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Table of Contents

Cover Page
Preliminary title Of the general definitions of rights and the promulgation of the laws
    Chapter I Of law and customs
    Chapter II Of the publication of the laws
    Chapter III Of the effects of laws
    Chapter IV Of the application and construction of laws
    Chapter V Of the repeal of laws
Book I Of persons
    Title I Of the distinction of persons, and the privation of certain civil rights in certain cases
      Chapter I Of the distinction of persons established by nature
      Chapter II Of the distinctions of persons which are established by law
    Title II Of domicil and the manner of changing the same
    Title III Of absent persons
      Chapter I Of the curatorship of absent persons
      Chapter II Of the putting into provisional possession the heirs of the absentee
      Chapter III Of the effects of absence upon the eventual rights which may belong to the absentee
      Chapter IV Of the effects of absence respecting marriage
      Chapter V Of the care of minor children whose father has disappeared
    Title IV Of husband and wife
      Chapter I On marriage
      Chapter II How marriages may be contracted or made
      Chapter III Of the nullity of marriages
      Chapter IV Of the respective rights and duties of married persons
      Chapter V Of the dissolution of marriages
      Chapter VI Of second marriages
    Title V Of the separation from bed and board
      Chapter I Of the causes of separation from bed and board
      Chapter II Of the proceedings on separation from bed and board
      Chapter III Of the provisional proceedings to which a suit for separation may give occasion
      Chapter IV Of objections to the action of separation from bed and board
      Chapter V Of the effects of separation from bed and board
    Title VI Of master and servant
      Chapter I Of the several sorts of servants
      Chapter II Of free servants
      Chapter III Of slaves
    Title VII Of father and child
      Chapter I Of children in general
      Chapter II Of legitimate children
        Section I Of legitimacy resulting from marriage
        Section II Of the manner of proving the legitimate filiation
      Chapter III Of illegitimate children
        Section I Of legitimation
        Section II Of the acknowledgment of illegitimate children
      Chapter IV Of adoption
      Chapter V Of paternal authority
        Section I Of the duties of parents towards their legitimate children, and of the duties of legitimate children towards their parents
        Section II Of the duties of parents towards their natural children, and of the duties of natural children towards their parents
    Title VIII Of minors, of their tutorship, curatorship and emancipation
      Chapter I Of tutorship
        Section I General dispositions
        Section II Of tutorship by nature
        Section III Of tutorship by will
        Section IV Of the tutorship by the effect of the law
        Section V Of dative tutorship
        Section VI Of the under tutor
        Section VII Of the causes which dispense or excuse from the tutorship
        Section VIII Of incapacity for, exclusion from and deprivation of the tutorship
        Section IX Of the administration of the tutor
      Chapter II Of the curatorship of minors
      Chapter III Of emancipation
    Title IX Of persons insane, idiots, and other persons incapable of administering their estate
      Chapter I Of the interdiction and curatorship of persons incapable of administering their estate, whether on account of insanity or of some other infirmity
      Chapter II Of the other persons to whom curators are appointed
    Title X Of communities or corporations
      Chapter I Of the nature of communities or corporations, of their use and kind
      Chapter II Of the rights and privileges of communities or corporations and of their incapacities
      Chapter III Of the dissolution of communities or corporations
Book II Of things and of the different modifications of property
    Title I Of things or estates
      Chapter I Of the distinction of things or estates
      Chapter II Of immoveables
      Chapter III Of moveables
      Chapter IV Of estates considered in their relation to those who possess them
    Title II Of absolute ownership
      Chapter I Universal principles
      Chapter II Of the right of accession to what is produced by the thing
      Chapter III Of the right of accession to what unites or incorporates itself to the thing
        Section I Of the right of accession concerning immoveables
        Section II Of the right of accession concerning moveable things
    Title III Of usufruct, use and habitation
      Chapter I Of usufruct
        Section I General definitions
        Section II Of the rights of the usufructuary
        Section III Of the obligations of the usufructuary
        Section IV Of the obligations of the owner
        Section V How usufruct expires
      Chapter II Of the use and habitation
    Title IV Of predial services or services of land
      Chapter I General principles
      Chapter II Of services which originate from the natural situation of the place
      Chapter III Of services imposed by law
        Section I Of walls, fences, and ditches in common
        Section II Of the distance and of the intermediary works required for certain buildings
        Section III Of lights on the property of a neighbor
        Section IV Of the manner of carrying off rain from the roof
        Section V Of the right of passage
      Chapter IV Of services established by the act of man
        Section I Of the different kinds of services which may be established by the act of man
        Section II How services are acquired
        Section III Of the rights of the proprietor of the estate to which the service is due
        Section IV How Services are extinguished
Book III Of the different manners of acquiring the property of things
    Preliminary title General dispositions
    Title I Of successions
      Chapter I Of the different sorts of successions and heirs
      Chapter II Of legal successions
        Section I General rules
        Section II Of the succession of descendants
        Section III Of the succession of ascendants
        Section IV Of the succession of collaterals
      Chapter III Of irregular successions
      Chapter IV In what manner successions are opened
      Chapter V Of the incapacity and unworthiness of the heirs
      Chapter VI In what manner a succession is accepted and how it is renounced
        Section I Of the acceptance pure and simple
        Section II Of the acceptance of a succession with the benefit of an inventory
      Chapter VII Of the administration of vacant estates and estates ab intestato
      Chapter VIII Of partition among heirs and of the collation of goods
        Section I Of the nature of partition and in what manner it is made
        Section II Of the collation of goods
        Section III Of the payment of debts
        Section IV Of the effect of partition and of its rescision
    Title II Of donations inter vivos (between living persons) and mortis causa (in prospect of death)
      Chapter I General dispositions
      Chapter II Of the capacity necessary for disposing of and receiving by donation inter vivos or mortis causa
      Chapter III Of the portion disposable, and of its reduction in case of excess
        Section I Of the disposable portion and the legitime
        Section II Of the reduction of dispositions inter vivos or mortis causa; of the manner in which it is made and of its effects
      Chapter IV Of dispositions reprobated by the law in donations inter vivos and mortis causa
      Chapter V Of donations inter vivos (between living)
        Section I Of the irrevocability of donations inter vivos
        Section II Of the form of donations inter vivos
        Section III Of the exceptions to the rule of the irrevocability of donations inter vivos
      Chapter VI Of dispositions mortis causa (in the prospect of death)
        Section I Of testament or codicil
        Section II Of the form of testaments and codicils
        Section III Of testamentary dispositions
        Section IV Of the institution of heir and of disinherison
        Section V Of legacies
        Section VI Of the opening and the proof of wills, and of testamentary executions
        Section VII Of the revocation of testaments and codicils and of their caducity
        Section VIII Of the interpretation of testamentary dispositions
      Chapter VII Of partitions made by parents among their descendants
      Chapter VIII Of donations made by marriage contract to the husband or wife, and to the children to be born of the marriage
      Chapter IX Of donations between married persons, either by marriage contract, or during the marriage
    Title III Of contracts and of conventional obligations in general
      Chapter I Preliminary dispositions
      Chapter II Of the conditions essential to the validity of agreements
        Section I Of consent
        Section II Of the capability of the parties contracting
        Section III Of the object and the matter of contracts
        Section IV Of the cause
      Chapter III Of the effect of obligations
        Section I General dispositions
        Section II Of the obligation of giving
        Section III Of the obligations of doing or of not doing
        Section IV Of the damages resulting from the non execution of the obligation
        Section V Of the interpretation of the agreements
        Section VI Of the effect of agreements with regard to persons not parties to them
      Chapter IV Of the different kinds of obligations
        Section I Of conditional obligations
          § 1 Of the condition in general and of its different kinds
          § 2 Of the suspensive condition
          § 3 Of the dissolving condition
        Section II Of obligations to be performed at a certain term
        Section III Of the alternative obligations
        Section IV Of obligations in solido or jointly and severally
          § 1 Of the obligation in solido between creditors
          § 2 Of the obligation in solido on the part of debtors
        Section V Of obligations divisible and indivisible
          § 1 Of the effects of a divisible obligation
          § 2 Of the effect of the indivisible obligation
        Section VI Of obligations with penal clauses
      Chapter V Of the extinction of obligations
        Section I Of payment
          § 1 Of payment in general
          § 2 Of payment with subrogation
          § 3 Of the imputation of payments
          § 4 Of tenders of payment, and consignment
          § 5 Of the surrender of property
        Section II Of novation
        Section III Of the remission of the debt
        Section IV Of compensation
        Section V Of confusion
        Section VI Of the loss of the thing due
        Section VII Of the action of nullity or of rescission of agreements
      Chapter VI Of the proof of obligations and of that of payment
        Section I Of the literal proof
          § 1 Of the authentic title
          § 2 Of the acts under private signature
          § 3 Of copies of titles
          § 4 Of recognitive and confirmative acts
        Section II Of testimonial proof
        Section III Of presumptions
          § 1 Of presumptions established by law
          § 2 Of presumption not established by law
        Section IV Of the confession of the party
        Section V Of the proof by oath
    Title IV Of engagements formed without agreements, or of quasi contracts and quasi offences
      Section I Of the quasi contract
      Section II Of quasi crimes or offences
    Title V Of marriage contract
      Chapter I General dispositions
      Chapter II Of the various kinds of matrimonial agreements
        Section I Of donations made in consideration of marriage
        Section II Of dowry or marriage portion
        Section III Of paraphernalia or extra dotal effects
        Section IV Of the partnership or community of acquests or gains
      Chapter III Of the separation of property
    Title VI Of sale
      Chapter I Of the nature and form of the contract of sale, and of the manner in which it is to be performed
      Chapter II Of persons capable of buying and selling, and of things which may be sold
      Chapter III Of the obligations of the seller
        Section I Of the tradition or delivery of the thing sold
        Section II Of the warranty, in case of eviction of the thing sold
        Section III Of the warranty of the defects of the thing sold or of the redhibitory vices
      Chapter IV Of the obligations of the buyer
      Chapter V Of the nullity and rescissions of the sale
        Section I Of the power or right of redemption
        Section II Of the rescission of sales on account of lesion
      Chapter VI Of sales by cant or auction
      Chapter VII Of the assignment or transfer of debts and other incorporeal rights
    Title VII Of exchange
    Title VIII Of letting and hiring
      Chapter I Of the several species of contracts for letting and hiring
      Chapter II Of the contract for letting out things
        Section I Of the form and duration of leases
        Section II Of the obligations of the lessor
        Section III Of the obligations of the lessee
        Section IV Of the dissolution of leases
      Chapter III Of the letting out of labour or industry
        Section I Of the hiring of servants and workmen
        Section II Of carriers and watermen
        Section III Of plots for buildings and other works
    Title IX Of partnership
      Chapter I General dispositions
      Chapter II Of the various kinds of partnerships
      Chapter III Of the obligations of partners towards each other, and towards third persons
        Section I Of the obligations of partners towards each other
        Section II Of the obligations of partners towards third persons
      Chapter IV Of the different manners in which partnerships end
    Title X Of loan
      Chapter I Of the loan for use or commodatum
        Section I Of the nature of the loan for use
        Section II Of the engagements of the borrower for use
        Section III Of the engagements of the lender for use
      Chapter II Of the loan for consumption or mutuum
        Section I Of the nature of the loan for consumption
        Section II Of the obligations of the lender for consumption
        Section III Of the engagements of the borrower for consumption
      Chapter III Of loan on interest
    Title XI Of deposit and sequestration
      Chapter I Of deposit in general and of its divers kinds
      Chapter II Of the deposit properly so called
        Section I Of the nature and essence of the contract of deposit
        Section II Of the obligations of the depository
        Section III Of the obligations of him by whom the deposit has been made
        Section IV Of the necessary deposit
      Chapter III Of sequestration
        Section I Of its different species
        Section II Of the conventional sequestration
        Section III Of the judicial sequestration or deposit
    Title XII Of aleatory contracts
    Title XIII Of mandate or commission
      Chapter I Of the nature of proxies, mandates and commissions
      Chapter II What persons may be appointed attornies in fact
      Chapter III Of the obligations of a person acting under a power of attorney
      Chapter IV Of the obligations of the principal who acts by his attorney in fact
      Chapter V How the procuration expires
    Title XIV Of suretyship
      Chapter I Of the nature and extent of suretyship
      Chapter II Of the effects of suretyship
        Section I Of the effects of suretyship between the creditor and the surety
        Section II Of the effects of suretyship between the debtor and the surety
        Section III Respecting the effects of suretyship between the sureties
      Chapter III Of the extinction of suretyship
      Chapter IV Of the legal and judicial sureties
    Title XV Of transactions
    Title XVI Of respite
    Title XVII Of compromises or arbitration
    Title XVIII Of pledge
    Title XIX Of privileges and mortgages
      Chapter I Of the nature of a mortgage and of its several sorts
      Chapter II Who may mortgage and what thing may be mortgaged
      Chapter III Of the effects of mortgage
        Section I Of the effects of mortgage with regard to the debtor
        Section II Of the effects of mortgages against third possessors and of the action of mortgage
        Section III Of the registering of mortgages and of the register kept for that purpose
      Chapter IV Of the order of privileges and mortgages
        Section I Of the preference and order of privileges
      Chapter V How privileges or mortgages expire or are extinguished
    Title XX Of occupancy, possession and prescription
      Chapter I Of occupancy
      Chapter II Of possession
      Chapter III Of prescription
        Section I Of the possession required to establish prescription
        Section II Of the causes which suspend or interrupt prescriptions
        Section III Of the several species of prescription
    Title XXI Of the title by judgment or seizure
Manuscript index
Manuscript index Part 2


Art. 16. By dowry are meant the effects which the wife brings to the husband to support the expenses of marriage.

Art. 17. Every thing which the wife settles upon herself or which is given her by the marriage contract, is included in the dowry, unless there be a contrary stipulation.

Art. 18. The settlement of the dowry may include all the present and future effects of the wife, or her present effects only, or a part of her present and future effects, or even an individual object.
The constitution in general terms of all the effects of the wife does not include her future effects.

Art. 19. Dowry cannot be settled, nor can it even be increased during the marriage.

Art. 20. Dowry can be settled either by the wife herself or by her father or mother or other ascendants, or by her other relations, and even by strangers.

Art. 21. If the father or mother settle jointly a dowry, without distinguishing the part of each, it shall be supposed constituted by equal portion.
If the dowry be settled by the father alone for paternal and maternal rights, the mother, although present to the contract, shall not be obliged, and the father alone shall remain answerable for the whole of the dowry.

Art. 22. If the surviving either father or mother, settles a dowry for paternal and maternal effects, without specifying the portions, the dowry shall be first taken out of the rights of the future husband or wife, out of the estate of the deceased husband or wife, and the rest out of the estate of the person who settled the dowry.

Art. 23. Although the daughter who has received a dowry from her father and mother, may have effects belonging to her which they enjoy, the dowry shall be taken out of the estate of the person settling the dowry, unless there be a contrary stipulation.

Art. 24. Those who settle a dowry are bound to the warranty of the things thus settled.

Art. 25. The interests of the dowry begin of right, from the day of the marriage, against those who have promised the same, although there may be time given for the payment, unless there be a contrary stipulation.

Art. 26. The cause of the dowry is perpetual, that is the dowry is given to the husband for him to enjoy the same, as long as the marriage shall last.

Art. 27. The action which the husband has to recover the payment of the dowry of those who have settled the same, lasts thirty years as well as all other personal actions.

Art. 28. The income or proceeds of the dowry belong to the husband, and are intended to help him support the charges of the matrimony, such as the maintenance of the husband and wife, that of their children, and other expences which the husband deems proper; and this is the reason why the interests of the dowry are due from the day of marriage, unless there be a contrary stipulation as is prescribed in the 25th article above.

Art. 29. The husband alone has the administration of the dowry and his wife cannot deprive him of it; he may act alone in a court of justice for the preservation or recovery of the dowry against such as either owe or detain the same, but this does not prevent the wife from remaining the proprietor of the effects which she brought as her dowry.

Art. 30. The wife may nevertheless appear in a court of justice, for her dotal effects, either when she is separated of property from her husband, or when she is by him authorised to that effect, or on his refusal when she is authorised by the judge.

Art. 31. It may likewise be stipulated by the marriage contract, that the wife shall receive annually, upon her own acquittances, a part of her revenue for her maintenance and personal wants.

Art. 32. The husband is not bound to give security upon his receiving the dowry, unless he has been bound to do so by the marriage contract.

Art. 33. If the dowry or part of the dowry should consist in moveable effects valued by the marriage contract, without declaring that the estimated value of the same, does not constitute a sale, the husband becomes the proprietor of said moveable effects and owes nothing but the estimated value of the same.

Art. 34. The estimated value of immoveables or of slaves settled as a dowry, does not transfer the property of the same to the husband, unless there be an express declaration to that effect.

Art. 35. An immoveable bought with the dotal funds, is not a dotal object, if the condition of their laying out in purchases of estates, has not been stipulated by the marriage contract. It is the same with respect to the immoveable given in payment of a dowry settled in money.

Art. 36. Immoveables settled as a dowry, can be sold or mortgaged during the marriage, neither by the husband, nor by the wife, nor by both together, except as is herein after excepted.

Art. 37. The wife may with the authorisation of her husband, or on his refusal, with the authorisation of the judge, give her dotal effects for the establishment of the children she may have by a former marriage: but if she be authorised only by the judge, she is bound to reserve the enjoyment to her husband.

Art. 38. She may likewise with the authorisation of her husband, give her dotal effects for the establishment of their common children.

Art. 39. Immoveables settled as a dowry may be sold, when the sale of the same has been allowed by the marriage contract.

Art. 40. Such immoveable may be likewise sold with the authorisation of the judge, at public auction, after three advertisements or publications, in the usual places or in the newspapers, for the purpose of liberating from jail either husband or wife; of supplying the family with food in the cases provided for under the title of father and child; of paying the debts of the wife, or of those who settled the dowry, when said debts are of a certain date prior to the marriage contract; or for the purpose of making heavy repairs indispensably necessary for the preservation of the immoveables settled as a dowry; and in fine when said immoveable is held undivided with a third person and the same is ascertained not susceptible of being divided.
In all such cases what remains unimployed out of the proceeds of said sale, above the necessities which have been the occasion of the sale, shall remain dotal effects, and shall be laid out as such in purchase of estate to the benefit of the wife.

Art. 41. If, except as above excepted, the wife or husband or both jointly sell the dotal estate, the wife or her heirs may cause said sale to be set aside, after the dissolution of the marriage and no prescription shall run during the marriage in bar of this right.
The wife shall have the same right after a separation of property.
The husband himself may cause to be annulled the sale during the marriage, but in that case, he remains however bound for the damages and losses of the purchaser, if he has not declared in the deed of sale, that the estate thus sold was a dowry estate.

Art. 42. Immoveables which are a part of the dowry, and which are not declared liable to be sold by the marriage contract, are imprescriptible during the marriage, unless the prescription began before. They become prescriptible after the separation of the goods and chattels, whatever be the time at which the prescription began.

Art. 43. With respect to all the effects of the dowry, the husband is subject to all the obligations of the usufructuary. He is answerable for all prescriptions incurred and deteriorations which have happened by his neglect.

Art. 44. If the dowry be likely to be lost, the wife may sue for a separation of goods and chattels, as will be explained hereafter.

Art. 45. If the dowry consists of immoveables or slaves; or if it consists of moveables not valued by the marriage contract, or valued with a declaration that said valuation is not intended to divest the wife of her property in the same, the busband or his heirs may be compelled to restore the same without delay, after the dissolution of the marriage.

Art. 46. Should the dowry consist of a sum of money, or of moveables valued by the marriage contract, without a declaration that the estimated value is not intended to convey the property of the same to the husband, the restitution of the same cannot be enforced until one year after the dissolution.

Art. 47. If any of the immoveables and slaves whose property is vested in the wife, have perished or grown worse by use and without any neglect on the part of the husband, he shall be bound to restore only such as may remain and in the situation in which they are; nevertheless the wife may in all cases take back her linen, cloathing and jewels in her actual use, under the obligation of accounting for their value, especially when said linen, cloathes and jewels have been in the first instance settled with estimation.

Art. 48. If the dowry includes bonds and credits which could not be recovered, whether owing to the insolvency of the debtors or otherwise, but not owing to the fault or neglect of the husband, he shall not be answerable for the consequences and shall be bound only to restore the deeds or vouchers upon which the debt is grounded.

Art. [4]59. If a dowry consists of usufruct, the husband or his heirs, at the time of the dissolution of the marriage, are bound only to return the right of the usufruct, and not the profits which accrued during the marriage.

Art. 50. If the dowry consists in whole or in part of herds or flocks not valued in the marriage contract, or valued with a declaration that the said estimated value does not deprive the wife of her property in the same, the husband shall be bound only to deliver such proportion of the increased or young proceeding from said flocks and herds during the marriage as shall be necessary to complete the whole number of head of cattle that he originally received.
But with respect to slaves constituted as a dowry and not estimated in such a manner as to operate their sale, the husband is not bound to give others in the room of those who may have or who died, to supply the deficiencies which may have happened among them during the marriage, without any fault of his he is bound only to deliver such as shall remain, in the state in which they may be, but he must include in this delivery, such living children as may have been born from said slaves.

Art. 51. If the marriage has lasted ten years since the time at which the payment of the dowry became due, the wife or her heirs may claim the same from the husband after the dissolution of marriage, without being bound to prove that the husband has received it, unless the husband should satisfactorily prove that he has uselessly done everything in his power to obtain the payment of the same.
This responsibility of the husband does not hold when the wife herself has promised the dowry, for in such a case, neither she or her heirs could claim what she had not paid.

Art. 52. If the marriage be dissolved by the death of the wife, the interests and profits of the dowry to be returned, run of right to the benefit of her heirs from the day of the dissolution.
If it be by the death of her husband, the wife has her choice either to claim the interest of her dowry during the year of mourning, or to claim a sustenance to be taken out of the succession of her husband.— But in both cases, she has a right during that year to be supplied with habitation and mourning dresses out of the succession, which said charges shall not be deducted out of the interests due to her.

Art. 53. The wife has a tacit mortgage on the estate of her husband, to wit:
1stly. For the restitution of her dowry as well as for the replacing of her dotal effects which she brought at the time of her marriage, and which were alienated by her husband, and this from the time of the celebration of the said marriage.
2ndly. For the restitution or the replacing of the dotal effects which she acquired during the marriage, either by succession or donation, from the day when such succession devolved to her or such donation began to have its effect.
3rdly. For the indemnification of the debts to which she bound herself jointly with her husband, as well as for the replacing of her hereditary effects alienated, from the day when such obligation or sale was executed.
Therefore the privilege which was allowed to wives by the ancient laws of this country, with respect to their dowry, and which caused them to be prefered to the creditors having a mortgage even anterior to their marriage, is hereby repealed for all and every marriage which shall be contracted after the promulgation of this code.

Art. 54. If the husband was already insolvent, and had neither art nor trade, when the father settled a dowry on his daughter, she shall be bound to return to the succession of her father, only the action she has against the succession of the husband, to be reimbursed for the same.
But if the husband has become insolvent only since the marriage, or if he exercised a trade or profession which was to him instead of an estate, the loss of the dowry falls solely upon the wife.

Art. 55. When the wife has not brought any dowry, or when what she has brought as a dowry is but trifling with respect to the condition of the [h]busband, if either the husband or wife die rich, leaving the survivor in necessitous circumstances, the latter has a right to take out of the succession of the deceased what is call the martial portion; that is the fourth of said succession in full property, if there be no children, and the same portion as a usufruct only when there are but three or a smaller number of children; and if there be more than three children, the surviving whether husband or wife, shall receive only a child’s share in usufruct, and he is bound to include in this portion what has been left to him as a legacy by the husband or wife who died first.


Art. 16. La dot s'entend, du bien que la femme apporte au mari pour supporter les charges du mariage.           

Art. 17. Tout ce que la femme se constitue, ou qui lui est donné en contrat de mariage, est dotal, s'il n'y a stipulation contraire.           

Art. 18. La constitution de dot peut comprendre tous les biens présens et avenir de la femme, ou ses biens présens seulement, ou une partie de ses biens présens et avenir, ou même un objet individuel.
La constitution, en termes généraux, de tous les biens de la femme, ne comprend pas les biens à venir.           

Art. 19. La dot ne peut être constituée, ni même augmentée pendant le mariage.           

Art. 20. La dot peut être constituée, soit par la femme elle-même, soit par ses père et mère, ou autres ascendans, soit par ses autres parens, ou même par des étrangers.           

Art. 21. Si les père et mère constituent conjointement une dot, sans distinguer la part de chacun, elle sera censée constituée par portions égales.
Si la dot est constituée par le père seul, pour droits paternels et maternels, la mère, quoique présente au contrat, ne sera point engagée, et la dot demeurera en entier à la charge du père.           

Art. 22. Si le survivant des père et mère constitue une dot, pour biens paternels et maternels, sans spécifier les portions, la dot se prendra d'abord, sur les droits du future époux sur les biens du conjoint prédécédé, et le surplus, sur les biens du constituant.           

Art. 23. Quoique la fille, dotée par ses père et mère, ait des biens à elle propres, dont ils jouissent, la dot sera prise sur les biens des constituans, s'il n'y a stipulation contraire.           

Art. 24. Ceux qui constituent une dot, sont tenus à la garantie des objets constitués.           

Art. 25. Les intérêts de la dot courent de plein droit du jour du mariage contre ceux qui l'ont promise, encore qu'il y ait terme pour le payement, s'il n'y a stipulation contraire.

Art. 26. La cause de la dot est perpétuelle, c'est-à-dire que la dot est donnée au mari pour en jouir par lui, tant que le mariage durera.           

Art. 27. L'action qui appartient au mari pour demander le payement de la dot à ceux qui l'ont constituée, dure trente ans comme les autres actions personnelles.           

Art. 28. Les revenus ou fruits de la dot appartiennent au mari, et sont destinés à lui aider à soutenir les charges du mariage, telles que l'entretien des deux conjoints, celui de leurs enfans, et autres dépenses que le mari juge convenables; voilà pourquoi les intérêts de la dot sont dus du jour du mariage, à moins de stipulation contraire, ainsi qu'il est prescrit en l'article 25 ci-dessus.           

Art. 29. Le mari a seul l'administration de la dot, et sa femme ne peut la lui ôter; il peut agir seul en justice pour la conservation et le recouvrement de la dot contre ceux qui en sont débiteurs ou détenteurs, ce qui n'empêche pas que la femme ne demeure propriétaire des biens qu'elle a apportés en dot.           

Art. 30. La femme peut cependant agir en justice pour ses biens dotaux, soit lorsqu'elle est séparée de biens d'avec son mari, ou lorsqu'elle est autorisée à cet effet par lui, ou a son refus, par justice.           

Art. 31. Il peut être également convenu par le contrat de mariage, que la femme touchera annuellement sur ses seules quittances, une partie de ses revenus pour son entretien et ses besoins personnels.           

Art. 32. Le mari n'est pas tenu de fournir caution pour la réception de la dot, s'il n'y a pas été assujetti par le contrat de mariage.          

Art. 33. Si la dot, ou partie de la dot consiste en objets mobiliers mis à prix par le contrat, sans déclaration que l'estimation n'en fait pas vente, le mari en devient propriétaire, et n'est débiteur que du prix donné au mobilier.          

Art. 34. L'estimation donnée à l'immeuble et aux esclaves constitués en dot, n'en transporte point la propriété au mari, s'il n'y a déclaration expresse.           

Art. 35. L'immeuble acquis des deniers dotaux, n'est pas dotal, si la condition de l'emploi n'a été stipulée par le contrat de mariage.
Il en est de même de l'immeuble donné en payement de la dot constituée en argent.           

Art. 36. Les immeubles constitués en dot, ne peuvent être aliénés ou hypothéqués pendant le mariage, ni par le mari, ni par la femme, ni par les deux conjointement, sauf les exceptions qui suivent.          

Art. 37. La femme peut avec l'autorisation de son mari, ou sur son refus, avec permission de justice, donner des biens dotaux pour l'établissement des enfans qu'elle aurait d'un mariage antérieur; mais si elle n'est autorisée que par justice, elle doit réserver la jouissance au mari.           

Art. 38. Elle peut aussi avec l'autorisation de son mari donner ses biens dotaux pour l'établissement de leurs enfans communs.          

Art. 39. L'immeuble dotal peut être aliéné, lorsque l'aliénation en a été permise par le contrat de mariage.          

Art. 40. L'immeuble dotal peut être encore aliéné, avec autorisation de justice, aux enchères, après trois affiches ou publications aux lieux accoutumés, ou dans les papiers publics, pour tirer de prison le mari ou la femme; pour fournir des alimens à la famille dans les cas prévus au titre des pères et des enfans; pour payer les dettes de la femme ou de ceux qui ont constitué la dot, lorsque les dettes ont une date certaine antérieure au contrat de mariage; pour faire de grosses réparations indispensables pour la conservation de l'immeuble dotal; et enfin, lorsque cet immeuble se trouve indivis avec des tiers, et qu'il est reconnu impartageable.
Dans tous ces cas, l'excédent du prix de la vente au-dessus des besoins, restera dotal, et il en sera fait emploi comme tel, au profit de la femme.           

Art. 41. Si hors les cas d'exception qui viennent d'être expliqués, la femme ou le mari, ou tous les deux conjointement, aliènent le fonds dotal, la femme ou ses héritiers pourront faire révoquer l'aliénation, après la dissolution du mariage, sans qu'on puisse leur opposer aucune prescription pendant sa durée; la femme aura le même droit après la séparation de biens.
Le mari lui-même pourra faire révoquer l'aliénation pendant le mariage, en demeurant néanmoins sujet aux dommages et intérêts de l'acheteur, s'il n'a pas déclaré dans le contrat que le bien vendu était dotal.           

Art. 42. Les immeubles dotaux non déclarés aliénables par le contrat de mariage, sont imprescriptibles pendant le mariage, à moins que la prescription n'ait commencé auparavant.
Ils deviennent prescriptibles après la séparation des biens, quelque soit l'époque a laquelle la prescription a commencé.           

Art. 43. Le mari est tenu à l'égard des biens dotaux de toutes les obligations de l'usufruitier; il est responsable de toutes prescriptions acquises et détériorations survenues par sa négligence.           

Art. 44. Si la dot est mise en péril, la femme peut poursuivre la séparation de biens, ainsi qu'il sera expliqué ci-après.           

Art. 45. Si la dot consiste en immeubles ou en esclaves; ou si elle consiste en meubles non estimés par le contrat de mariage; ou bien mis à prix, avec déclaration, que l'estimation n'en ôte pas la propriété à la femme; le mari ou ses héritiers peuvent être contraints de la restituer sans délai, après la dissolution du mariage.           

Art. 46. Si la dot consiste en une somme d'argent; ou en meubles mis à prix par le contrat, sans déclaration que l'estimation n'en rend pas le mari propriétaire, la restitution n'en peut être exigée qu'un an après la dissolution.           

Art. 47. Si les meubles et les esclaves dont la propriété reste à la femme, ont dépéri par l'usage et sans la faute du mari, il ne sera tenu de rendre que ceux qui resteront, et dans l'état où ils se trouveront.
Et néanmoins la femme pourra dans tous les cas, retirer ses linges, hardes et bijoux à son usage actuel, sauf à précompter de leur valeur, lorsque ces linges, hardes et bijoux ont été principalement constitués avec estimation.           

Art. 48. Si la dot comprend des obligations, ou créances qui n'ont pu être recouvrées, soit par l'insolvabilité des débiteurs ou autrement, mais non par la faute ou la négligence du mari, il ne sera point tenu de ce défaut de recouvrement, et en sera quitte en restituant les contrats ou titres de créances.           

Art. 49. Si un usufruit a été constitué en dot, le mari ou ses héritiers ne sont obligés, à la dissolution du mariage, que de restituer le droit d'usufruit, et non les fruits échus durant le mariage.           

Art. 50. Si la dot consistait, en tout ou en partie, en troupeaux, non estimés dans le contrat de mariage, ou bien mis à prix avec déclaration, que l'estimation n'en ôte pas la propriété à la femme, le mari ne sera tenu de remettre le croît, ou les petits qui auront pu naître desdits troupeaux, durant le mariage, que jusqu'à concurrence du nombre qui sera nécessaire pour remplacer les têtes d'animaux qui pourront manquer sur ceux qu'il aura reçu.
Mais à l'égard des esclaves, constitués en dot et non estimés de manière à en opérer la vente, le mari n'est point tenu à remplacer les mortalités et les déficits qui peuvent être arrivés parmi eux, pendant le mariage, sans sa faute; il ne doit remettre que ceux qui resteront dans l'état où ils se trouvent, mais il doit comprendre, dans cette remise, les enfans existans, qui sont nés desdits esclaves.           

Art. 51. Si le mariage a duré dix ans, depuis l'échéance des termes pris pour le payement de la dot, la femme, ou ses héritiers pourront la répéter contre le mari, après la dissolution du mariage, sans être tenus de prouver qu'il l'a reçue, à moins qu'il ne justifiat de diligences, inutilement par lui faites, pour s'en procurer le payement.
Cette responsabilité, du mari, ne s'étend pas au cas, où ce serait la femme elle-même qui eut promis la dot; car en ce cas, elle ou ses héritiers ne seraient pas fondés à répéter ce qu'elle n'aurait pas payé.           

Art. 52. Si le mariage est dissous par la mort de la femme, l'intérêt et les fruits de la dot à restituer, courent de plein droit au profit de ses héritiers, depuis le jour de la dissolution.
Si c'est par la mort du mari, la femme a le choix d'exiger les intérêts de sa dot pendant l'an de deuil, ou de se faire fournir des alimens aux dépens de la succession du mari; mais dans les deux cas, l'habitation durant cette année et les habits de deuil, doivent lui être fournis sur la succession, et sans imputation sur les intérêts à elle dus.           

Art. 53. La femme a une hypothèque tacite sur les biens de son mari, savoir:
1°. Pour la restitution de la dot, ou pour le remploi des biens dotaux qu'elle a apportés lors de son mariage, et ce, à compter du jour de la célébration dudit mariage;
2°. Pour la restitution, ou pour le remploi des biens dotaux qu'elle a acquis durant le mariage, soit par succession ou donation, et ce, du jour où la succession s'est ouverte en sa faveur, ou du jour que la donation a eu son effet;
3°. Pour l'indemnité des dettes qu'elle a contractés avec son mari, ainsi que pour le remploi de ses biens propres aliénés, du jour de l'obligation ou de la vente.
En conséquence, le privilége qui était accordé aux femmes mariées par les anciennes lois du pays, relativement à leur dot, et qui les faisait préférer aux créanciers hypothécaires, même antérieurs à leur mariage, est, et demeure aboli pour tout mariage qui se contractera après la promulgation du présent code.           

Art. 54. Si le mari était déjà insolvable, et n'avait ni art, ni métier, ni profession, lorsque le père a constitué une dot à sa fille, celle-ci ne sera tenue de rapporter à la succession du père, que l'action qu'elle a contre celle de son mari, pour s'en faire rembourser.
Mais si le mari n'est devenu insolvable que depuis le mariage, ou s'il avait un métier ou une profession qui lui tenait lieu de biens, la perte de la dot tombe uniquement sur la femme.           

Art. 55. Lorsque la femme n'a point apporté de dot, ou que ce qu'elle a apporté en dot n'est presque rien par rapport à la condition du mari, si le premier mourant des deux époux est riche, et que le survivant soit dans la nécessité, il a le droit de prendre dans la succession du prédécédé ce que l'on appelle la quarte maritale, c'est-à-dire, le quart de ladite succession en propriété s'il n'y a pas d'enfans, et la même portion en usufruit seulement, lorsqu'il n'y a que trois enfans ou un moindre nombre; et s'il y a plus de trois enfans, l'époux survivant ne prendra qu'une part d'enfant en usufruit, et il est obligé d'imputer sur cette portion, ce qui lui a été légué par le prédécédé.

< Previous | Next >© Manuscript notes copyright 1968 by Louis V. de la Vergne.
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