté législative, sur un objet général et de régime intérieur.

Art. 2. La loi ordonne, elle permet, elle défend, elle annonce des récompenses et des peines. -Elle dispose en général, non sur des cas rares ou singuliers, mais sur ce qui se passe en général, dans le cours ordinaire des choses.

Art. 3. La coutume résulte d'une longue suite d'actes constamment répétés, qui par cette répétition et une soumission non interrompue, ont acquis la force d'un consentement tacite et commun.

 

CHAPITRE II - DE LA PROMULGATION DES LOIS

Art. 4. Les lois ne pouvant obliger, sans  être connues, elles seront promulguées par le Gouverneur de ce Territoire.
Les lois seront adressées aux autorités chargées de les exécuter ou de les appliquer, et à telles autres personnes que la loi a, ou pourra désigner, dans la forme et de la manière qui est, ou pourra être prescrite pour assurer aux lois la plus grande publicité possible.
Les Greffiers de toutes les Cours de justice de ce Territoire, inséreront dans un registre particulier tenu à cet effet, le titre de toutes les lois qui leur auront été adressées, avec la date du jour où ils les auront reçues.

Art. 5. Les lois seront exécutées dans toutes les parties de ce Territoire, du moment où la promulgation en pourra être connue.

Art. 6. La promulgation faite par le Gouverneur, sera réputée connue dans la Paroiss? où siégera le Gouvernement, trois jours après celui de la promulgation, et dans chacune des autres Paroisses, après l'expiration du même délai augmenté d'un jour par chaque quatre lieues entre la ville où la promulgation aura été faite, et le lieu des séances de la Cour de chaque Paroisse.

 

CHAPITRE III - DES EFFETS DE LA LOI

Art. 7. La loi ne dispose que pour l'avenir; elle ne peut avoir d'effet rétroactif, ni altérer les obligations continues dans les contrats.

Art. 8. Néanmoins une loi explicative, ou déclaratoire d'une autre loi précédente, règle même le passé, sans préjudice des jugemens en dernier ressort, des transactions et décisions arbitrales passées en force de chose jugée.

Art. 9. La loi oblige indistinctement ceux qui habitent le Territoire; l'étranger y est soumis pour les biens qu'il y possède, et même pour sa personne, pendant sa résidence.

Art. 10. La forme et l'effet des actes publics et privés, se règlent par les lois et les usages du pays dans lequel ces actes sont faits ou passés.

Art. 11. Les individus ne peuvent, par des conventions particulières, déroger aux lois qui sont faites pour le maintien de l'ordre public ou des mœurs.

Art. 12. Les lois prohibitives emportent peine de nullité, quoique cette peine n'y soit pas formellement exprimée.

 

CHAPITRE IV - DE L'APPLICATION ET DE L'INTERPRÉTATION DE LA LOI

Art. 13. Quand une loi et claire et sans ambiguïté, il ne faut point en éluder la lettre, sous prétexte d'en pénétrer l'esprit.

Art. 14. Les termes d'une loi doivent être généralement entendus dans leur signification la plus connue et la plus usitée, sans s'attacher autant aux raffinemens des règles de la grammaire, qu'à leur acception générale et vulgaire.

Art. 15. Les termes de l'art ou les expressions et phrases techniques, doivent être interprétés, conformément à la signification et acception qui leur sont données par les personnes versées dans chacun de ces arts, métiers ou professions.

Art. 16. Quand les expressions d'une loi sont douteuses, on peut en rechercher la signification, en examinant et comparant les termes ou phrases ambiguës avec les autres parties de la loi, afin de déterminer leurs véritables sens.

Art. 17. Les lois in pari materia ou sur un même sujet, doivent être interprétées suivant le rapport qu'elles ont l'une avec l'autre; ce qui est clair dans une loi, peut servir de base pour expliquer ce qui est douteux dans une autre.

Art. 18. Le moyen le plus universel et le plus efficace pour découvrir le véritable sens d'une loi, lorsque les expressions en sont douteuses, est de considérer la raison et l'esprit de cette loi, ou la cause qui a déterminé la Législature à la rendre.

Art. 19. Lorsque par la crainte de quelque fraude, la loi déclare nuls certains actes, ses dispositions ne peuvent être éludées sur le fondement que l'on aurait rapporté la preuve que ces actes ne sont point frauduleux.

Art. 20. La distinction des lois en lois odieuses et en lois favorables, faite dans la vue d'étendre ou de restreindre leurs dispositions, est abusive.

Art. 21. Dans les matières civiles, le Juge, à défaut de loi précise, est obligé de procéder conformément à l'équité; pour décider suivant l'équité, il faut recourir à la loi naturelle et à la raison, ou aux usages reçus, dans le silence de la loi primitive.

Art. 22. Dans les matières criminelles, le Juge ne peut, en aucun cas, interpréter la loi, de manière à suppléer à rien de ce qui peut y être omis.                         

 

CHAPITRE  V - DE L'ABROGATION DES LOIS

Art. 23. Les lois peuvent être abrogées en tout ou en partie, par d'autres lois.

Art. 24. Leur abrogation est expresse ou tacite;
Elle est expresse, lorsqu'elle est littéralement prononcée par la loi nouvelle;
Elle est tacite, si la nouvelle loi renferme des dispositions contraires à celles des lois antérieures, ou qui ne puissent se concilier avec elles.

< Previous | Next >© Manuscript notes copyright 1968 by Louis V. de la Vergne.
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