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Table of Contents

Cover Page
Preliminary title Of the general definitions of rights and the promulgation of the laws
    Chapter I Of law and customs
    Chapter II Of the publication of the laws
    Chapter III Of the effects of laws
    Chapter IV Of the application and construction of laws
    Chapter V Of the repeal of laws
Book I Of persons
    Title I Of the distinction of persons, and the privation of certain civil rights in certain cases
      Chapter I Of the distinction of persons established by nature
      Chapter II Of the distinctions of persons which are established by law
    Title II Of domicil and the manner of changing the same
    Title III Of absent persons
      Chapter I Of the curatorship of absent persons
      Chapter II Of the putting into provisional possession the heirs of the absentee
      Chapter III Of the effects of absence upon the eventual rights which may belong to the absentee
      Chapter IV Of the effects of absence respecting marriage
      Chapter V Of the care of minor children whose father has disappeared
    Title IV Of husband and wife
      Chapter I On marriage
      Chapter II How marriages may be contracted or made
      Chapter III Of the nullity of marriages
      Chapter IV Of the respective rights and duties of married persons
      Chapter V Of the dissolution of marriages
      Chapter VI Of second marriages
    Title V Of the separation from bed and board
      Chapter I Of the causes of separation from bed and board
      Chapter II Of the proceedings on separation from bed and board
      Chapter III Of the provisional proceedings to which a suit for separation may give occasion
      Chapter IV Of objections to the action of separation from bed and board
      Chapter V Of the effects of separation from bed and board
    Title VI Of master and servant
      Chapter I Of the several sorts of servants
      Chapter II Of free servants
      Chapter III Of slaves
    Title VII Of father and child
      Chapter I Of children in general
      Chapter II Of legitimate children
        Section I Of legitimacy resulting from marriage
        Section II Of the manner of proving the legitimate filiation
      Chapter III Of illegitimate children
        Section I Of legitimation
        Section II Of the acknowledgment of illegitimate children
      Chapter IV Of adoption
      Chapter V Of paternal authority
        Section I Of the duties of parents towards their legitimate children, and of the duties of legitimate children towards their parents
        Section II Of the duties of parents towards their natural children, and of the duties of natural children towards their parents
    Title VIII Of minors, of their tutorship, curatorship and emancipation
      Chapter I Of tutorship
        Section I General dispositions
        Section II Of tutorship by nature
        Section III Of tutorship by will
        Section IV Of the tutorship by the effect of the law
        Section V Of dative tutorship
        Section VI Of the under tutor
        Section VII Of the causes which dispense or excuse from the tutorship
        Section VIII Of incapacity for, exclusion from and deprivation of the tutorship
        Section IX Of the administration of the tutor
      Chapter II Of the curatorship of minors
      Chapter III Of emancipation
    Title IX Of persons insane, idiots, and other persons incapable of administering their estate
      Chapter I Of the interdiction and curatorship of persons incapable of administering their estate, whether on account of insanity or of some other infirmity
      Chapter II Of the other persons to whom curators are appointed
    Title X Of communities or corporations
      Chapter I Of the nature of communities or corporations, of their use and kind
      Chapter II Of the rights and privileges of communities or corporations and of their incapacities
      Chapter III Of the dissolution of communities or corporations
Book II Of things and of the different modifications of property
    Title I Of things or estates
      Chapter I Of the distinction of things or estates
      Chapter II Of immoveables
      Chapter III Of moveables
      Chapter IV Of estates considered in their relation to those who possess them
    Title II Of absolute ownership
      Chapter I Universal principles
      Chapter II Of the right of accession to what is produced by the thing
      Chapter III Of the right of accession to what unites or incorporates itself to the thing
        Section I Of the right of accession concerning immoveables
        Section II Of the right of accession concerning moveable things
    Title III Of usufruct, use and habitation
      Chapter I Of usufruct
        Section I General definitions
        Section II Of the rights of the usufructuary
        Section III Of the obligations of the usufructuary
        Section IV Of the obligations of the owner
        Section V How usufruct expires
      Chapter II Of the use and habitation
    Title IV Of predial services or services of land
      Chapter I General principles
      Chapter II Of services which originate from the natural situation of the place
      Chapter III Of services imposed by law
        Section I Of walls, fences, and ditches in common
        Section II Of the distance and of the intermediary works required for certain buildings
        Section III Of lights on the property of a neighbor
        Section IV Of the manner of carrying off rain from the roof
        Section V Of the right of passage
      Chapter IV Of services established by the act of man
        Section I Of the different kinds of services which may be established by the act of man
        Section II How services are acquired
        Section III Of the rights of the proprietor of the estate to which the service is due
        Section IV How Services are extinguished
Book III Of the different manners of acquiring the property of things
    Preliminary title General dispositions
    Title I Of successions
      Chapter I Of the different sorts of successions and heirs
      Chapter II Of legal successions
        Section I General rules
        Section II Of the succession of descendants
        Section III Of the succession of ascendants
        Section IV Of the succession of collaterals
      Chapter III Of irregular successions
      Chapter IV In what manner successions are opened
      Chapter V Of the incapacity and unworthiness of the heirs
      Chapter VI In what manner a succession is accepted and how it is renounced
        Section I Of the acceptance pure and simple
        Section II Of the acceptance of a succession with the benefit of an inventory
      Chapter VII Of the administration of vacant estates and estates ab intestato
      Chapter VIII Of partition among heirs and of the collation of goods
        Section I Of the nature of partition and in what manner it is made
        Section II Of the collation of goods
        Section III Of the payment of debts
        Section IV Of the effect of partition and of its rescision
    Title II Of donations inter vivos (between living persons) and mortis causa (in prospect of death)
      Chapter I General dispositions
      Chapter II Of the capacity necessary for disposing of and receiving by donation inter vivos or mortis causa
      Chapter III Of the portion disposable, and of its reduction in case of excess
        Section I Of the disposable portion and the legitime
        Section II Of the reduction of dispositions inter vivos or mortis causa; of the manner in which it is made and of its effects
      Chapter IV Of dispositions reprobated by the law in donations inter vivos and mortis causa
      Chapter V Of donations inter vivos (between living)
        Section I Of the irrevocability of donations inter vivos
        Section II Of the form of donations inter vivos
        Section III Of the exceptions to the rule of the irrevocability of donations inter vivos
      Chapter VI Of dispositions mortis causa (in the prospect of death)
        Section I Of testament or codicil
        Section II Of the form of testaments and codicils
        Section III Of testamentary dispositions
        Section IV Of the institution of heir and of disinherison
        Section V Of legacies
        Section VI Of the opening and the proof of wills, and of testamentary executions
        Section VII Of the revocation of testaments and codicils and of their caducity
        Section VIII Of the interpretation of testamentary dispositions
      Chapter VII Of partitions made by parents among their descendants
      Chapter VIII Of donations made by marriage contract to the husband or wife, and to the children to be born of the marriage
      Chapter IX Of donations between married persons, either by marriage contract, or during the marriage
    Title III Of contracts and of conventional obligations in general
      Chapter I Preliminary dispositions
      Chapter II Of the conditions essential to the validity of agreements
        Section I Of consent
        Section II Of the capability of the parties contracting
        Section III Of the object and the matter of contracts
        Section IV Of the cause
      Chapter III Of the effect of obligations
        Section I General dispositions
        Section II Of the obligation of giving
        Section III Of the obligations of doing or of not doing
        Section IV Of the damages resulting from the non execution of the obligation
        Section V Of the interpretation of the agreements
        Section VI Of the effect of agreements with regard to persons not parties to them
      Chapter IV Of the different kinds of obligations
        Section I Of conditional obligations
          § 1 Of the condition in general and of its different kinds
          § 2 Of the suspensive condition
          § 3 Of the dissolving condition
        Section II Of obligations to be performed at a certain term
        Section III Of the alternative obligations
        Section IV Of obligations in solido or jointly and severally
          § 1 Of the obligation in solido between creditors
          § 2 Of the obligation in solido on the part of debtors
        Section V Of obligations divisible and indivisible
          § 1 Of the effects of a divisible obligation
          § 2 Of the effect of the indivisible obligation
        Section VI Of obligations with penal clauses
      Chapter V Of the extinction of obligations
        Section I Of payment
          § 1 Of payment in general
          § 2 Of payment with subrogation
          § 3 Of the imputation of payments
          § 4 Of tenders of payment, and consignment
          § 5 Of the surrender of property
        Section II Of novation
        Section III Of the remission of the debt
        Section IV Of compensation
        Section V Of confusion
        Section VI Of the loss of the thing due
        Section VII Of the action of nullity or of rescission of agreements
      Chapter VI Of the proof of obligations and of that of payment
        Section I Of the literal proof
          § 1 Of the authentic title
          § 2 Of the acts under private signature
          § 3 Of copies of titles
          § 4 Of recognitive and confirmative acts
        Section II Of testimonial proof
        Section III Of presumptions
          § 1 Of presumptions established by law
          § 2 Of presumption not established by law
        Section IV Of the confession of the party
        Section V Of the proof by oath
    Title IV Of engagements formed without agreements, or of quasi contracts and quasi offences
      Section I Of the quasi contract
      Section II Of quasi crimes or offences
    Title V Of marriage contract
      Chapter I General dispositions
      Chapter II Of the various kinds of matrimonial agreements
        Section I Of donations made in consideration of marriage
        Section II Of dowry or marriage portion
        Section III Of paraphernalia or extra dotal effects
        Section IV Of the partnership or community of acquests or gains
      Chapter III Of the separation of property
    Title VI Of sale
      Chapter I Of the nature and form of the contract of sale, and of the manner in which it is to be performed
      Chapter II Of persons capable of buying and selling, and of things which may be sold
      Chapter III Of the obligations of the seller
        Section I Of the tradition or delivery of the thing sold
        Section II Of the warranty, in case of eviction of the thing sold
        Section III Of the warranty of the defects of the thing sold or of the redhibitory vices
      Chapter IV Of the obligations of the buyer
      Chapter V Of the nullity and rescissions of the sale
        Section I Of the power or right of redemption
        Section II Of the rescission of sales on account of lesion
      Chapter VI Of sales by cant or auction
      Chapter VII Of the assignment or transfer of debts and other incorporeal rights
    Title VII Of exchange
    Title VIII Of letting and hiring
      Chapter I Of the several species of contracts for letting and hiring
      Chapter II Of the contract for letting out things
        Section I Of the form and duration of leases
        Section II Of the obligations of the lessor
        Section III Of the obligations of the lessee
        Section IV Of the dissolution of leases
      Chapter III Of the letting out of labour or industry
        Section I Of the hiring of servants and workmen
        Section II Of carriers and watermen
        Section III Of plots for buildings and other works
    Title IX Of partnership
      Chapter I General dispositions
      Chapter II Of the various kinds of partnerships
      Chapter III Of the obligations of partners towards each other, and towards third persons
        Section I Of the obligations of partners towards each other
        Section II Of the obligations of partners towards third persons
      Chapter IV Of the different manners in which partnerships end
    Title X Of loan
      Chapter I Of the loan for use or commodatum
        Section I Of the nature of the loan for use
        Section II Of the engagements of the borrower for use
        Section III Of the engagements of the lender for use
      Chapter II Of the loan for consumption or mutuum
        Section I Of the nature of the loan for consumption
        Section II Of the obligations of the lender for consumption
        Section III Of the engagements of the borrower for consumption
      Chapter III Of loan on interest
    Title XI Of deposit and sequestration
      Chapter I Of deposit in general and of its divers kinds
      Chapter II Of the deposit properly so called
        Section I Of the nature and essence of the contract of deposit
        Section II Of the obligations of the depository
        Section III Of the obligations of him by whom the deposit has been made
        Section IV Of the necessary deposit
      Chapter III Of sequestration
        Section I Of its different species
        Section II Of the conventional sequestration
        Section III Of the judicial sequestration or deposit
    Title XII Of aleatory contracts
    Title XIII Of mandate or commission
      Chapter I Of the nature of proxies, mandates and commissions
      Chapter II What persons may be appointed attornies in fact
      Chapter III Of the obligations of a person acting under a power of attorney
      Chapter IV Of the obligations of the principal who acts by his attorney in fact
      Chapter V How the procuration expires
    Title XIV Of suretyship
      Chapter I Of the nature and extent of suretyship
      Chapter II Of the effects of suretyship
        Section I Of the effects of suretyship between the creditor and the surety
        Section II Of the effects of suretyship between the debtor and the surety
        Section III Respecting the effects of suretyship between the sureties
      Chapter III Of the extinction of suretyship
      Chapter IV Of the legal and judicial sureties
    Title XV Of transactions
    Title XVI Of respite
    Title XVII Of compromises or arbitration
    Title XVIII Of pledge
    Title XIX Of privileges and mortgages
      Chapter I Of the nature of a mortgage and of its several sorts
      Chapter II Who may mortgage and what thing may be mortgaged
      Chapter III Of the effects of mortgage
        Section I Of the effects of mortgage with regard to the debtor
        Section II Of the effects of mortgages against third possessors and of the action of mortgage
        Section III Of the registering of mortgages and of the register kept for that purpose
      Chapter IV Of the order of privileges and mortgages
        Section I Of the preference and order of privileges
      Chapter V How privileges or mortgages expire or are extinguished
    Title XX Of occupancy, possession and prescription
      Chapter I Of occupancy
      Chapter II Of possession
      Chapter III Of prescription
        Section I Of the possession required to establish prescription
        Section II Of the causes which suspend or interrupt prescriptions
        Section III Of the several species of prescription
    Title XXI Of the title by judgment or seizure
Manuscript index
Manuscript index Part 2




Art. 19. A partnership entered into without specifying the time when said partnership is to begin, begins from the time that contract is made.

Art. 20. If there has been no agreement respecting the time the partnership is to last, it is supposed to have been entered into for the whole time of the life of the partners, under the modifications mentioned in the 54th article hereafter, or if the partnership be entered into for some affair the duration of which is limited, for the whole time said affair is to last.

Art. 21. The contract of partnership may depend upon conditions.

Art. 22. Every partner owes to the partnership all that he has promised to bring into the same.
When this proportion consists in a certain thing, and the partnership is deprived of the same, the partner is accountable for it towards the partnership, in the same manner as a seller is answerable towards the purchaser who buys from him.

Art. 23. The partner who promised to bring into the partnership a certain thing, is bound in case of eviction of it, in the same manner as a seller towards the purchaser who buys from him.

Art. 24. The partner who promised to put a sum of money into the partnership owes the interests of the same from the day when he was bound to pay said sum.
In the same manner he owes the interest on such sums as he may have taken out of the funds of the partnership, from the day he has received said sums.

Art. 25. The partners who have reciprocally bound themselves to bring into the partnership, their industry, owe the partnership an account of all the profits which every one of them has made by the kind of industry which is the object of said partnership.

Art. 26. When one of the partners is, for his own particular account, creditor of a person who is at the same time indebted unto the partnership for a debt of the same nature which is due likewise, the partner is bound to apply what he receives from said debtor to the discharge of what is due to the partnership and to him in the proportion of both debts, although by his receipt he should have applied the whole sum paid to what is due to him in particular.

Art. 27. When one of the partners has received his full share of what is due to the partnership, if the debtor has become insolvent since, the partner who has received his full share, is bound to return the same to the partnership, although he should have given a receipt for his own share.

Art. 28. Every partner is answerable to the partnership for the damages which the partnership may have suffered by his fault, without being able to compensate said damages by the profits which his industry might have produced in other affairs.

Art. 29. If the things, the enjoyment of which only has been put into the partnership, are certain and specified things which are not liable to be consumed by being used, they are at the risk of each partner.
If such tings be destroyed or grow worse by keeping them; if they were intended to be sold, if they were put into the partnership, according to an estimated value ascertained by an inventory, they are at the risk of the partnership; the partner in this last case is creditor only for the amount of the estimated value of those things.

Art. 30. A partner may be a creditor of the partnership not only for the sums which he has disbursed, but likewise for the obligations which he has entered into bona fide for the partnership, and for the risk inseperably connected with his administration.

Art. 31. When the act of partnership does not determine the share of each partner in the benefits or losses, the share of every one is in proportion to what he has put into the partnership.

Art. 32. If the partners have agreed to refer to one of them or to a third person for the regulation of the shares, this regulation cannot be annulled, unless it be by certain proofs that it is contrary to equity.

Art. 33. The agreement which gives to one of the partners the totality of the profits is null.
It is the same with a stipulation which would free from every share in the losses, the sums or effects put into the partnership by one or more of the partners.

Art. 34. The partner entrusted with the administration by the deed of partnership, may do against the will and in spite of the opposition of the other partners, all the acts which depend upon his administration, provided it be without fraud and for the good of the partnership,
This power cannot be revoked as long as the partnership lasts, without a lawful cause.
If the power of administering be posterior to the deed of partnership, it is a simple mandatory commission, susceptible of being revoked.

Art. 35. When several partners are entrusted with the administration, without their duties being pointed out, or when it is not expressed that one shall not be able to act without the other, they may do separately all the acts relating to said administration.

Art. 36. If it has been stipulated that one of the administrators shall not do any thing without the other, one alone cannot act, even when the other is prevented by sickness or otherwise from taking a part in the acts which relate to the administration, until there be a new agreement between the partners.

Art. 37. When there is no agreement respecting administration in the act of partnership, the following rules are adhered to:
1st, The partners are supposed to have given reciprocally to each other the power of administering one for the other. What one does is valid even for the share of his partners, without receiving their approbation; saving the right which they or every one of the partners has to oppose the operation before it be concluded.
2d, Every partner may make use of the things belonging to the partnership, provided he employs the same to the uses for which they are intended and he does not use them in such a manner as to prevent his partners from using them according to their rights or against the interest of the partnership.
3d, Every partner has a right to bind his partners to contribute with him to the expences which are necessary for the preservation of the things of the partnership.
4th, A partner can neither alter nor innovate any thing belonging to the partnership, without the consent of his partners, should even this innovation be advantageous to the partnership.
5th, In an ordinary commercial partnership, the things acquired during the partnership, by bargains signed such one & Co. belong to the partnership, whether the purchase was made out of the monies of the partnership or out of the monies of one of the partners. This last is only then a creditor of the partnership for the sum thus advanced.
6th, In other than commercial partnerships a partner cannot, as partner only, and if he has not the administration, alienate or engage the things which belong to the partnership.

Art. 38. Every partner may, without the consent of his partners, enter into a partnership with a third person for the share which he has in the partnership; but he cannot, without the consent of his partners, make him a partner in the original partnership, should he even have the administration of it.
He is responsible for the damages occasioned by this third person to the partnership, in the same manner as he answers for those he has occasioned himself according to the 28th article above.

Art. 39. In an ordinary commercial partnership, the things acquired by one partner for his particular account, do not enter into the partnership, although they were acquired during the partnership and out of the monies of the partnership, unless the thing bought belongs to the same branch of commerce which is carried on by the partnership, and it would have been to the interest of the partnership to make this purchase, in which case he may be compelled to bring back into the partnership the things thus acquired.

Art. 40. Every contract of partnership must contain the clause of referring to arbitrators respecting all disputes which may arise respecting the partnership; and if this clause has not been expressed, it is always understood.



Art. 41. In an ordinary commercial partnership the following rules shall be observed respecting debts.
1st, Every one of the partners is bound in solido for the debts of the partnership.
2d, The debts of the partnership are those contracted by the person who had the power to bind all the partners in the name of the partnership.
3d, This power is presumed, when he who has contracted, was in the practice of contracting in the name of the partnership, under the eyes and with the knowledge of the partners, or when without being in this practice he has signed for the partnership although he should have been formerly excluded from the administration, by a clause of the contract of partnership provided nevertheless in this last case the act of the partnership had not been made public before the agreement entered into.
4th. The debt is still presumed contracted in the name of the partnership when the partner adds to the signature that he signs for the partnership and not otherwise. The partnership is bound by it, even when the debt has not turned to its advantage, unless by the nature of the contract it should appear that he had nothing to do with the affairs of the partnership.

Art. 42. In the corporate and special partnership the corporate and special partners are not bound by the debts of the partnership towards the creditors with whom the principal or known partner has contracted, they are bound only towards the principal and known partner who contracted the same, to wit: the special partner indefinitely for the share which he has in the partnership; and the corporate partner as far as the amount of the funds which he has put into the partnership.

Art. 43. In private it is otherwise than in commercial partnerships.
The partners are not bound in solido for the payment of the debts of the partnership; and no one can bind his partners if they have not given him the power so to do.

Art. 44. In those partnerships every one of the partners is bound towards the creditor for his virile share, although his share in the partnership was less, if the parties who contracted the debt did not explain themselves on the subject.

Art. 45. When the debt of any other but a commercial partnership, has been contracted only by one of the partners, the partner who contracted the same is answerable only to the creditor, although it should have been expressed that the debt was contracted on account of the partnership, both in his own name and in the name of his partner, unless it should be proved either that his partner had given him the power so to do, or that the debt has turned to the benefit of the partnership.




Art. 19. La société contractée, sans que le tems où elle doit commencer soit exprimé, commence dès l'instant du contrat.

Art. 20. S'il n'y a pas eu de convention sur la durée de la société, elle est censée avoir été contractée pour tout le tems de la vie des associés, sous la modification portée en l'article 54 ci-après; ou s'il s'agit d'une affaire, dont la durée soit limitée, pour tout le tems que doit durer cette affaire.

Art. 21. On peut faire dépendre d'une condition le contrat de société.         

Art. 22. Chaque associé est débiteur envers la société de tout ce qu'il a promis d'y apporter.
Lorsque cet apport consiste en un corps certain, et que la société en est évincée, l'associé en est garant envers la société de la même manière qu'un vendeur l'est envers son acheteur.

Art. 23. L'associé, qui a promis d'apporter à la société un corps certain, est tenu, en cas d'éviction, de la même garantie envers la société, qu'un vendeur envers son acheteur.

Art. 24. L'associé, qui a promis de mettre une somme dans la société, en doit les intérêts du jour où il s'est obligé de la fournir.
Il doit également, les intérêts des sommes qu'il a prises dans la caisse sociale, du jour qu'il les en a tirées.

Art. 25. Les associés, qui se sont réciproquement obligés d'apporter à la société leur industrie, lui doivent compte de tous les gains que chacun d'eux a fait, par l'espèce d'industrie qui est l'objet de cette société.

Art. 26. Lorsque l'un des associés est, pour son compte particulier, créancier d'une personne sur qui la société a aussi une créance de même nature et également exigible, l'associé doit imputer ce qu'il reçoit de ce débiteur, sur la créance de la société et sur la sienne, dans la proportion des deux créances, quand même, par sa quittance, il aurait fait l'imputation en entier sur sa créance particulière.

Art. 27. Lorsqu'un des associés a reçu sa part entière de la créance commune, si le débiteur est depuis devenu insolvable, l'associé qui a reçu sa part entière, est tenu de rapporter à la masse commune ce qu'il a reçu, encore qu'il eut donné la quittance pour sa part.

Art. 28. Chaque associé est débiteur, envers la société, des dommages qu'il lui a causés par sa faute, sans pouvoir compenser, avec ces dommages, les profits que son industrie lui aurait procurés dans d'autres affaires.

Art. 29. Si les choses, dont la jouissance seulement a été mise dans la société, sont des corps certains et déterminés, qui ne se consomment pas par l'usage, elles sont aux risques de l'associé.
Si ces choses se consomment, si elles se détériorent en les gardant, si elles ont été destinées à être vendues, si elles ont été mises dans la société sur une estimation portée par un inventaire, elles sont aux risques de la société; l'associé, dans ces derniers cas, n'est créancier que de la somme à laquelle monte l'estimation.

Art. 30. Un associé peut être créancier de la société, non-seulement des sommes qu'il a déboursées, mais encore des obligations qu'il a contractées de bonne foi pour les affaires de la société, et des risques inséparables de sa gestion.

Art. 31. Lorsque l'acte de société ne détermine point la part de chaque associé dans les bénéfices ou pertes, la part de chacun est en proportion de sa mise dans le fonds de la société.

Art. 32. Si les associés sont convenus de s'en rapporter à l'un d'eux, ou à un tiers, pour le règlement des parts, ce règlement ne peut être attaqué que par une preuve certaine, qu'il est contraire à l'équité.

Art. 33. La convention qui donne à l'un des associés la totalité des bénéfices, est nulle.
Il en est de même de la stipulation qui affranchirait, de toute contribution aux pertes, les sommes ou effets mis dans le fonds de la société, par un ou plusieurs des associés.

Art. 34. L'associé chargé de l'administration, par le contrat de société, peut faire, contre le gré et malgré l'opposition des autres associés, tous les actes qui dépendent de son administration, pourvu qui ce soit sans fraude, et pour le bien de la société.
Ce pouvoir ne peut être révoqué, tant que la société dure, sans cause légitime.
Si le pouvoir d'administrer est postérieur au contrat de société, c'est un simple mandat, susceptible de révocation.

Art. 35. Lorsque plusieurs associés sont chargés d'administrer, sans que leurs fonctions soient déterminées, ou sans qu'il ait été exprimé, que l'un ne pourrait agir sans l'autre, ils peuvent faire séparément tous les actes de cette administration.

Art. 36. S'il a été stipulé, que l'un des administrateurs ne pourra rien faire sans l'autre, un seul ne peut agir, lors même que l'autre est, par maladie ou autrement, dans l'impossibilité de concourir aux actes administratifs, jusqu'à ce qu'il y ait, entre les associés, une nouvelle convention.

Art. 37. Lorsque dans l'acte de société il n'y a point de convention sur l'administration, on suit les règles suivantes:
1º. Les associés sont censés s'être donnés, réciproquement, le pouvoir d'administrer l'un pour l'autre; ce que chacun fait est valable, même pour la part de ses associés, sans qu'il ait pris leur consentement, sauf le droit qu'ont ces derniers, ou l'un d'eux, de s'opposer à l'opération avant qu'elle soit conclue;
2º. Chaque associé peut se servir des choses appartenant à la société, pourvu qu'il les emploie aux usages auxquelles elles sont destinées, et qu'il ne s'en serve de manière à empêcher ses associés d'en user selon leur droit, et contre l'intérêt de la société;
3º. Chaque associé a le droit d'obliger ses associés à faire avec lui les dépenses qui sont nécessaires pour la conservation des choses de la société;
4º. Un associé ne peut faire aucun changement, ni innovation sur les immeubles dépendans de la société, sans le consentement de ses associés, quand même cette innovation serait avantageuse à la société;
5º. Dans une société de commerce en nom collectif, les choses acquises durant la société, par des marchés signés un tel et compagnie, appartiennent à la société, soit que l'acquisition ait été faite des deniers de la société ou de ceux propres à l'un des associés; ce dernier est seulement alors créancier de la société, en raison de son avance.
6º. Dans les sociétés autres que de commerce, un associé ne peut dans sa seule qualité d'associé, et s'il n'a pas l'administration, aliéner ni engager les choses qui en dépendent.

Art. 38.  Chaque associé peut, sans le consentement de ses associés, s'associé une tierce personne, à la part qu'il a dans la société; il ne peut pas sans ce consentement, l'associer à la société, lors même qu'il en aurait l'administration.
Il répond des dommages causés par cette tierce personne à la société, de la même manière qu'il répond de ceux quil a causés lui-même suivant l'article 28 ci-dessus.

Art. 39. Dans les sociétés de commerce en nom collectif, les choses acquises par un associé pour son compte particulier, n'y tombent pas, quoiqu'elles ayent été acquises pendant la société et des deniers communs; à moins qu'il ne s'agisse d'un marché qui soit dans la même espèce de commerce que celui de la société, et qu'il n'eut été de l'intérêt de la société de faire ce marché, auquel cas il peut être contraint d'y rapporter les choses ainsi acquises.

Art. 40. Tout contrat de société doit contenir la clause de se soumettre à des arbitres, sur toutes les contestations qui peuvent survenir concernant la société, et si cette clause n'y a pas été exprimée, elle est toujours sous entendue.



Art. 41. Dans les sociétés de commerce en nom collectif, on suit, quant aux dettes, les règles suivantes:
1º. Chacun des associés est tenu solidairement des dettes de la société;
2º. Les dettes de société, sont celles contractées par celui qui avait le pouvoir d'obliger tous les associés, et au nom de la société;
3º. Ce pouvoir est présumé, lorsque celui qui a contracté était dans l'usage de contracter au nom de la société, au vu et su des associés, ou lorsque, sans être dans cet usage, il a signé pour la compagnie; le tout, encore qu'il eut été formellement exclu de l'administration, par une clause du contrat de société, pourvu néanmoins dans ce dernier cas, que l'acte de société n'eut pas été rendu public avant l'engagement contracté;
4º. La dette est encore présumée contractée au nom de la société, lorsque l'associé ajoute à sa signature, qu'il signe pour la compagnie et non autrement; la société en est tenue, lors même que la dette n'a pas tourné à son profit, à moins que, par le genre de l'obligation, il ne paraisse qu'elle ne concernait pas les affaires de la société.

Art. 42. Dans les sociétés en commandite, et dans celles anonymes, les associés en commandite, et les associés anonymes, ne sont point tenus des dettes de la société envers les créanciers avec qui l'associé principal ou connu a contracté.  Ils ne sont tenus qu'envers l'associé principal et connu qui les a contractées, savoir: l'associé anonyme indifinitivement, pour la part qu'il a dans la société, et l'associé en commandite, jusqu'à concurrence seulement des fonds qu'il a mis dans la société.

Art. 43. Dans les sociétés particulières, autres que de commerce, les associés ne sont pas tenus solidairement des dettes sociales, et nul ne peut obliger son associé, s'il ne lui en a conféré le pouvoir.

Art. 44. Dans ces mêmes sociétés, chacun des associés est tenu envers le créancier, pour sa part virile, encore que sa part, dans la société, fut moindre, si les parties, qui ont contracté la dette, ne s'en sont pas expliquées.           

Art. 45. Lorsque la dette d'une société, autre que de commerce, n'a été contractée que par l'un des associés, il n'y a que celui qui l'a contractée qui en soit tenu envers le créancier, encore qu'il eut été exprimé, que c'était pour le compte de la société, tant en son nom qu'au nom de son associé, à moins qu'il ne fut justifié, ou que son associé lui a donné pouvoir, ou que la dette a tourné au profit de la société.

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