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Table of Contents

Cover Page
Preliminary title Of the general definitions of rights and the promulgation of the laws
    Chapter I Of law and customs
    Chapter II Of the publication of the laws
    Chapter III Of the effects of laws
    Chapter IV Of the application and construction of laws
    Chapter V Of the repeal of laws
Book I Of persons
    Title I Of the distinction of persons, and the privation of certain civil rights in certain cases
      Chapter I Of the distinction of persons established by nature
      Chapter II Of the distinctions of persons which are established by law
    Title II Of domicil and the manner of changing the same
    Title III Of absent persons
      Chapter I Of the curatorship of absent persons
      Chapter II Of the putting into provisional possession the heirs of the absentee
      Chapter III Of the effects of absence upon the eventual rights which may belong to the absentee
      Chapter IV Of the effects of absence respecting marriage
      Chapter V Of the care of minor children whose father has disappeared
    Title IV Of husband and wife
      Chapter I On marriage
      Chapter II How marriages may be contracted or made
      Chapter III Of the nullity of marriages
      Chapter IV Of the respective rights and duties of married persons
      Chapter V Of the dissolution of marriages
      Chapter VI Of second marriages
    Title V Of the separation from bed and board
      Chapter I Of the causes of separation from bed and board
      Chapter II Of the proceedings on separation from bed and board
      Chapter III Of the provisional proceedings to which a suit for separation may give occasion
      Chapter IV Of objections to the action of separation from bed and board
      Chapter V Of the effects of separation from bed and board
    Title VI Of master and servant
      Chapter I Of the several sorts of servants
      Chapter II Of free servants
      Chapter III Of slaves
    Title VII Of father and child
      Chapter I Of children in general
      Chapter II Of legitimate children
        Section I Of legitimacy resulting from marriage
        Section II Of the manner of proving the legitimate filiation
      Chapter III Of illegitimate children
        Section I Of legitimation
        Section II Of the acknowledgment of illegitimate children
      Chapter IV Of adoption
      Chapter V Of paternal authority
        Section I Of the duties of parents towards their legitimate children, and of the duties of legitimate children towards their parents
        Section II Of the duties of parents towards their natural children, and of the duties of natural children towards their parents
    Title VIII Of minors, of their tutorship, curatorship and emancipation
      Chapter I Of tutorship
        Section I General dispositions
        Section II Of tutorship by nature
        Section III Of tutorship by will
        Section IV Of the tutorship by the effect of the law
        Section V Of dative tutorship
        Section VI Of the under tutor
        Section VII Of the causes which dispense or excuse from the tutorship
        Section VIII Of incapacity for, exclusion from and deprivation of the tutorship
        Section IX Of the administration of the tutor
      Chapter II Of the curatorship of minors
      Chapter III Of emancipation
    Title IX Of persons insane, idiots, and other persons incapable of administering their estate
      Chapter I Of the interdiction and curatorship of persons incapable of administering their estate, whether on account of insanity or of some other infirmity
      Chapter II Of the other persons to whom curators are appointed
    Title X Of communities or corporations
      Chapter I Of the nature of communities or corporations, of their use and kind
      Chapter II Of the rights and privileges of communities or corporations and of their incapacities
      Chapter III Of the dissolution of communities or corporations
Book II Of things and of the different modifications of property
    Title I Of things or estates
      Chapter I Of the distinction of things or estates
      Chapter II Of immoveables
      Chapter III Of moveables
      Chapter IV Of estates considered in their relation to those who possess them
    Title II Of absolute ownership
      Chapter I Universal principles
      Chapter II Of the right of accession to what is produced by the thing
      Chapter III Of the right of accession to what unites or incorporates itself to the thing
        Section I Of the right of accession concerning immoveables
        Section II Of the right of accession concerning moveable things
    Title III Of usufruct, use and habitation
      Chapter I Of usufruct
        Section I General definitions
        Section II Of the rights of the usufructuary
        Section III Of the obligations of the usufructuary
        Section IV Of the obligations of the owner
        Section V How usufruct expires
      Chapter II Of the use and habitation
    Title IV Of predial services or services of land
      Chapter I General principles
      Chapter II Of services which originate from the natural situation of the place
      Chapter III Of services imposed by law
        Section I Of walls, fences, and ditches in common
        Section II Of the distance and of the intermediary works required for certain buildings
        Section III Of lights on the property of a neighbor
        Section IV Of the manner of carrying off rain from the roof
        Section V Of the right of passage
      Chapter IV Of services established by the act of man
        Section I Of the different kinds of services which may be established by the act of man
        Section II How services are acquired
        Section III Of the rights of the proprietor of the estate to which the service is due
        Section IV How Services are extinguished
Book III Of the different manners of acquiring the property of things
    Preliminary title General dispositions
    Title I Of successions
      Chapter I Of the different sorts of successions and heirs
      Chapter II Of legal successions
        Section I General rules
        Section II Of the succession of descendants
        Section III Of the succession of ascendants
        Section IV Of the succession of collaterals
      Chapter III Of irregular successions
      Chapter IV In what manner successions are opened
      Chapter V Of the incapacity and unworthiness of the heirs
      Chapter VI In what manner a succession is accepted and how it is renounced
        Section I Of the acceptance pure and simple
        Section II Of the acceptance of a succession with the benefit of an inventory
      Chapter VII Of the administration of vacant estates and estates ab intestato
      Chapter VIII Of partition among heirs and of the collation of goods
        Section I Of the nature of partition and in what manner it is made
        Section II Of the collation of goods
        Section III Of the payment of debts
        Section IV Of the effect of partition and of its rescision
    Title II Of donations inter vivos (between living persons) and mortis causa (in prospect of death)
      Chapter I General dispositions
      Chapter II Of the capacity necessary for disposing of and receiving by donation inter vivos or mortis causa
      Chapter III Of the portion disposable, and of its reduction in case of excess
        Section I Of the disposable portion and the legitime
        Section II Of the reduction of dispositions inter vivos or mortis causa; of the manner in which it is made and of its effects
      Chapter IV Of dispositions reprobated by the law in donations inter vivos and mortis causa
      Chapter V Of donations inter vivos (between living)
        Section I Of the irrevocability of donations inter vivos
        Section II Of the form of donations inter vivos
        Section III Of the exceptions to the rule of the irrevocability of donations inter vivos
      Chapter VI Of dispositions mortis causa (in the prospect of death)
        Section I Of testament or codicil
        Section II Of the form of testaments and codicils
        Section III Of testamentary dispositions
        Section IV Of the institution of heir and of disinherison
        Section V Of legacies
        Section VI Of the opening and the proof of wills, and of testamentary executions
        Section VII Of the revocation of testaments and codicils and of their caducity
        Section VIII Of the interpretation of testamentary dispositions
      Chapter VII Of partitions made by parents among their descendants
      Chapter VIII Of donations made by marriage contract to the husband or wife, and to the children to be born of the marriage
      Chapter IX Of donations between married persons, either by marriage contract, or during the marriage
    Title III Of contracts and of conventional obligations in general
      Chapter I Preliminary dispositions
      Chapter II Of the conditions essential to the validity of agreements
        Section I Of consent
        Section II Of the capability of the parties contracting
        Section III Of the object and the matter of contracts
        Section IV Of the cause
      Chapter III Of the effect of obligations
        Section I General dispositions
        Section II Of the obligation of giving
        Section III Of the obligations of doing or of not doing
        Section IV Of the damages resulting from the non execution of the obligation
        Section V Of the interpretation of the agreements
        Section VI Of the effect of agreements with regard to persons not parties to them
      Chapter IV Of the different kinds of obligations
        Section I Of conditional obligations
          § 1 Of the condition in general and of its different kinds
          § 2 Of the suspensive condition
          § 3 Of the dissolving condition
        Section II Of obligations to be performed at a certain term
        Section III Of the alternative obligations
        Section IV Of obligations in solido or jointly and severally
          § 1 Of the obligation in solido between creditors
          § 2 Of the obligation in solido on the part of debtors
        Section V Of obligations divisible and indivisible
          § 1 Of the effects of a divisible obligation
          § 2 Of the effect of the indivisible obligation
        Section VI Of obligations with penal clauses
      Chapter V Of the extinction of obligations
        Section I Of payment
          § 1 Of payment in general
          § 2 Of payment with subrogation
          § 3 Of the imputation of payments
          § 4 Of tenders of payment, and consignment
          § 5 Of the surrender of property
        Section II Of novation
        Section III Of the remission of the debt
        Section IV Of compensation
        Section V Of confusion
        Section VI Of the loss of the thing due
        Section VII Of the action of nullity or of rescission of agreements
      Chapter VI Of the proof of obligations and of that of payment
        Section I Of the literal proof
          § 1 Of the authentic title
          § 2 Of the acts under private signature
          § 3 Of copies of titles
          § 4 Of recognitive and confirmative acts
        Section II Of testimonial proof
        Section III Of presumptions
          § 1 Of presumptions established by law
          § 2 Of presumption not established by law
        Section IV Of the confession of the party
        Section V Of the proof by oath
    Title IV Of engagements formed without agreements, or of quasi contracts and quasi offences
      Section I Of the quasi contract
      Section II Of quasi crimes or offences
    Title V Of marriage contract
      Chapter I General dispositions
      Chapter II Of the various kinds of matrimonial agreements
        Section I Of donations made in consideration of marriage
        Section II Of dowry or marriage portion
        Section III Of paraphernalia or extra dotal effects
        Section IV Of the partnership or community of acquests or gains
      Chapter III Of the separation of property
    Title VI Of sale
      Chapter I Of the nature and form of the contract of sale, and of the manner in which it is to be performed
      Chapter II Of persons capable of buying and selling, and of things which may be sold
      Chapter III Of the obligations of the seller
        Section I Of the tradition or delivery of the thing sold
        Section II Of the warranty, in case of eviction of the thing sold
        Section III Of the warranty of the defects of the thing sold or of the redhibitory vices
      Chapter IV Of the obligations of the buyer
      Chapter V Of the nullity and rescissions of the sale
        Section I Of the power or right of redemption
        Section II Of the rescission of sales on account of lesion
      Chapter VI Of sales by cant or auction
      Chapter VII Of the assignment or transfer of debts and other incorporeal rights
    Title VII Of exchange
    Title VIII Of letting and hiring
      Chapter I Of the several species of contracts for letting and hiring
      Chapter II Of the contract for letting out things
        Section I Of the form and duration of leases
        Section II Of the obligations of the lessor
        Section III Of the obligations of the lessee
        Section IV Of the dissolution of leases
      Chapter III Of the letting out of labour or industry
        Section I Of the hiring of servants and workmen
        Section II Of carriers and watermen
        Section III Of plots for buildings and other works
    Title IX Of partnership
      Chapter I General dispositions
      Chapter II Of the various kinds of partnerships
      Chapter III Of the obligations of partners towards each other, and towards third persons
        Section I Of the obligations of partners towards each other
        Section II Of the obligations of partners towards third persons
      Chapter IV Of the different manners in which partnerships end
    Title X Of loan
      Chapter I Of the loan for use or commodatum
        Section I Of the nature of the loan for use
        Section II Of the engagements of the borrower for use
        Section III Of the engagements of the lender for use
      Chapter II Of the loan for consumption or mutuum
        Section I Of the nature of the loan for consumption
        Section II Of the obligations of the lender for consumption
        Section III Of the engagements of the borrower for consumption
      Chapter III Of loan on interest
    Title XI Of deposit and sequestration
      Chapter I Of deposit in general and of its divers kinds
      Chapter II Of the deposit properly so called
        Section I Of the nature and essence of the contract of deposit
        Section II Of the obligations of the depository
        Section III Of the obligations of him by whom the deposit has been made
        Section IV Of the necessary deposit
      Chapter III Of sequestration
        Section I Of its different species
        Section II Of the conventional sequestration
        Section III Of the judicial sequestration or deposit
    Title XII Of aleatory contracts
    Title XIII Of mandate or commission
      Chapter I Of the nature of proxies, mandates and commissions
      Chapter II What persons may be appointed attornies in fact
      Chapter III Of the obligations of a person acting under a power of attorney
      Chapter IV Of the obligations of the principal who acts by his attorney in fact
      Chapter V How the procuration expires
    Title XIV Of suretyship
      Chapter I Of the nature and extent of suretyship
      Chapter II Of the effects of suretyship
        Section I Of the effects of suretyship between the creditor and the surety
        Section II Of the effects of suretyship between the debtor and the surety
        Section III Respecting the effects of suretyship between the sureties
      Chapter III Of the extinction of suretyship
      Chapter IV Of the legal and judicial sureties
    Title XV Of transactions
    Title XVI Of respite
    Title XVII Of compromises or arbitration
    Title XVIII Of pledge
    Title XIX Of privileges and mortgages
      Chapter I Of the nature of a mortgage and of its several sorts
      Chapter II Who may mortgage and what thing may be mortgaged
      Chapter III Of the effects of mortgage
        Section I Of the effects of mortgage with regard to the debtor
        Section II Of the effects of mortgages against third possessors and of the action of mortgage
        Section III Of the registering of mortgages and of the register kept for that purpose
      Chapter IV Of the order of privileges and mortgages
        Section I Of the preference and order of privileges
      Chapter V How privileges or mortgages expire or are extinguished
    Title XX Of occupancy, possession and prescription
      Chapter I Of occupancy
      Chapter II Of possession
      Chapter III Of prescription
        Section I Of the possession required to establish prescription
        Section II Of the causes which suspend or interrupt prescriptions
        Section III Of the several species of prescription
    Title XXI Of the title by judgment or seizure
Manuscript index
Manuscript index Part 2


Art. 117. An obligation is divisible or indivisible, according as it has for its object, either a thing which in its delivery, or a fact which in its execution, is or is not susceptible of division whether material or intellectual.

Art. 118. The obligation is indivisible, though the thing or the fact which is the object of it, be by its nature divisible, if the light in which it is considered in the obligation, does not admit of its being partially executed.

Art. 119. The stipulation in solido does not give to the obligation the character of indivisibility.



Art. 120. An obligation susceptible of division, must be executed between the creditor and the debtor, as though it were indivisible. The indivisibility is applicable only with regard to their heirs, who can demand of the debt, or who are liable to pay of it, only the part which they hold, or for which they are liable as representing the creditor or the debtor.

Art. 121. To the principle laid down in the preceding article, there is an exception with regard to the heirs of the debtor:
1stly. In case the debt be on a mortgage:
2ndly. When it is of a certain substance:
3rdly. When the debt is alternative of things at the option of the creditor, one of which is indivisible;
4thly. When one of the heirs is alone charged, by the title, with the execution of the obligation:
5thly. When it results, either from the nature of the engagement, or from the thing which is its object, or from the end proposed by the contract, that it was the intention of the parties that the debt should not be partially discharged.
In the three former cases, the heir who is in possession of the thing due, or of the property mortgaged for the debt, may be sued for the whole on the thing due or on the property mortgaged, but he has recourse against the co-heirs.
In the fourth case, the heir alone is charged with the debt, and in the fifth case, every one of the heirs, may also be sued for the whole; but the one sued has his recourse against the co-heirs.



Art. [2]122. Every one of those who have conjointly contracted an indivisible debt, is liable to the whole, even though the obligation was not contracted in solido.

Art. 123. The case is the same with regard to the heirs of him who has contracted such an obligation.

Art. 124. Every heir of the creditor may require the execution of the indivisible obligation.
He cannot alone remit the whole of the debt; he cannot alone receive the price instead of the thing. If one of the heirs has alone remitted the debt, or received the price of the thing, his co-heirs cannot demand the indivisible thing, without making allowance for the portion of the co-heir who has remitted the debt, or has received the price.

Art. 125. The heir of the debtor being sued for the whole of the obligation, may demur on the plea that the suit ought to be brought also against his co-heirs, unless the debt be of such a nature, that it can be discharged only by the heir sued, against whom, in that case, judgement may be given, he having recourse for indemnification against his co-heirs.



Art. 126. A penal clause is that by which a person, to secure the execution of an agreement, binds himself in something, in case of non execution.

Art. 127. The nullity of the principal obligation involves that of the penal clause.
The nullity of the latter does not involve that of the principal obligation.

Art. 128. The creditor instead of exacting the penalty stipulated from the debtor who is in default, may sue for the execution of the principal obligation.

Art. 129. The penal clause is the compensation for the damages which the creditor sustains by the non-execution of the principal obligation.
He cannot demand the principal and the penalty together, unless the latter be stipulated for the mere delay.

Art. 130. Whether the principal obligation contain, or do not contain, a term which it is to be fulfilled, the penalty is forfeited only when he who has obligated himself, either to deliver, to take, or to do, is in delay.

Art. 131. The penalty may be modified by the judge, when the principal obligation has been partly executed, except in case of a contrary agreement.

Art. 132. When the primitive obligation contracted with a penal clause is of an indivisible thing, the penalty is forfeited by the default of any one of the heirs of the debtor, and it may be exacted, either wholly against him who has been in default, or against every one of the co-heirs, for his part and portion, and in case of mortgage, for the whole, they having their remedy against him by whose default the penalty was forfeited.

Art. 133. When the primitive obligation contracted under a penalty, is divisible, the penalty is incurred only by that one of the debtor's heirs, who contravened the obligation, and only for the part for which he was liable in the principal obligation, no action lying against those who have executed it.
This rule has this exception, that when the penal clause having been added in the intention that the payment should not be made partially, a co-heir has prevented the execution of the obligation for the whole.
In that case, the entire penalty may be exacted of him, and against the other co-heirs only for their part; but the latter have their recourse against the former.


Art. 117. L'obligation est divisible ou indivisible, selon qu'elle a pour objet une chose qui, dans sa livraison, ou un fait qui, dans l'exécution, est ou n'est pas susceptible de division, soit matérielle, soit intellectuelle.           

Art. 118. L'obligation est indivisible, quoique la chose, ou le fait qui en est l'objet, soit divisible par sa nature, si le rapport, sous lequel elle est considérée dans l'obligation, ne la rend pas susceptible d'exécution partielle.

Art. 119. La solidarité stipulée, ne donne pas à l'obligation le caractère d'indivisibilité.



Art. 120. L'obligation, qui est susceptible de division, doit être exécutée entre le créancier et le débiteur, comme si elle était indivisible. La divisibilité n'a d'application, qu'à l'égard de leurs héritiers qui ne peuvent demander la dette, ou qui ne sont tenus de la payer, que pour les parts dont ils sont saisis, ou dont ils sont tenus, comme représentant le créancier ou le débiteur.          

Art. 121. Le principe établi, dans l'article précédent, reçoit exception à l'égard des héritiers du débiteur:
1º. Dans le cas où la dette est hypothécaire;
2º. Lorsqu'elle est d'un corps certain;
3º. Lorsqu'il s'agit de la dette alternative de choses au choix du créancier, dont l'une est indivisible;
4º. Lorsque l'un des héritiers est chargé seul, par le titre, de l'exécution de l'obligation;
5º. Lorsqu'il résulte, soit de la nature de l'engagement, soit de la chose qui en est l'objet, soit de la fin qu'on s'est proposée dans le contrat, que l'intention des contractans a été, que la dette ne peut s'acquitter partiellement.
Dans les trois premiers cas, l'héritier qui possède la chose due, ou le fonds hypothéqué à la dette, peut être poursuivi, pour le tout, sur la chose due, ou sur le fonds hypothéqué, sauf le recours contre ses co-héritiers. Dans le quatrième cas, l'héritier est seul chargé de la dette, et dans le cinquième cas, chaque héritier peut aussi être poursuivi, pour le tout, sauf son recours contre ses co-héritiers.



Art. 122. Chacun de ceux qui ont contracté conjointement une dette indivisible, en est tenu, pour le total, encore que l'obligation n'ait pas été contractée solidairement.          

Art. 123. Il en est de même, à l'égard des héritiers de celui qui a contracté une pareille obligation.          

Art. 124. Chaque héritier du créancier peut exiger, en totalité, l'exécution de l'obligation indivisible.
Il ne peut, seul, faire la remise de la totalité de la dette; il ne peut, seul, recevoir le prix au lieu de la chose. Si l'un des héritiers a, seul, remis la dette, ou reçu le prix de la chose, son co-héritier ne peut demander la chose indivisible, qu'en tenant compte de la portion du co-héritier qui a fait la remise, ou qui a reçu le prix.           

Art. 125. L'héritier du débiteur, assigné pour la totalité de l'obligation, peut demander un délai pour mettre en cause ses co-héritiers, à moins que la dette ne soit de nature à ne pouvoir être acquittée que par l'héritier assigné, qui peut alors être condamné seul, sauf son recours contre ses co-héritiers.



Art. 126. La clause pénale est celle par laquelle une personne, pour assurer l'exécution d'une convention, s'engage à quelque chose, en cas d'inexécution.           

Art. 127. La nullilté de l'obligation principale, entraîne celle de la clause pénale.
La nullité de celle-ci, n'entraîne pas celle de l'obligation principale.           

Art. 128. Le créancier, au lieu de demander la peine stipulée contre le débiteur qui est en demeure, peut poursuivre l'exécution de l'obligation principale.           

Art. 129. La clause pénale, est la compensation des dommages et intérêts que le créancier souffre de l'inexécution de l'obligation principale.
Il ne peut demander, en même-tems, le principal et la peine, à moins qu'elle n'ait été stipulée pour le simple retard.           

Art. 130. Soit que l'obligation primitive contienne, soit qu'elle ne contienne pas un terme dans lequel elle doive être accomplie, la peine n'est encourue, que lorsque celui qui s'est obligé soit à livrer, soit à prendre, soit à faire, est en demeure.           

Art. 131. La peine peut être modifiée par le juge, lorsque l'obligation principale a été  exécutée en partie, à moins de convention contraire.           

Art. 132. Lorsque l'obligation primitive, contractée avec une clause pénale, est d'une chose indivisible, la peine est encourue par la contravention d'un seul des héritiers du débiteur, et elle peut être demandée, soit en totalité contre celui qui a fait la contravention, soit contre chacun des co-héritiers, pour leur part et portion, et hypothécairement pour le tout, sauf leur recours contre celui qui a fait encourir la peine.           

Art. 133. Lorsque l'obligation primitive contractée sous une peine, est divisible, la peine n'est encourue que par celui des héritiers du débiteur qui contrevient à cette obligation, et pour la part seulement dont il était tenu dans l'obligation principale, sans qu'il y ait d'action contre ceux qui l'ont exécutée.
Cette règle reçoit exception lorsque la clause pénale, ayant été ajoutée dans l'intention que le payement ne put se faire partiellement, un co-héritier a empêché l'exécution de l'obligation pour la totalité. En ce cas, la peine entière peut être exigée contre lui, et contre les autres co-héritiers, pour leur portion seulement, sauf leur recours.

< Previous | Next >© Manuscript notes copyright 1968 by Louis V. de la Vergne.
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