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Table of Contents

Cover Page
Foreword
Abbreviations
Synopsis
Preliminary title Of the general definitions of rights and the promulgation of the laws
    Chapter I Of law and customs
    Chapter II Of the publication of the laws
    Chapter III Of the effects of laws
    Chapter IV Of the application and construction of laws
    Chapter V Of the repeal of laws
Book I Of persons
    Title I Of the distinction of persons, and the privation of certain civil rights in certain cases
      Chapter I Of the distinction of persons established by nature
      Chapter II Of the distinctions of persons which are established by law
    Title II Of domicil and the manner of changing the same
    Title III Of absent persons
      Chapter I Of the curatorship of absent persons
      Chapter II Of the putting into provisional possession the heirs of the absentee
      Chapter III Of the effects of absence upon the eventual rights which may belong to the absentee
      Chapter IV Of the effects of absence respecting marriage
      Chapter V Of the care of minor children whose father has disappeared
    Title IV Of husband and wife
      Chapter I On marriage
      Chapter II How marriages may be contracted or made
      Chapter III Of the nullity of marriages
      Chapter IV Of the respective rights and duties of married persons
      Chapter V Of the dissolution of marriages
      Chapter VI Of second marriages
    Title V Of the separation from bed and board
      Chapter I Of the causes of separation from bed and board
      Chapter II Of the proceedings on separation from bed and board
      Chapter III Of the provisional proceedings to which a suit for separation may give occasion
      Chapter IV Of objections to the action of separation from bed and board
      Chapter V Of the effects of separation from bed and board
    Title VI Of master and servant
      Chapter I Of the several sorts of servants
      Chapter II Of free servants
      Chapter III Of slaves
    Title VII Of father and child
      Chapter I Of children in general
      Chapter II Of legitimate children
        Section I Of legitimacy resulting from marriage
        Section II Of the manner of proving the legitimate filiation
      Chapter III Of illegitimate children
        Section I Of legitimation
        Section II Of the acknowledgment of illegitimate children
      Chapter IV Of adoption
      Chapter V Of paternal authority
        Section I Of the duties of parents towards their legitimate children, and of the duties of legitimate children towards their parents
        Section II Of the duties of parents towards their natural children, and of the duties of natural children towards their parents
    Title VIII Of minors, of their tutorship, curatorship and emancipation
      Chapter I Of tutorship
        Section I General dispositions
        Section II Of tutorship by nature
        Section III Of tutorship by will
        Section IV Of the tutorship by the effect of the law
        Section V Of dative tutorship
        Section VI Of the under tutor
        Section VII Of the causes which dispense or excuse from the tutorship
        Section VIII Of incapacity for, exclusion from and deprivation of the tutorship
        Section IX Of the administration of the tutor
      Chapter II Of the curatorship of minors
      Chapter III Of emancipation
    Title IX Of persons insane, idiots, and other persons incapable of administering their estate
      Chapter I Of the interdiction and curatorship of persons incapable of administering their estate, whether on account of insanity or of some other infirmity
      Chapter II Of the other persons to whom curators are appointed
    Title X Of communities or corporations
      Chapter I Of the nature of communities or corporations, of their use and kind
      Chapter II Of the rights and privileges of communities or corporations and of their incapacities
      Chapter III Of the dissolution of communities or corporations
Book II Of things and of the different modifications of property
    Title I Of things or estates
      Chapter I Of the distinction of things or estates
      Chapter II Of immoveables
      Chapter III Of moveables
      Chapter IV Of estates considered in their relation to those who possess them
    Title II Of absolute ownership
      Chapter I Universal principles
      Chapter II Of the right of accession to what is produced by the thing
      Chapter III Of the right of accession to what unites or incorporates itself to the thing
        Section I Of the right of accession concerning immoveables
        Section II Of the right of accession concerning moveable things
    Title III Of usufruct, use and habitation
      Chapter I Of usufruct
        Section I General definitions
        Section II Of the rights of the usufructuary
        Section III Of the obligations of the usufructuary
        Section IV Of the obligations of the owner
        Section V How usufruct expires
      Chapter II Of the use and habitation
    Title IV Of predial services or services of land
      Chapter I General principles
      Chapter II Of services which originate from the natural situation of the place
      Chapter III Of services imposed by law
        Section I Of walls, fences, and ditches in common
        Section II Of the distance and of the intermediary works required for certain buildings
        Section III Of lights on the property of a neighbor
        Section IV Of the manner of carrying off rain from the roof
        Section V Of the right of passage
      Chapter IV Of services established by the act of man
        Section I Of the different kinds of services which may be established by the act of man
        Section II How services are acquired
        Section III Of the rights of the proprietor of the estate to which the service is due
        Section IV How Services are extinguished
Book III Of the different manners of acquiring the property of things
    Preliminary title General dispositions
    Title I Of successions
      Chapter I Of the different sorts of successions and heirs
      Chapter II Of legal successions
        Section I General rules
        Section II Of the succession of descendants
        Section III Of the succession of ascendants
        Section IV Of the succession of collaterals
      Chapter III Of irregular successions
      Chapter IV In what manner successions are opened
      Chapter V Of the incapacity and unworthiness of the heirs
      Chapter VI In what manner a succession is accepted and how it is renounced
        Section I Of the acceptance pure and simple
        Section II Of the acceptance of a succession with the benefit of an inventory
      Chapter VII Of the administration of vacant estates and estates ab intestato
      Chapter VIII Of partition among heirs and of the collation of goods
        Section I Of the nature of partition and in what manner it is made
        Section II Of the collation of goods
        Section III Of the payment of debts
        Section IV Of the effect of partition and of its rescision
    Title II Of donations inter vivos (between living persons) and mortis causa (in prospect of death)
      Chapter I General dispositions
      Chapter II Of the capacity necessary for disposing of and receiving by donation inter vivos or mortis causa
      Chapter III Of the portion disposable, and of its reduction in case of excess
        Section I Of the disposable portion and the legitime
        Section II Of the reduction of dispositions inter vivos or mortis causa; of the manner in which it is made and of its effects
      Chapter IV Of dispositions reprobated by the law in donations inter vivos and mortis causa
      Chapter V Of donations inter vivos (between living)
        Section I Of the irrevocability of donations inter vivos
        Section II Of the form of donations inter vivos
        Section III Of the exceptions to the rule of the irrevocability of donations inter vivos
      Chapter VI Of dispositions mortis causa (in the prospect of death)
        Section I Of testament or codicil
        Section II Of the form of testaments and codicils
        Section III Of testamentary dispositions
        Section IV Of the institution of heir and of disinherison
        Section V Of legacies
        Section VI Of the opening and the proof of wills, and of testamentary executions
        Section VII Of the revocation of testaments and codicils and of their caducity
        Section VIII Of the interpretation of testamentary dispositions
      Chapter VII Of partitions made by parents among their descendants
      Chapter VIII Of donations made by marriage contract to the husband or wife, and to the children to be born of the marriage
      Chapter IX Of donations between married persons, either by marriage contract, or during the marriage
    Title III Of contracts and of conventional obligations in general
      Chapter I Preliminary dispositions
      Chapter II Of the conditions essential to the validity of agreements
        Section I Of consent
        Section II Of the capability of the parties contracting
        Section III Of the object and the matter of contracts
        Section IV Of the cause
      Chapter III Of the effect of obligations
        Section I General dispositions
        Section II Of the obligation of giving
        Section III Of the obligations of doing or of not doing
        Section IV Of the damages resulting from the non execution of the obligation
        Section V Of the interpretation of the agreements
        Section VI Of the effect of agreements with regard to persons not parties to them
      Chapter IV Of the different kinds of obligations
        Section I Of conditional obligations
          § 1 Of the condition in general and of its different kinds
          § 2 Of the suspensive condition
          § 3 Of the dissolving condition
        Section II Of obligations to be performed at a certain term
        Section III Of the alternative obligations
        Section IV Of obligations in solido or jointly and severally
          § 1 Of the obligation in solido between creditors
          § 2 Of the obligation in solido on the part of debtors
        Section V Of obligations divisible and indivisible
          § 1 Of the effects of a divisible obligation
          § 2 Of the effect of the indivisible obligation
        Section VI Of obligations with penal clauses
      Chapter V Of the extinction of obligations
        Section I Of payment
          § 1 Of payment in general
          § 2 Of payment with subrogation
          § 3 Of the imputation of payments
          § 4 Of tenders of payment, and consignment
          § 5 Of the surrender of property
        Section II Of novation
        Section III Of the remission of the debt
        Section IV Of compensation
        Section V Of confusion
        Section VI Of the loss of the thing due
        Section VII Of the action of nullity or of rescission of agreements
      Chapter VI Of the proof of obligations and of that of payment
        Section I Of the literal proof
          § 1 Of the authentic title
          § 2 Of the acts under private signature
          § 3 Of copies of titles
          § 4 Of recognitive and confirmative acts
        Section II Of testimonial proof
        Section III Of presumptions
          § 1 Of presumptions established by law
          § 2 Of presumption not established by law
        Section IV Of the confession of the party
        Section V Of the proof by oath
    Title IV Of engagements formed without agreements, or of quasi contracts and quasi offences
      Section I Of the quasi contract
      Section II Of quasi crimes or offences
    Title V Of marriage contract
      Chapter I General dispositions
      Chapter II Of the various kinds of matrimonial agreements
        Section I Of donations made in consideration of marriage
        Section II Of dowry or marriage portion
        Section III Of paraphernalia or extra dotal effects
        Section IV Of the partnership or community of acquests or gains
      Chapter III Of the separation of property
    Title VI Of sale
      Chapter I Of the nature and form of the contract of sale, and of the manner in which it is to be performed
      Chapter II Of persons capable of buying and selling, and of things which may be sold
      Chapter III Of the obligations of the seller
        Section I Of the tradition or delivery of the thing sold
        Section II Of the warranty, in case of eviction of the thing sold
        Section III Of the warranty of the defects of the thing sold or of the redhibitory vices
      Chapter IV Of the obligations of the buyer
      Chapter V Of the nullity and rescissions of the sale
        Section I Of the power or right of redemption
        Section II Of the rescission of sales on account of lesion
      Chapter VI Of sales by cant or auction
      Chapter VII Of the assignment or transfer of debts and other incorporeal rights
    Title VII Of exchange
    Title VIII Of letting and hiring
      Chapter I Of the several species of contracts for letting and hiring
      Chapter II Of the contract for letting out things
        Section I Of the form and duration of leases
        Section II Of the obligations of the lessor
        Section III Of the obligations of the lessee
        Section IV Of the dissolution of leases
      Chapter III Of the letting out of labour or industry
        Section I Of the hiring of servants and workmen
        Section II Of carriers and watermen
        Section III Of plots for buildings and other works
    Title IX Of partnership
      Chapter I General dispositions
      Chapter II Of the various kinds of partnerships
      Chapter III Of the obligations of partners towards each other, and towards third persons
        Section I Of the obligations of partners towards each other
        Section II Of the obligations of partners towards third persons
      Chapter IV Of the different manners in which partnerships end
    Title X Of loan
      Chapter I Of the loan for use or commodatum
        Section I Of the nature of the loan for use
        Section II Of the engagements of the borrower for use
        Section III Of the engagements of the lender for use
      Chapter II Of the loan for consumption or mutuum
        Section I Of the nature of the loan for consumption
        Section II Of the obligations of the lender for consumption
        Section III Of the engagements of the borrower for consumption
      Chapter III Of loan on interest
    Title XI Of deposit and sequestration
      Chapter I Of deposit in general and of its divers kinds
      Chapter II Of the deposit properly so called
        Section I Of the nature and essence of the contract of deposit
        Section II Of the obligations of the depository
        Section III Of the obligations of him by whom the deposit has been made
        Section IV Of the necessary deposit
      Chapter III Of sequestration
        Section I Of its different species
        Section II Of the conventional sequestration
        Section III Of the judicial sequestration or deposit
    Title XII Of aleatory contracts
    Title XIII Of mandate or commission
      Chapter I Of the nature of proxies, mandates and commissions
      Chapter II What persons may be appointed attornies in fact
      Chapter III Of the obligations of a person acting under a power of attorney
      Chapter IV Of the obligations of the principal who acts by his attorney in fact
      Chapter V How the procuration expires
    Title XIV Of suretyship
      Chapter I Of the nature and extent of suretyship
      Chapter II Of the effects of suretyship
        Section I Of the effects of suretyship between the creditor and the surety
        Section II Of the effects of suretyship between the debtor and the surety
        Section III Respecting the effects of suretyship between the sureties
      Chapter III Of the extinction of suretyship
      Chapter IV Of the legal and judicial sureties
    Title XV Of transactions
    Title XVI Of respite
    Title XVII Of compromises or arbitration
    Title XVIII Of pledge
    Title XIX Of privileges and mortgages
      Chapter I Of the nature of a mortgage and of its several sorts
      Chapter II Who may mortgage and what thing may be mortgaged
      Chapter III Of the effects of mortgage
        Section I Of the effects of mortgage with regard to the debtor
        Section II Of the effects of mortgages against third possessors and of the action of mortgage
        Section III Of the registering of mortgages and of the register kept for that purpose
      Chapter IV Of the order of privileges and mortgages
        Section I Of the preference and order of privileges
      Chapter V How privileges or mortgages expire or are extinguished
    Title XX Of occupancy, possession and prescription
      Chapter I Of occupancy
      Chapter II Of possession
      Chapter III Of prescription
        Section I Of the possession required to establish prescription
        Section II Of the causes which suspend or interrupt prescriptions
        Section III Of the several species of prescription
    Title XXI Of the title by judgment or seizure
Index
Manuscript index
Manuscript index Part 2

SECTION II - OF THE COLLATION OF GOODS

Art. 192. The collation of goods is the supposed or real return which an heir makes to the mass of some property, which he received in advancement or otherwise, in order that such property may be partaken as well as the other effects of the succession.

Art. 193. Children or grand children coming to the succession of their fathers, mothers, or other ascendants, must collect what they have received from them by donation inter vivos either directly or indirectly; and they cannot claim the legacies made to them by such ascendants, unless the said ascendants should have ordered the contrary.

Art. 194. The obligation of collating is founded on the equality which must naturally be observed between children who come to partake among them, the succession of their father, mother, and other ascendants; and also on the presumption that what was given or bequeathed to children by their ascendants, was so disposed of, in advancement of what they could one day expect from their succession.
This rule obtains whether the said children or descendants succeed to their ascendants, as testamentary or as legal heirs, and whether they did accept the succession purely and simply, or with the benefit of an inventory.

Art. 195. The collation must take place whether the donor has formally ordered it, or has remained silent on the subject; for the collation is always presumed where it has not been expressly forbidden.

Art. 196. But things given or bequeathed to children, or other descendants by their ascendants, to remain in their possession as an advantage over and above the other children or descendants their co-heirs, shall not be collated, it the donor has formally expressed his will that what he thus gave was an advantage or extra part or that it should not be subjected to collation.
The declaration that the gift or legacy is made as an advantage or extra part may be included in the instrument where such disposition is contained, or in a separate instrument, provided that in this last case, such instrument be executed before a notary and two witnesses.

Art. 197. If upon calculation of the value of advantages thus made and of the other effects remaining in the succession, such remaining part should prove insufficient to give to the other children their legitime or filial portion, the donee would then be obliged to collate the sum by him received as far as necessary to complete the said filial portion; and in the said calculation of the legitime or filial portion, the property given or bequeathed by the ascendants not only to their children, but even to all other persons, whether relations or strangers, must be included.

Art. 198. The obligation of collating is particular to children or descendants, succeeding to their fathers, or mothers or other ascendants, and does not extend further.
Thus ascendants called to inherit from their children and lawful descendants, and collaterals or strangers, to whom an inheritance accrues by testament, or by law, are not obliged to collate to their co-heirs, the gifts and legacies, which they may have received from the deceased, unless the donor should have submitted them by express words to such collation.

Art. 199. Of the children or descendants, those only are obliged to collate, who have a right of legitime in the succession of their fathers or mothers or other ascendants.
Therefore natural children inheriting from their mother or father in the cases prescribed by law, are liable to any collation between them, if they have not been expressly subjected to it by the donor, because the law gives them no right of legitime in their successions.

Art. 200. If children or other lawful descendants holding property or legacies to be collated, should renounce the inheritance of the ascendants from whom they have received such property, they may retain the gift or claim the legacy to them made, without being subject to any collation.
If however the remaining amount of the inheritance should not be sufficient for the legitime of the other children, including in the estate of the deceased, the property which the person renouncing would have collated, if he had become heir, he would then be obliged to collate up to the sum necessary to complete the said legitime.

Art. 201. To make descendants liable to collation, as prescribed in the preceding articles, they must come as heirs in the succession of the ascendant from whom they have received immediately the gift or legacy.
Therefore grand children to whom some gift was made or some legacy left by their grand father or grand mother, since the death of their father or mother, are obliged to collate, when they are called to the inheritance of the said grand father or grand mother, jointly with the other grand children, or by representation with their uncles or aunts, brothers or sisters of their father or mother, because a legitime or filial portion is due to them in the estate of their grand father or grand mother, on which it is presumed that their said grand father or grand mother had intended to make the said gift or leave the said legacy by anticipation.

Art. 202. But gifts made or legacies left to a grand child by his grand father or grand mother, during the life of his father, are always reputed to be exempt from collation, because while the father is alive, there is no legitime due to the grand child in the estate of his grand father.
The father inheriting from the grand father is not liable to collate the gifts or legacies left to his child.

Art. 203. In like manner the grand child, when inheriting in his own name from the grand father or grand mother, is not obliged to refund the gifts made to his father even though he should have accepted his succession; but if the grand child comes in only by right of representation, he must collate what had been given to his father, even though he should have renounced his inheritance.

Art. 204. What has been said in the three preceding articles, of grand children inheriting from their grand father or grand mother, must be understood of the great grand children and other lawful descendants called to inherit from their ascendants, either in their own name or by right of representation.

Art. 205. The advantage which a father bestows upon his son, though in any other manner than by donation, or legacy, are likewise subject to collation.
Thus when a father has sold a thing to his son at a very low price, or has paid for him the price of some purchase, or has spent money to improve his son's estate, all that is to collation.
The same rule obtains when a father subscribes in favor of his son a feigned obligation, or when upon an account of guardianship, he acknowledges himself debtor of a sum which he does not really owe, or when he does any such like act.

Art. 206. The acts, however, of the ascendants which are beneficial to his descendants, are not all liable to collation; those acts by which the ascendant makes some part of his property to pass into the hands of his descendants by concealed and indirect means are only liable to it; thus there is no collation due where a partnership was bona fide entered into between the ascendant and one of his lawful descendants, when the conditions of such partnership are duly proved.
The same rule applies to all burthensome obligations, and to all mercantile transactions which the son executes with his father, none of which give lieu to collation, unless there has been on the part of the father an express or tacit intention of bestowing an advantage on his son, and there is, by that means, some part of the patrimony of one child taken to increase the patrimony of the other.

Art. 207. There exists however one sort of advantage made by ascendants to their children or lawful descendants, which by their privileged nature, are not subject to collation, though it cannot be said they were not taken out of the mass of the donor's estate.
Thus pensions, aliments and maintenance supplied to children, and books and other expences laid out for their education, are not liable to collation, though a library is.
No collation is due to the wedding clothes and wedding expences: but the trousseau of the daughter is liable to it.
New year's gifts and small presents, money given to the minor and by him spent and even money given to the son of age, for play and for his pleasures, are not subject to collation.

Art. 208. But the child is obliged to collate what has been spent to provide him a living or instruct him in some trade or profession or to give him a dowry or marriage portion.
Collation must likewise be made of what the father paid either for the ransom of his son prisoner of war or for any fine or civil reparation to which he might have been sentenced.

Art. 209. In order to the execution of the collation, it must be first considered whether the things subject to it, are moveable or immoveable.

Art. 210. In the first case, if the donee, at the time of the partition, is in possession of the immoveables to him given, he is bound to collate them in nature, or to take so much less out of the other immoveables of the succession, equal in value.

Art. 211. To the donee who collates in nature the immoveable to him given, reimbursement must be made by his co-heirs of all the necessary and useful expences by him made for the improvement of such immoveable.

Art. 212. In the interval between the donation and the partition, the immoveable given is at the risk of the succession; in such a manner that if it perishes fortuitously or without the fault of the donee, he shall not be bound to bring in the value of it.

Art. 213. When the collation of the immoveable is made in nature, if it be improved, it must be considered whether such improvements are natural or obtained by industry, that is to say, whether they have cost nothing to the donee, or are the fruits of the expences by him made.
If the said improvements are natural, as if an alluvion has been added to the tenement, or the timber has increased over it, &c. such improvements are pure gain to the succession and belong to it.
If they were obtained by industry, they equally belong to the succession: but as it is not permitted that one should enrich himself at the expence of the other, the donee who has made them, must receive a compensation, not precisely equal to the amount of his expences, but in proportion to the benefit accrued thereby to the succession at the time of the partition.

Art. 214. When an immoveable subject to collation, happens to have suffered diminution or deterioration, if such loss is owing to the fault of the donee, he is accountable for it to the succession; but if it has happened by casualties, the succession must then bear it.

Art. 215. When the donee has alienated the immoveable subject to collation, it must be considered whether he has been compelled to such alienation or has done it voluntarily.
If the alienation had been forced, as for example, if the donee has been compelled to sell his tenement for some object of public utility, his obligation of collating the thing in nature shall be converted into an obligation of collating the price by him received for it.
If the alienation has been voluntary, it shall not suffice for the donee to collate the price by him received for the thing. If the immoveable is increased in value it shall be appraised in its state at the time of the partition; and the donee shall be obliged to collate it not indeed in nature, since it will not be in his power, but at the price of appraisement.

Art. 216. If the tenement has diminished in value by the fault of the donee or of the buyer under him, collation shall be made both of the tenement and of the damages resulting from such deterioration, according to appraisement.
If on the contrary the deterioration has been caused by some casualty, the co-heirs shall have a right to the collation of the value only of the tenement, in its state at the time of the partition, but not of the price which the donee may have received for it.
By the same reason, if the tenement has entirely perished since the alienation without the fault of the buyer, the donee shall be completely freed from the obligation of collating and the whole price of sale shall then remain pure benefit to him.

Art. 217. When the collation is made in nature, the effects are united to the mass of the inheritance, free from all charges created by the donee; but creditors holding mortgages may intervene in the partition, and make opposition to the collation which could injure their rights.

Art. 218. When the gift of an immoveable made to a lawful child or descendant exceeds the portion which the ascendant could legally dispose of the overplus must be brought in nature, if such exceeding part can be separated conveniently.
In the contrary case, if the overplus is of more than the half of the value of the immoveable, the donee shall be bound to collate the whole with reserve to take previously out of the mass the value of the portion that could be disposed of.  But if that portion exceeds the half of the value of the immoveable, the donee shall be at liberty to retain such immoveable entire with reserve to take less out of the mass and to give a compensation to his co-heirs in money or otherwise.

Art. 219. The co-heirs who makes the collation in nature, may keep possession of the tenement until final reimbursement of the sum to him due for expences or improvements as above mentioned.

Art. 220. The collation of moveables is not due in nature; but is always made by taking less according to the value of the moveables at the time they were given.
So the donee of the moveable does not owe the thing itself, but the price of it; consequently the moveable is at his risks.
The collation of moveables given shall be made according to the list and estimation of them, which to that effect ought to be annexed to the instrument of donation; and in defect of such list, according to an appraisement made by skillful persons at a just price and without augmentation.

Art. 221. The collation of money given is made by taking less out of the money of the succession.
In case of insufficiency, the donee may dispense himself with collating the money, by abandoning so much on the value of the moveables, and in defect of moveables, on the value of the immoveables of the succession.

Art. 222. The fruits and revenues of things subject to collation are due only from the day on which the succession is opened.

SECTION II - DES RAPPORTS

Art. 192. On entend par rapport, la remise fictive ou réelle qu'un héritier fait à la masse, de quelque effet qu'il a reçu en avancement d'hoirie ou autrement, afin que ledit effet soit compris au partage, comme les autres biens de la succession.

Art. 193. Les enfans ou descendans légitimes, venant à la succession de leurs pères et mères, ou autres ascendans, doivent rapporter tout ce qu'ils ont reçu d'eux, par donation entre vifs directement ou indirectement; et ils ne peuvent réclamer les legs à eux faits par lesdits ascendans, à moins que lesdits ascendans n'ayent expressément disposé au contraire.
Cette règle a lieu, soit que lesdits enfans ou descendans viennent à la succession de leurs ascendans, comme héritiers testamentaires, ou comme héritiers légitimes, et soit qu'ils ayent accepté la succession purement et simplement, ou sous bénéfice d'inventaire.

Art. 194. L'obligation de rapporter est fondée sur l'égalité qui doit naturellement être gardée entre les enfans et autres descendans légitimes, venant à partager entre eux la succession de leurs père et mère et autres ascendans, et sur ce qu'on présume que ce qui a été donné ou légué auxdits enfans ou descendans par leurs ascendans, ne l'a été qu'en avancement de ce qu'ils pourraient espérer un jour dans leur succession.

Art. 195. Ce rapport doit avoir lieu, soit que le donateur l'ait formellement ordonné, ou qu'il ait gardé le silence à cet égard, parce que le rapport est toujours présumé ordonné, s'il n'est précisément défendu.

Art. 196. Mais les choses données ou léguées aux enfans ou autres descendans, par leurs ascendans, pour leur demeurer à titre d'avantage, ou hors part, sur les autres enfans ou descendans leurs co-héritiers, ne se rapportent point, si le donateur à exprimé formellement sa volonté, que ce qu'il donnait fut à titre d'avantage, ou hors part, ou ne fut pas sujet au rapport.
La déclaration, que le don ou le legs est fait à titre d'avantage ou hors part, peut être contenue, soit dans l'acte qui renfermera la disposition, ou dans un acte séparé, pourvu, que dans ce dernier cas, l'acte soit passé par devant un notaire et deux témoins.

Art. 197. Si, en calculant la valeur des dons faits à titre d'avantage, ou hors part, ou avec dispense de rapport, avec celle des autres biens qui restent dans l'hérédité, les autres enfans ne se trouvent pas avoir leur légitime sur le total, le donataire sera tenu de rapporter à ses co-héritiers, jusqu'à concurrence de leur légitime, quand bien même il voudrait se tenir au don et renoncer à l'hérédité.   
Dans cette supputation de la légitime, il faut compter ce que les ascendans ont donné ou légué, non-seulement à leurs enfans, mais encore à toutes autres personnes, parentes ou étrangères.

Art. 198. L'obligation de rapport est particulière aux enfans ou descendans légitimes venant à la succession de leurs pères, mères et autres ascendans, et ne s'etend pas à d'autres personnes.
Ainsi, les ascendans venant à la succession de leurs descendans légitimes, et les collatéraux ou étrangers venant à une succession quelconque, soit par testament ou ab intestat, ne sont point assujettis à rapporter à leurs co-héritiers, les dons et legs qu'ils peuvent avoir reçus particulièrement du défunt: à moins qu'ils n'ayent été expressément soumis à ce rapport par le donateur.

Art. 199. Parmi les enfans ou descendans, il n'y a que ceux qui ont un droit de légitime dans la succession de leurs père, mère ou autres ascendans, qui soient assujettis au rapport.
Ainsi, les enfans naturels venant à la succession de leurs père et mère naturels, dans les cas prescrits par la loi, ne sont point soumis à rapport entre eux, s'ils n'y ont été expressément assujettis par leur père ou mère, parce que la loi ne leur accorde aucun droit de légitime sur leur succession.

Art. 200. Si les enfans ou autres descendans légitimes, qui ont des biens ou legs sujets au rapport, renoncent à la succession de l'ascendant de qui ils tiennent ces biens, ils peuvent retenir le don ou réclamer le legs à eux fait, sans être assujettis à aucun rapport.
Néanmoins, si ce qui reste dans l'hérédité ne suffis pas pour la légitime des antres enfans, en comprenant dans les biens du défunt ceux qu'aurait dû rapporter celui qui a renoncé à l'hérédité, s'il se fut rendu héritier, il sera tenu de rapporter jusqu'à concurrence de ce qui manque pour compléter cette légitime.

Art. 201. Pour que les descendans légitimes soient sujets au rapport, ainsi qu'il est prescrit dans les articles précédens, il faut qu'ils viennent comme héritiers à la succession de l'ascendant de qui ils tiennent immédiatement le don ou le legs.
Ainsi, les petits-enfans légitime à qui il a été fait quelque don ou legs par leur aïeul ou aïeule depuis la mort de leur père ou mère, sont obligé au rapport, lorsqu'ils viennent à la succession de cet aïeul ou aïeule, soit avec les autres petits-enfans légitimes, ou par représentation avec leurs oncles ou tantes, frères ou sœurs de leur père ou mère, parce qu'il leur est dû alors une légitime dans la succession de leur aïeul ou aïeule sur laquelle lesdits aïeul ou aïeule sont présumés avoir voulu leur donner ou léguer par anticipation.

Art. 202. Mais les dons et legs faits à un petit-enfant par son aïeul ou aïeule, pendant la vie de son père, sont toujours réputés faits avec dispense de rapport, parce que, tant que le père vit, il n'est pas dû de légitime au petit-enfant dans la succession de l'aïeul.
Et le père, venant à la succession de l'aïeul et de l'aïeule, n'est pas tenu de rapporter les dons et legs ainsi faits à son fils.

Art. 203. Pareillement, le petit-enfant venant de son chef à la succession de son aïeul ou aïeule, n'est pas tenu de rapporter le don fait à son père, même quand il aurait accepté la succession de celui-ci, mais si ce petit-enfant ne vient que par représentation, il doit rapporter ce qui avait été donné à son père, même dans le cas où il aurait répudié sa succession.

Art. 204. Ce qui a été dit dans les trois précédens articles, des petits-enfans venant à la succession de leur aïeul ou aïeule, doit s'entendre aussi des arrière-petits-enfans et autres descendans légitimes venant à succéder à leurs ascendans, soit de leur chef ou par représentation.

Art. 205. Les avantages qu'un père fait à son fils, quoique autrement que par donation ou legs, sont également sujets au rapport.
Ainsi, quand le père a fait à son fils une vente à vil prix, ou qu'il a payé pour lui le prix de quelque acquisition; qu'il a fait des dépenses et améliorations sur les biens de son fils: le tout est sujet au rapport.
Il en est de même, lorsque le père passe à son fils une reconnaissance simulée; lorsque, par une transaction sur un compte de tutelle, il se reconnait débiteur d'une somme qu'il ne doit pas effectivement, ou lorsqu'il fait d'autres actes semblables.

Art. 206. Néanmoins tous les actes faits par un ascendant et dont quelques-uns de ses descendans ressentent de l'avantage, no sont pas sujets à rapport; il n'y a que ceux par lesquels l'ascendant fait passer quelque chose de ses biens à quelqu'un de ses descendans, par une voie couverte et indirecte.
Ainsi il n'est pas dû de rapport pour les associations faites sans fraude, entre l'ascendant et l'un de ses descendans légitimes; lorsque les conditions en sont prouvées d'une manière certaine.
Il en est de même de toutes les obligations à titre onéreux et des actes de commerce que le fils passe avec son père, lesquels ne donnent ouverture au rapport, que lorsqu'il s'y trouve de la part du père, une intention expresse ou tacite d'avantager son fils, et qu'en même-tems il sort, par ce moyen, quelque chose du patrimoine de l'un pour entrer dans celui de l'autre.

Art. 207. Néanmoins il existe un genre d'avantages faits aux enfans ou descendans légitimes par leurs ascendans, qui, par le privilège de leur nature, ne sont point sujets à rapport, quoiqu'on ne puisse pas dire qu'ils ne soient pas sortis de la masse des biens du donateur.
Ainsi les pensions, alimens et entretien fournis aux enfans, comme aussi les livres et ce qui a été dépensé pour leur instruction et éducation, ne sont point sujets à rapport: mais une bibliothèque l'est.
On ne rapporte pas non plus les habits nuptiaux, frais de noces, mais seulement le trousseau de la fille.
Les étrennes et les petits présens, les deniers donnés au mineur qui les a dissipés, ceux même que le donateur a donné au majeur pour le jeu ou pour ses plaisirs, ne sont pas rapportables.

Art. 208. Mais l'enfant est obligé de rapporter ce qui a été dépensé pour lui procurer un état, un éstablissement ou un métier, comme aussi la dot qui lui a été donné en mariage.
Il en est de même de ce que le père a payé, soit pour la rançon de son fils prisonnier de guerre, seit pour une amende ou réparation civile à laquelle il aurait été condamné.

Art. 209. Pour exécuter l'obligation de rapport, il faut distinguer si les choses sujettes au rapport, sont ou des héritages ou des effets mobiliers.

Art. 210. Dans le premier cas, si le donataire, lors du partage, a les héritages a lui donnés en sa possession, il est tenu de les rapporter en nature, ou de moins prendre, en autres héritages de la succession, de pareille valeur et bonté.

Art. 211. Le donataire qui fait le rapport, en nature, de l'immeuble à lui donné, doit être remboursé par ses co-héritiers, des dépenses utiles et nécessaires qu'il a faites pour l'augmentation desdits héritages.

Art. 212. Dans l'intervalle de la donation aux partages, l'héritage donné est aux risques de la succession; de manière que s'il périt par cas fortuit, ou sans le fait ni la faute du donataire, il est déchargé de l'obligation de le rapporter, non plus que sa valeur.

Art. 213. Lorsque le rapport de l'immeuble est fait en nature, et qu'il se trouve amélioré, il faut distinguer si les augmentations, qui se trouvent dans l'héritage au tems du rapport, sont naturelles ou industrielles; c'est-à-dire, si elles n'ont rien coute au donataire, ou si elles sont le fruit des dépenses qu'il a faites.
Si elles sont naturelles, comme s'il s'est fait sur l'héritage un alluvion, une accrue de bois, &c. c'est un pur gain pour la succession, et c'est elle qui en profite.
Si elles sont industrielles, elles appartiennent également à la succession; mais comme il n'est permis à personne de s'enrichir aux depens d'autrui, le donataire qui les a faites, doit en être récompensé, non pas précisément sur le pied qu'elles lui ont couté, mais jusqu'à concurrence du profit qu'en tire la succession, eu égard au tems du partage.

Art. 214. Lorsque l'héritage sujet au rapport, se trouve diminué ou déprécié, si c'est par le fait ou la faute du donataire, celui-ci en doit faire raison à l'hérédité; si c'est par cas fortuit, c'est l'hérédité qui en doit souffrir.

Art. 215. Lorsque le donataire a aliéné l'héritage sujet au rapport, il faut distinguer si la vente a été forcée ou volontaire de sa part.
Si l'aliénation a été forcée: par exemple, si le donataire a été obligé de vendre son héritage pour un objet d'utilité publique, son obligation de rapporter la chose en nature, se convertira en celle de rapporter les sommes de deniers qu'il a perçues à sa place.
Si l'aliénation a été volontaire, il ne lui suffira pas de rapporter le prix qu'il en a tiré: si l'héritage est augmenté, il sera estimé dans l'état où il est au moment du partage et le domataire sera obligé de le rapporter, non pas à la vérité en nature, puisqu'il ne l'a plus; mais sur le pied de l'estimation qui en aura été faire.

Art. 216. Si l'héritage est dégradé par la faute du donataire, ou de son acheteur, le rapport embrassera et l'estimation de l'héritage et celle des dommages et intérêts résultant des dégradations.
Si au contraire les dégradations proviennent d'un cas fortuit, les co-héritiers n'auront droit qu'au rapport de la valeur de l'héritage considéré dans l'état où il se trouve lors du partage, et ils ne pourront exiger celui de la somme que le donataire a pu tirer de son aliénation.
Par la même raison, si l'héritage est entièrement péri depuis l'aliénation, sans la faute du tiers acquéreur, le donataire sera absolument déchargé de l'obligation du rapport, et profitera de tout le prix que la vente lui aura procuré.

Art. 217. Lorsque le rapport se fait en nature, les biens se réunissent à la masse de la succession, francs et quittes de toutes charges créées par le donataire; mais les créanciers ayant hypothèque peuvent intervenir au partage, pour s'opposer à ce que le rapport se fasse en fraude de leurs droits.

Art. 218. Lorsque le don d'un immeuble fait à un enfant, ou descendant légitime, excède la portion dont l'ascendant a pu naturellement disposer d'après la loi, le rapport de l'excédent se fait en nature, si le retranchement de cet excédent peut s'opérer commodément.
Dans le cas contraire, si l'excédent est de plus de moitié de la valeur de l'immeuble, le donataire devra rapporter l'immeuble en totalité, sauf à prélever sur la masse, la valeur de la portion disponible; si cette portion excède la moitié de la valeur de l'immeable, le donataire peut retenir l'immeuble en totalité, sauf à moins prendre et à récompenser ses co-héritiers en argent ou autrement.

Art. 219. Le co-héritier qui fait le rapport en nature, peut en retenir la possession jusqu'au remboursement effectif des sommes qui lui sont dues pour dépenses et améliorations, ainsi qu'il est prescrit plus haut.

Art. 220. Le rapport des meubles n'est point dû en nature, mais il se fait toujours en moins prenant, sur le pied de la somme que valaient ces meubles lorsqu'ils ont été donnés.
Ainsi, le donataire d'un meuble n'est point débiteur du rapport de la chose, mais bien de son prix, et par conséquent le meuble est à ses risques.
Le rapport de la valeur des meubles donnés se fera d'après leur état estimatif, qui sera à cet effet annexé à l'acte de donation; ou, à défaut de cet état, d'après une estimation par experts à juste prix et sans crue.

Art. 221. Le rapport de l'argent donné se fait en moins prenant dans le numéraire de la succession.
En cas d'insuffisance, le donataire peut se dispenser de rapporter du numéraire, en abandonnant jusqu'à due concurrence du mobilier; et à défaut de mobilier, des immeubles de la succession.

Art. 222. Les fruits et les intérêts, des choses sujettes à rapport, ne sont dues qu'à compter du jour de l'ouverture de la succession.

< Previous | Next >© Manuscript notes copyright 1968 by Louis V. de la Vergne.
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