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Table of Contents

Cover Page
Preliminary title Of the general definitions of rights and the promulgation of the laws
    Chapter I Of law and customs
    Chapter II Of the publication of the laws
    Chapter III Of the effects of laws
    Chapter IV Of the application and construction of laws
    Chapter V Of the repeal of laws
Book I Of persons
    Title I Of the distinction of persons, and the privation of certain civil rights in certain cases
      Chapter I Of the distinction of persons established by nature
      Chapter II Of the distinctions of persons which are established by law
    Title II Of domicil and the manner of changing the same
    Title III Of absent persons
      Chapter I Of the curatorship of absent persons
      Chapter II Of the putting into provisional possession the heirs of the absentee
      Chapter III Of the effects of absence upon the eventual rights which may belong to the absentee
      Chapter IV Of the effects of absence respecting marriage
      Chapter V Of the care of minor children whose father has disappeared
    Title IV Of husband and wife
      Chapter I On marriage
      Chapter II How marriages may be contracted or made
      Chapter III Of the nullity of marriages
      Chapter IV Of the respective rights and duties of married persons
      Chapter V Of the dissolution of marriages
      Chapter VI Of second marriages
    Title V Of the separation from bed and board
      Chapter I Of the causes of separation from bed and board
      Chapter II Of the proceedings on separation from bed and board
      Chapter III Of the provisional proceedings to which a suit for separation may give occasion
      Chapter IV Of objections to the action of separation from bed and board
      Chapter V Of the effects of separation from bed and board
    Title VI Of master and servant
      Chapter I Of the several sorts of servants
      Chapter II Of free servants
      Chapter III Of slaves
    Title VII Of father and child
      Chapter I Of children in general
      Chapter II Of legitimate children
        Section I Of legitimacy resulting from marriage
        Section II Of the manner of proving the legitimate filiation
      Chapter III Of illegitimate children
        Section I Of legitimation
        Section II Of the acknowledgment of illegitimate children
      Chapter IV Of adoption
      Chapter V Of paternal authority
        Section I Of the duties of parents towards their legitimate children, and of the duties of legitimate children towards their parents
        Section II Of the duties of parents towards their natural children, and of the duties of natural children towards their parents
    Title VIII Of minors, of their tutorship, curatorship and emancipation
      Chapter I Of tutorship
        Section I General dispositions
        Section II Of tutorship by nature
        Section III Of tutorship by will
        Section IV Of the tutorship by the effect of the law
        Section V Of dative tutorship
        Section VI Of the under tutor
        Section VII Of the causes which dispense or excuse from the tutorship
        Section VIII Of incapacity for, exclusion from and deprivation of the tutorship
        Section IX Of the administration of the tutor
      Chapter II Of the curatorship of minors
      Chapter III Of emancipation
    Title IX Of persons insane, idiots, and other persons incapable of administering their estate
      Chapter I Of the interdiction and curatorship of persons incapable of administering their estate, whether on account of insanity or of some other infirmity
      Chapter II Of the other persons to whom curators are appointed
    Title X Of communities or corporations
      Chapter I Of the nature of communities or corporations, of their use and kind
      Chapter II Of the rights and privileges of communities or corporations and of their incapacities
      Chapter III Of the dissolution of communities or corporations
Book II Of things and of the different modifications of property
    Title I Of things or estates
      Chapter I Of the distinction of things or estates
      Chapter II Of immoveables
      Chapter III Of moveables
      Chapter IV Of estates considered in their relation to those who possess them
    Title II Of absolute ownership
      Chapter I Universal principles
      Chapter II Of the right of accession to what is produced by the thing
      Chapter III Of the right of accession to what unites or incorporates itself to the thing
        Section I Of the right of accession concerning immoveables
        Section II Of the right of accession concerning moveable things
    Title III Of usufruct, use and habitation
      Chapter I Of usufruct
        Section I General definitions
        Section II Of the rights of the usufructuary
        Section III Of the obligations of the usufructuary
        Section IV Of the obligations of the owner
        Section V How usufruct expires
      Chapter II Of the use and habitation
    Title IV Of predial services or services of land
      Chapter I General principles
      Chapter II Of services which originate from the natural situation of the place
      Chapter III Of services imposed by law
        Section I Of walls, fences, and ditches in common
        Section II Of the distance and of the intermediary works required for certain buildings
        Section III Of lights on the property of a neighbor
        Section IV Of the manner of carrying off rain from the roof
        Section V Of the right of passage
      Chapter IV Of services established by the act of man
        Section I Of the different kinds of services which may be established by the act of man
        Section II How services are acquired
        Section III Of the rights of the proprietor of the estate to which the service is due
        Section IV How Services are extinguished
Book III Of the different manners of acquiring the property of things
    Preliminary title General dispositions
    Title I Of successions
      Chapter I Of the different sorts of successions and heirs
      Chapter II Of legal successions
        Section I General rules
        Section II Of the succession of descendants
        Section III Of the succession of ascendants
        Section IV Of the succession of collaterals
      Chapter III Of irregular successions
      Chapter IV In what manner successions are opened
      Chapter V Of the incapacity and unworthiness of the heirs
      Chapter VI In what manner a succession is accepted and how it is renounced
        Section I Of the acceptance pure and simple
        Section II Of the acceptance of a succession with the benefit of an inventory
      Chapter VII Of the administration of vacant estates and estates ab intestato
      Chapter VIII Of partition among heirs and of the collation of goods
        Section I Of the nature of partition and in what manner it is made
        Section II Of the collation of goods
        Section III Of the payment of debts
        Section IV Of the effect of partition and of its rescision
    Title II Of donations inter vivos (between living persons) and mortis causa (in prospect of death)
      Chapter I General dispositions
      Chapter II Of the capacity necessary for disposing of and receiving by donation inter vivos or mortis causa
      Chapter III Of the portion disposable, and of its reduction in case of excess
        Section I Of the disposable portion and the legitime
        Section II Of the reduction of dispositions inter vivos or mortis causa; of the manner in which it is made and of its effects
      Chapter IV Of dispositions reprobated by the law in donations inter vivos and mortis causa
      Chapter V Of donations inter vivos (between living)
        Section I Of the irrevocability of donations inter vivos
        Section II Of the form of donations inter vivos
        Section III Of the exceptions to the rule of the irrevocability of donations inter vivos
      Chapter VI Of dispositions mortis causa (in the prospect of death)
        Section I Of testament or codicil
        Section II Of the form of testaments and codicils
        Section III Of testamentary dispositions
        Section IV Of the institution of heir and of disinherison
        Section V Of legacies
        Section VI Of the opening and the proof of wills, and of testamentary executions
        Section VII Of the revocation of testaments and codicils and of their caducity
        Section VIII Of the interpretation of testamentary dispositions
      Chapter VII Of partitions made by parents among their descendants
      Chapter VIII Of donations made by marriage contract to the husband or wife, and to the children to be born of the marriage
      Chapter IX Of donations between married persons, either by marriage contract, or during the marriage
    Title III Of contracts and of conventional obligations in general
      Chapter I Preliminary dispositions
      Chapter II Of the conditions essential to the validity of agreements
        Section I Of consent
        Section II Of the capability of the parties contracting
        Section III Of the object and the matter of contracts
        Section IV Of the cause
      Chapter III Of the effect of obligations
        Section I General dispositions
        Section II Of the obligation of giving
        Section III Of the obligations of doing or of not doing
        Section IV Of the damages resulting from the non execution of the obligation
        Section V Of the interpretation of the agreements
        Section VI Of the effect of agreements with regard to persons not parties to them
      Chapter IV Of the different kinds of obligations
        Section I Of conditional obligations
          § 1 Of the condition in general and of its different kinds
          § 2 Of the suspensive condition
          § 3 Of the dissolving condition
        Section II Of obligations to be performed at a certain term
        Section III Of the alternative obligations
        Section IV Of obligations in solido or jointly and severally
          § 1 Of the obligation in solido between creditors
          § 2 Of the obligation in solido on the part of debtors
        Section V Of obligations divisible and indivisible
          § 1 Of the effects of a divisible obligation
          § 2 Of the effect of the indivisible obligation
        Section VI Of obligations with penal clauses
      Chapter V Of the extinction of obligations
        Section I Of payment
          § 1 Of payment in general
          § 2 Of payment with subrogation
          § 3 Of the imputation of payments
          § 4 Of tenders of payment, and consignment
          § 5 Of the surrender of property
        Section II Of novation
        Section III Of the remission of the debt
        Section IV Of compensation
        Section V Of confusion
        Section VI Of the loss of the thing due
        Section VII Of the action of nullity or of rescission of agreements
      Chapter VI Of the proof of obligations and of that of payment
        Section I Of the literal proof
          § 1 Of the authentic title
          § 2 Of the acts under private signature
          § 3 Of copies of titles
          § 4 Of recognitive and confirmative acts
        Section II Of testimonial proof
        Section III Of presumptions
          § 1 Of presumptions established by law
          § 2 Of presumption not established by law
        Section IV Of the confession of the party
        Section V Of the proof by oath
    Title IV Of engagements formed without agreements, or of quasi contracts and quasi offences
      Section I Of the quasi contract
      Section II Of quasi crimes or offences
    Title V Of marriage contract
      Chapter I General dispositions
      Chapter II Of the various kinds of matrimonial agreements
        Section I Of donations made in consideration of marriage
        Section II Of dowry or marriage portion
        Section III Of paraphernalia or extra dotal effects
        Section IV Of the partnership or community of acquests or gains
      Chapter III Of the separation of property
    Title VI Of sale
      Chapter I Of the nature and form of the contract of sale, and of the manner in which it is to be performed
      Chapter II Of persons capable of buying and selling, and of things which may be sold
      Chapter III Of the obligations of the seller
        Section I Of the tradition or delivery of the thing sold
        Section II Of the warranty, in case of eviction of the thing sold
        Section III Of the warranty of the defects of the thing sold or of the redhibitory vices
      Chapter IV Of the obligations of the buyer
      Chapter V Of the nullity and rescissions of the sale
        Section I Of the power or right of redemption
        Section II Of the rescission of sales on account of lesion
      Chapter VI Of sales by cant or auction
      Chapter VII Of the assignment or transfer of debts and other incorporeal rights
    Title VII Of exchange
    Title VIII Of letting and hiring
      Chapter I Of the several species of contracts for letting and hiring
      Chapter II Of the contract for letting out things
        Section I Of the form and duration of leases
        Section II Of the obligations of the lessor
        Section III Of the obligations of the lessee
        Section IV Of the dissolution of leases
      Chapter III Of the letting out of labour or industry
        Section I Of the hiring of servants and workmen
        Section II Of carriers and watermen
        Section III Of plots for buildings and other works
    Title IX Of partnership
      Chapter I General dispositions
      Chapter II Of the various kinds of partnerships
      Chapter III Of the obligations of partners towards each other, and towards third persons
        Section I Of the obligations of partners towards each other
        Section II Of the obligations of partners towards third persons
      Chapter IV Of the different manners in which partnerships end
    Title X Of loan
      Chapter I Of the loan for use or commodatum
        Section I Of the nature of the loan for use
        Section II Of the engagements of the borrower for use
        Section III Of the engagements of the lender for use
      Chapter II Of the loan for consumption or mutuum
        Section I Of the nature of the loan for consumption
        Section II Of the obligations of the lender for consumption
        Section III Of the engagements of the borrower for consumption
      Chapter III Of loan on interest
    Title XI Of deposit and sequestration
      Chapter I Of deposit in general and of its divers kinds
      Chapter II Of the deposit properly so called
        Section I Of the nature and essence of the contract of deposit
        Section II Of the obligations of the depository
        Section III Of the obligations of him by whom the deposit has been made
        Section IV Of the necessary deposit
      Chapter III Of sequestration
        Section I Of its different species
        Section II Of the conventional sequestration
        Section III Of the judicial sequestration or deposit
    Title XII Of aleatory contracts
    Title XIII Of mandate or commission
      Chapter I Of the nature of proxies, mandates and commissions
      Chapter II What persons may be appointed attornies in fact
      Chapter III Of the obligations of a person acting under a power of attorney
      Chapter IV Of the obligations of the principal who acts by his attorney in fact
      Chapter V How the procuration expires
    Title XIV Of suretyship
      Chapter I Of the nature and extent of suretyship
      Chapter II Of the effects of suretyship
        Section I Of the effects of suretyship between the creditor and the surety
        Section II Of the effects of suretyship between the debtor and the surety
        Section III Respecting the effects of suretyship between the sureties
      Chapter III Of the extinction of suretyship
      Chapter IV Of the legal and judicial sureties
    Title XV Of transactions
    Title XVI Of respite
    Title XVII Of compromises or arbitration
    Title XVIII Of pledge
    Title XIX Of privileges and mortgages
      Chapter I Of the nature of a mortgage and of its several sorts
      Chapter II Who may mortgage and what thing may be mortgaged
      Chapter III Of the effects of mortgage
        Section I Of the effects of mortgage with regard to the debtor
        Section II Of the effects of mortgages against third possessors and of the action of mortgage
        Section III Of the registering of mortgages and of the register kept for that purpose
      Chapter IV Of the order of privileges and mortgages
        Section I Of the preference and order of privileges
      Chapter V How privileges or mortgages expire or are extinguished
    Title XX Of occupancy, possession and prescription
      Chapter I Of occupancy
      Chapter II Of possession
      Chapter III Of prescription
        Section I Of the possession required to establish prescription
        Section II Of the causes which suspend or interrupt prescriptions
        Section III Of the several species of prescription
    Title XXI Of the title by judgment or seizure
Manuscript index
Manuscript index Part 2


Art. 23. The seller is bound to explain himself clearly respecting the extent of his obligations, any obscure or ambiguous clause is construed against him.

Art. 24. The seller is bound to two principal obligations, that of delivery and warranting the thing which he sells.

Art. 25. The warranty respecting the seller has two objects; the first is the buyer’s peaceable possession of the thing sold, and the second is the hidden defects of the thing sold, or the redhibitory vices.



Art. 26. The tradition or delivery is the transferring of the thing sold, into the power and possession of the buyer.

Art. 27. The tradition or delivery of moveable effects takes place either by their real tradition; or by the delivery of the keys of the buildings in which they are kept or even by the bare consent of the parties, if the things cannot be transported at the time of sale; or if the purchaser had them already in his possession under another title.

Art. 28. The tradition or delivery of slaves, takes place either by real delivery made to the buyer or by the mere consent of the parties, when the sale mentions that the thing has been sold and delivered to the buyer, or when the said buyer was already in possession under another title.

Art. 29. Tradition or delivery of immoveables is made by the seller, when he leaves to the purchaser the free possession of the same, by dispossessing himself, either by delivery of the titles, if any, or of the keys, if it is a place shut up such as a house, a park, a garden and the like; or by putting the buyer on the premises; or only, by letting him have a view of the same, or by consenting that he become a possessor; or by an acknowledgment on the part of the seller, that if he still retains possession it is only in a precarious way, that is to say as a person who possesses the property of another person on condition of giving up said property at the request of the owner.
If the seller makes a reserve of the usufruct, this reserve shall be also considered as a tradition.

Art. 30. If the precarious clause has been omitted in a contract of sale, of an immoveable, it is tacitly understood as to the effect of giving the buyer a right to take possession of the thing, if it is not already possessed by others, for the sale transfering the property of the thing, it implies the consent of the seller, that the buyer should take possession of it.

Art. 31. The tradition of the incorporeal rights is to be made either by the delivery of the titles, or by the use made by the purchaser with the consent of the seller.

Art. 32. The costs of delivery are chargeable to the seller, and those of removing are to be supported by the buyer, if there has been no stipulation made to the contrary.

Art. 33. The delivery must be made on the place where the thing which is the object of the sale was at the time of said sale, if not otherwise agreed upon.

Art. 34. If the seller fails to make the delivery at the time agreed on between the parties, the buyer will be at liberty to demand either a cancelling of the sale or his being put in possession, if the delay is occasioned only by the deed of the seller.

Art. 35. In all cases the seller is liable to damages, if there result any detriment to the buyer, occasioned by the nondelivery at the time agreed on.

Art. 36. The seller is not bound to make a delivery of the thing if the buyer does not pay the price, and the seller has not granted him any term for the payment.

Art. 37. Neither shall he be obliged to the delivery, even if he has granted a term for the payment, if since the sale the buyer is become a bankrupt or is in a state of insolvency, so that the seller would be in imminent danger of losing the price of the same, unless the buyer should give him security to pay at the time agreed on.

Art. 38. The thing must be delivered in the same state as it was in at the time of the sale; from that day all the profits belong to the purchaser.

Art. 39. The obligation of delivering the thing includes the accessories and dependencies without which it would be of no value or service, and likewise every thing that has been designed to its perpetual use.

Art. 40. The seller is bound to deliver the full extent of the premises as specified in the contract, under the modifications hereafter expressed.

Art. 41. If the sale of an immoveable has been made with indication of the extent of the premises at the rate of so much per measure, the seller is obliged to deliver to the buyer, if he requires it, the quantity mentioned in the contract, and if he cannot conveniently do it, or if the buyer does not require it, the seller is obliged to suffer a diminution proportionate to the price.

Art. 42. If, on the other hand, there exist an extent of more than what is specified in the contract, the buyer has a right either to give the supplement of the price, or to recede from the contract, should the overplus be upwards of a twentieth part of the extent which is declared.

Art. 43. In all other cases, whether the sale be of a certain and limited body, or of distinct and separate objects, whether it first set forth the measure or the designation of the object followed by its measure, the expression of the measure gives no room to any supplement of price in favour of the seller, for the overplus of the measure; neither can the purchaser thence claim a diminution of the price on a deficiency of the measure, unless the real measure exceeds, or comes short of that expressed in the contract, by one twentieth part, regard being had to the totality of the objects sold; provided there be no stipulation to the contrary.

Art. 44. In the case where according to the preceding article, there is room for an augmentation of price for the surplus of the measure, the buyer has the option to give the supplement or to recede from the contract.

Art. 45. In all cases where the buyer has a right to recede from the contract, the seller is bound to make him restitution not only of the price, if already received, but also of the expences occasioned by the said contract.

Art. 46. The action for supplement of the price on the part of the seller, and that for diminution of the price, or for the cancelling of the contract on the part of the buyer, must be brought within one year from the day of the contract, otherwise it is barred.

Art. 47. If two pieces of ground have been sold by one and the same contract with the expression of the measure for each, and there be found a less quantity in one, and a larger one in the other, the deficiency of the one is supplied by the overplus of the other as far as it goes, and the action either in supplement or in abatement of the price, takes place only according to the rules above established.

Art. 48. When a question arises whether the seller or the buyer ought to support the loss or deterioration of the thing sold but not delivered it shall be decided according to the rules laid down under the title of contracts or conventional obligations in general.


Art. 23. Le vendeur est tenu d'expliquer clairement ce à quoi il s'oblige; tout pacte obscur ou ambigu s'interprète contre lui.           

Art. 24. Le vendeur est soumis à deux obligations principales; celle de délivrer, et celle de garantir la chose qu'il vend.           

Art. 25. La garantie que doit le vendeur, a deux objets, le premier, est la possession paisible de l'acheteur dans la chose vendue;
Et le second, les défauts cachés de cette chose ou les vices rédhibitoires.



Art. 26. La tradition ou délivrance, est le transport de la chose vendue en la puissance et possession de l'acheteur.           

Art. 27. La tradition ou délivrance des effets mobiliers s'opère, ou par la tradition réelle, ou par la remise des clefs des bâtimens qui les contiennent, ou même par le seul consentement des parties, si le transport ne peut s'en faire au moment de la vente, ou si l'acheteur les avait déjà en son pouvoir à un autre titre.           

Art. 28. La tradition ou délivrance des esclaves s'opère, ou par la remise réelle qui en est faite à l'acheteur, ou par le seul consentement des parties, lorsque la vente porte que l'esclave a été vendu et livré à l'acheteur, ou lorsque l'acheteur en était déjà en possession à un autre titre.           

Art. 29. La tradition ou délivrance des immeubles se fait par le vendeur, lorsqu'il en laisse la possession libre à l'acheteur, s'en dépouillant lui-même soit par la délivrance des titres, s'il y en a; ou des clefs, si c'est un lieu clos, comme une maison, un parc, un jardin; soit en mettant l'acheteur sur les lieux, ou seulement lui en donnant la vue; soit en consentant qu'il possède; soit en reconnaissant de la part du vendeur que s'il possède encore, ce ne sera plus que précairement, c'est-à-dire, comme possède celui qui tient la chose d'autrui, à condition de la rendre au maître, quand il le voudra.
Si le vendeur se réserve l'usufruit, cette réserve tiendra aussi lieu de tradition.           

Art. 30. Si la clause de précaire a été omise dans un contrat de vente d'un immeuble, elle y est sous-entendue à l'effet de mettre l'acheteur en droit de prendre possession, si les biens sont libres. Car la vente transférant la propriété, elle renferme le consentement du vendeur, que l'acheteur se mette en possession.           

Art. 31. La tradition des droits incorporels se fait, ou par la remise des titres, ou par l'usage que l'acquéreur en fait, du consentement du vendeur.           

Art. 32. Les frais de la délivrance sont à la charge du vendeur, et ceux de l'enlèvement ou transport, à la charge de l'acheteur, s'il n'y a eu stipulation contraire.           

Art. 33. La délivrance doit se faire au lieu où était, au tems de la vente, la chose qui en fait l'objet, s'il n'en a été autrement convenu.           

Art. 34. Si le vendeur manque à faire la délivrance dans le tems convenu entre les parties, l'acquéreur pourra, à son choix, demander ou la résolution de la vente ou sa mise en possession, si le retard ne vient que du fait du vendeur.           

Art. 35. Dans tous les cas, le vendeur doit être condamné aux dommages intérêts, s'il résulte un préjudice pour l'acquéreur, du défaut de délivrance au terme convenu.           

Art. 36. Le vendeur n'est pas tenu de délivrer la chose, si l'acheteur n'en paye pas le prix, et que le vendeur ne lui ait pas accordé un délai pour le payement.           

Art. 37. Il ne sera pas non plus obligé à la délivrance, quand même il aurait accordé un délai pour le payement; si, depuis la vente, l'acheteur est tombé en faillite, ou en état de déconfiture, en sorte que le vendeur se trouve en danger imminent de perdre le prix, à moins que l'acheteur ne lui donne caution, de payer au terme.           

Art. 38. La chose doit être délivrée en l'état où elle se trouve au moment de la vente; depuis ce jour, tous les fruits appartiennent à l'acquéreur.           

Art. 39. L'obligation de délivrer la chose comprend ses accessoires, les dépendances sans lesquelles elle serait inutile, et tout ce qui a été destiné à son usage perpétuel.           

Art. 40. Le vendeur est tenu de délivrer la contenance, telle qu'elle est portée au contrat, sous les modifications ci-après exprimées.           

Art. 41. Si la vente d'un immeuble a été faite avec indication de la contenance, à raison de tant la mesure, le vendeur est obligé de délivrer à l'acquéreur, s'il l'exige, la quantité indiquée au contrat.
Et si la chose ne lui est pas possible, ou si l'acquéreur ne l'exige pas, le vendeur est tenu de souffrir une diminution proportionnelle du prix.           

Art. 42. Si, au contraire, dans le cas de l'article précédent, il se trouve une contenance plus grande que celle exprimée au contrat, l'acquéreur a le droit de fournir le supplément du prix, ou de se désister du contrat, si l'excédant est d'un vingtième au-dessus de la contenance déclarée.           

Art. 43. Dans tous les autres cas, soit que la vente soit faite d'un corps certain et limité; soit qu'elle ait pour objet des fonds distincts et séparés; soit qu'elle commence par la mesure ou la désignation de l'objet vendu, suivi de sa mesure; l'expression de cette mesure, ne donne lieu à aucun supplément du prix en faveur du vendeur pour l'excédant de mesure, ni en faveur de l'acquéreur à aucune diminution du prix pour moindre mesure, qu'autant que la différence de la mesure réelle à celle exprimée au contrat, est d'un vingtième en plus ou en moins, eu égard à la totalité  des objets vendus, s'il n'y a stipulation contraire.           

Art. 44. Dans le cas où suivant l'article précédent, il y a lieu à augmentation de prix pour excédant de mesure, l'acquéreur a le choix de fournir le supplément ou de se désister du contrat.           

Art. 45. Dans tous les cas où l'acquéreur a droit de se désister du contrat, le vendeur est tenu de lui restituer outre le prix, s'il l'a reçu, les frais de ce contrat.           

Art. 46. L'action en supplément de prix de la part du vendeur, et celle en diminution de prix ou en résiliation du contrat de la part de l'acquéreur, doivent être intentées dans l'année à compter du jour du contrat, à peine de déchéance.           

Art. 47. S'il a été  vendu deux fonds par le même contrat, avec expression de la mesure de chacun, et qu'il s'en trouve moins en l'un et plus en l'autre, on fait compensation à concurrence: et l'action soit en supplément, soit en diminution du prix, n'a lieu que suivant les règles ci-dessus établies.           

Art. 48. La question de savoir sur lequel, du vendeur ou de l'acquéreur doit tomber la perte ou la détérioration de la chose vendue, avant la livraison, est jugée d'après les règles établies au titre des contrats ou des obligations conventionnelles en général.

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