LSU Law Login
LSU Law HomeProspective StudentsCurrent StudentsFaculty & StaffAlumni & FriendsEmployers & Legal Community
A-Z IndexAbout LSU LawLibraryContact UsSearch 
Digest Online
Back to Civil Law OnlineBack to Civil Law Online
English French English & French Manuscript General Manuscript General Image Manuscript Article Manuscript Article Image

Table of Contents

Cover Page
Preliminary title Of the general definitions of rights and the promulgation of the laws
    Chapter I Of law and customs
    Chapter II Of the publication of the laws
    Chapter III Of the effects of laws
    Chapter IV Of the application and construction of laws
    Chapter V Of the repeal of laws
Book I Of persons
    Title I Of the distinction of persons, and the privation of certain civil rights in certain cases
      Chapter I Of the distinction of persons established by nature
      Chapter II Of the distinctions of persons which are established by law
    Title II Of domicil and the manner of changing the same
    Title III Of absent persons
      Chapter I Of the curatorship of absent persons
      Chapter II Of the putting into provisional possession the heirs of the absentee
      Chapter III Of the effects of absence upon the eventual rights which may belong to the absentee
      Chapter IV Of the effects of absence respecting marriage
      Chapter V Of the care of minor children whose father has disappeared
    Title IV Of husband and wife
      Chapter I On marriage
      Chapter II How marriages may be contracted or made
      Chapter III Of the nullity of marriages
      Chapter IV Of the respective rights and duties of married persons
      Chapter V Of the dissolution of marriages
      Chapter VI Of second marriages
    Title V Of the separation from bed and board
      Chapter I Of the causes of separation from bed and board
      Chapter II Of the proceedings on separation from bed and board
      Chapter III Of the provisional proceedings to which a suit for separation may give occasion
      Chapter IV Of objections to the action of separation from bed and board
      Chapter V Of the effects of separation from bed and board
    Title VI Of master and servant
      Chapter I Of the several sorts of servants
      Chapter II Of free servants
      Chapter III Of slaves
    Title VII Of father and child
      Chapter I Of children in general
      Chapter II Of legitimate children
        Section I Of legitimacy resulting from marriage
        Section II Of the manner of proving the legitimate filiation
      Chapter III Of illegitimate children
        Section I Of legitimation
        Section II Of the acknowledgment of illegitimate children
      Chapter IV Of adoption
      Chapter V Of paternal authority
        Section I Of the duties of parents towards their legitimate children, and of the duties of legitimate children towards their parents
        Section II Of the duties of parents towards their natural children, and of the duties of natural children towards their parents
    Title VIII Of minors, of their tutorship, curatorship and emancipation
      Chapter I Of tutorship
        Section I General dispositions
        Section II Of tutorship by nature
        Section III Of tutorship by will
        Section IV Of the tutorship by the effect of the law
        Section V Of dative tutorship
        Section VI Of the under tutor
        Section VII Of the causes which dispense or excuse from the tutorship
        Section VIII Of incapacity for, exclusion from and deprivation of the tutorship
        Section IX Of the administration of the tutor
      Chapter II Of the curatorship of minors
      Chapter III Of emancipation
    Title IX Of persons insane, idiots, and other persons incapable of administering their estate
      Chapter I Of the interdiction and curatorship of persons incapable of administering their estate, whether on account of insanity or of some other infirmity
      Chapter II Of the other persons to whom curators are appointed
    Title X Of communities or corporations
      Chapter I Of the nature of communities or corporations, of their use and kind
      Chapter II Of the rights and privileges of communities or corporations and of their incapacities
      Chapter III Of the dissolution of communities or corporations
Book II Of things and of the different modifications of property
    Title I Of things or estates
      Chapter I Of the distinction of things or estates
      Chapter II Of immoveables
      Chapter III Of moveables
      Chapter IV Of estates considered in their relation to those who possess them
    Title II Of absolute ownership
      Chapter I Universal principles
      Chapter II Of the right of accession to what is produced by the thing
      Chapter III Of the right of accession to what unites or incorporates itself to the thing
        Section I Of the right of accession concerning immoveables
        Section II Of the right of accession concerning moveable things
    Title III Of usufruct, use and habitation
      Chapter I Of usufruct
        Section I General definitions
        Section II Of the rights of the usufructuary
        Section III Of the obligations of the usufructuary
        Section IV Of the obligations of the owner
        Section V How usufruct expires
      Chapter II Of the use and habitation
    Title IV Of predial services or services of land
      Chapter I General principles
      Chapter II Of services which originate from the natural situation of the place
      Chapter III Of services imposed by law
        Section I Of walls, fences, and ditches in common
        Section II Of the distance and of the intermediary works required for certain buildings
        Section III Of lights on the property of a neighbor
        Section IV Of the manner of carrying off rain from the roof
        Section V Of the right of passage
      Chapter IV Of services established by the act of man
        Section I Of the different kinds of services which may be established by the act of man
        Section II How services are acquired
        Section III Of the rights of the proprietor of the estate to which the service is due
        Section IV How Services are extinguished
Book III Of the different manners of acquiring the property of things
    Preliminary title General dispositions
    Title I Of successions
      Chapter I Of the different sorts of successions and heirs
      Chapter II Of legal successions
        Section I General rules
        Section II Of the succession of descendants
        Section III Of the succession of ascendants
        Section IV Of the succession of collaterals
      Chapter III Of irregular successions
      Chapter IV In what manner successions are opened
      Chapter V Of the incapacity and unworthiness of the heirs
      Chapter VI In what manner a succession is accepted and how it is renounced
        Section I Of the acceptance pure and simple
        Section II Of the acceptance of a succession with the benefit of an inventory
      Chapter VII Of the administration of vacant estates and estates ab intestato
      Chapter VIII Of partition among heirs and of the collation of goods
        Section I Of the nature of partition and in what manner it is made
        Section II Of the collation of goods
        Section III Of the payment of debts
        Section IV Of the effect of partition and of its rescision
    Title II Of donations inter vivos (between living persons) and mortis causa (in prospect of death)
      Chapter I General dispositions
      Chapter II Of the capacity necessary for disposing of and receiving by donation inter vivos or mortis causa
      Chapter III Of the portion disposable, and of its reduction in case of excess
        Section I Of the disposable portion and the legitime
        Section II Of the reduction of dispositions inter vivos or mortis causa; of the manner in which it is made and of its effects
      Chapter IV Of dispositions reprobated by the law in donations inter vivos and mortis causa
      Chapter V Of donations inter vivos (between living)
        Section I Of the irrevocability of donations inter vivos
        Section II Of the form of donations inter vivos
        Section III Of the exceptions to the rule of the irrevocability of donations inter vivos
      Chapter VI Of dispositions mortis causa (in the prospect of death)
        Section I Of testament or codicil
        Section II Of the form of testaments and codicils
        Section III Of testamentary dispositions
        Section IV Of the institution of heir and of disinherison
        Section V Of legacies
        Section VI Of the opening and the proof of wills, and of testamentary executions
        Section VII Of the revocation of testaments and codicils and of their caducity
        Section VIII Of the interpretation of testamentary dispositions
      Chapter VII Of partitions made by parents among their descendants
      Chapter VIII Of donations made by marriage contract to the husband or wife, and to the children to be born of the marriage
      Chapter IX Of donations between married persons, either by marriage contract, or during the marriage
    Title III Of contracts and of conventional obligations in general
      Chapter I Preliminary dispositions
      Chapter II Of the conditions essential to the validity of agreements
        Section I Of consent
        Section II Of the capability of the parties contracting
        Section III Of the object and the matter of contracts
        Section IV Of the cause
      Chapter III Of the effect of obligations
        Section I General dispositions
        Section II Of the obligation of giving
        Section III Of the obligations of doing or of not doing
        Section IV Of the damages resulting from the non execution of the obligation
        Section V Of the interpretation of the agreements
        Section VI Of the effect of agreements with regard to persons not parties to them
      Chapter IV Of the different kinds of obligations
        Section I Of conditional obligations
          § 1 Of the condition in general and of its different kinds
          § 2 Of the suspensive condition
          § 3 Of the dissolving condition
        Section II Of obligations to be performed at a certain term
        Section III Of the alternative obligations
        Section IV Of obligations in solido or jointly and severally
          § 1 Of the obligation in solido between creditors
          § 2 Of the obligation in solido on the part of debtors
        Section V Of obligations divisible and indivisible
          § 1 Of the effects of a divisible obligation
          § 2 Of the effect of the indivisible obligation
        Section VI Of obligations with penal clauses
      Chapter V Of the extinction of obligations
        Section I Of payment
          § 1 Of payment in general
          § 2 Of payment with subrogation
          § 3 Of the imputation of payments
          § 4 Of tenders of payment, and consignment
          § 5 Of the surrender of property
        Section II Of novation
        Section III Of the remission of the debt
        Section IV Of compensation
        Section V Of confusion
        Section VI Of the loss of the thing due
        Section VII Of the action of nullity or of rescission of agreements
      Chapter VI Of the proof of obligations and of that of payment
        Section I Of the literal proof
          § 1 Of the authentic title
          § 2 Of the acts under private signature
          § 3 Of copies of titles
          § 4 Of recognitive and confirmative acts
        Section II Of testimonial proof
        Section III Of presumptions
          § 1 Of presumptions established by law
          § 2 Of presumption not established by law
        Section IV Of the confession of the party
        Section V Of the proof by oath
    Title IV Of engagements formed without agreements, or of quasi contracts and quasi offences
      Section I Of the quasi contract
      Section II Of quasi crimes or offences
    Title V Of marriage contract
      Chapter I General dispositions
      Chapter II Of the various kinds of matrimonial agreements
        Section I Of donations made in consideration of marriage
        Section II Of dowry or marriage portion
        Section III Of paraphernalia or extra dotal effects
        Section IV Of the partnership or community of acquests or gains
      Chapter III Of the separation of property
    Title VI Of sale
      Chapter I Of the nature and form of the contract of sale, and of the manner in which it is to be performed
      Chapter II Of persons capable of buying and selling, and of things which may be sold
      Chapter III Of the obligations of the seller
        Section I Of the tradition or delivery of the thing sold
        Section II Of the warranty, in case of eviction of the thing sold
        Section III Of the warranty of the defects of the thing sold or of the redhibitory vices
      Chapter IV Of the obligations of the buyer
      Chapter V Of the nullity and rescissions of the sale
        Section I Of the power or right of redemption
        Section II Of the rescission of sales on account of lesion
      Chapter VI Of sales by cant or auction
      Chapter VII Of the assignment or transfer of debts and other incorporeal rights
    Title VII Of exchange
    Title VIII Of letting and hiring
      Chapter I Of the several species of contracts for letting and hiring
      Chapter II Of the contract for letting out things
        Section I Of the form and duration of leases
        Section II Of the obligations of the lessor
        Section III Of the obligations of the lessee
        Section IV Of the dissolution of leases
      Chapter III Of the letting out of labour or industry
        Section I Of the hiring of servants and workmen
        Section II Of carriers and watermen
        Section III Of plots for buildings and other works
    Title IX Of partnership
      Chapter I General dispositions
      Chapter II Of the various kinds of partnerships
      Chapter III Of the obligations of partners towards each other, and towards third persons
        Section I Of the obligations of partners towards each other
        Section II Of the obligations of partners towards third persons
      Chapter IV Of the different manners in which partnerships end
    Title X Of loan
      Chapter I Of the loan for use or commodatum
        Section I Of the nature of the loan for use
        Section II Of the engagements of the borrower for use
        Section III Of the engagements of the lender for use
      Chapter II Of the loan for consumption or mutuum
        Section I Of the nature of the loan for consumption
        Section II Of the obligations of the lender for consumption
        Section III Of the engagements of the borrower for consumption
      Chapter III Of loan on interest
    Title XI Of deposit and sequestration
      Chapter I Of deposit in general and of its divers kinds
      Chapter II Of the deposit properly so called
        Section I Of the nature and essence of the contract of deposit
        Section II Of the obligations of the depository
        Section III Of the obligations of him by whom the deposit has been made
        Section IV Of the necessary deposit
      Chapter III Of sequestration
        Section I Of its different species
        Section II Of the conventional sequestration
        Section III Of the judicial sequestration or deposit
    Title XII Of aleatory contracts
    Title XIII Of mandate or commission
      Chapter I Of the nature of proxies, mandates and commissions
      Chapter II What persons may be appointed attornies in fact
      Chapter III Of the obligations of a person acting under a power of attorney
      Chapter IV Of the obligations of the principal who acts by his attorney in fact
      Chapter V How the procuration expires
    Title XIV Of suretyship
      Chapter I Of the nature and extent of suretyship
      Chapter II Of the effects of suretyship
        Section I Of the effects of suretyship between the creditor and the surety
        Section II Of the effects of suretyship between the debtor and the surety
        Section III Respecting the effects of suretyship between the sureties
      Chapter III Of the extinction of suretyship
      Chapter IV Of the legal and judicial sureties
    Title XV Of transactions
    Title XVI Of respite
    Title XVII Of compromises or arbitration
    Title XVIII Of pledge
    Title XIX Of privileges and mortgages
      Chapter I Of the nature of a mortgage and of its several sorts
      Chapter II Who may mortgage and what thing may be mortgaged
      Chapter III Of the effects of mortgage
        Section I Of the effects of mortgage with regard to the debtor
        Section II Of the effects of mortgages against third possessors and of the action of mortgage
        Section III Of the registering of mortgages and of the register kept for that purpose
      Chapter IV Of the order of privileges and mortgages
        Section I Of the preference and order of privileges
      Chapter V How privileges or mortgages expire or are extinguished
    Title XX Of occupancy, possession and prescription
      Chapter I Of occupancy
      Chapter II Of possession
      Chapter III Of prescription
        Section I Of the possession required to establish prescription
        Section II Of the causes which suspend or interrupt prescriptions
        Section III Of the several species of prescription
    Title XXI Of the title by judgment or seizure
Manuscript index
Manuscript index Part 2


Art. 96. The testamentary, or legal, or irregular heir, who is afraid to accept or renounce a succession, before having had the necessary time to be informed of its property and charges, may accept the succession with the benefit of an inventory.

Art. 97. The benefit of an inventory is a right by virtue of which the heir upon his declaring that he accepts the succession only with that benefit, obtains to be liable for the debts and charges of the estate only so far as the effects of the succession shall amount to, without engaging in any manner, his own property.

Art. 98. In order to the enjoyment of the benefit of inventory, it is necessary -
1st. That the heir should in no manner have meddled with the succession, nor done any act of heirdom.
2dly. That the heir should make his declaration in the office of a notary, in the presence of two witnesses, that his intention is to accept the succession to him accrued, only under the benefit of an inventory.
3dly. That he should make a faithful and exact inventory, with appraisement of all the moveable and immoveable property, effects, titles, and papers of the succession, before a notary public duly authorised by the parish judge to that effect, and in presence of two witnesses.

Art. 99. The heir who has the benefit of an inventory, has three months to form the inventory to him prescribed by the preceding article.
Those three months begin to run from the day on which the death of the deceased is known.
The inventory must be begun within thirty days from that on which the said death is known, and be terminated in the sixty following days.

Art. 100. Besides the delay of three months granted to make the inventory, the beneficiary heir has forty days for deliberating whether he will finally accept or renounce the succession.
The forty days for deliberating begin to run from the day on which the three months granted for making the inventory expire, or from the day on which the inventory is terminated, if it is at an end before the said expiration.

Art. 101. If at the expiration of the three months, the inventory was not terminated, the delay of forty days for deliberating, will nevertheless begin to run from the day of such expiration.
However, after the expiration of the aforesaid delay, the heir, in case of any suit directed against him, may solicit a prorogation, which the court having cognizance of the case, may grant in its prudence, if the heir proves either that he had not been informed of the death, or that the delays have not been sufficient, on account of the situation of the property, or because some contestations have happened, or such like motives.

Art. 102. A consequence of the benefit of an inventory is, that when it is claimed by an heir who has done no act as heir, the creditors nor legatees of the estate, cannot compel him to assume the quality of such, nor obtain against him any judgment while he is within the delays which the law grants him for making the inventory and deliberating, or within the delay further granted to him by the judge, in the cases mentioned in the preceding article; so that if the heir renounces on the expiration of the said delays, or before it, the costs by him lawfully caused until then, are supported by the succession.

Art. 103. The declaration of the heir that he accepts the succession only with the benefit of an inventory, may be made indifferently before or after the formation of the inventory required by law, provided it is made within the delays; and even after the expiration of the said delays, the heir may yet make the inventory, and becomes heir with the benefit of it, if he has done no act of heir, or if there exists against him no final judgment sentencing him in quality of heir pure and simple.

Art. 104. Although the heir who accepts with the benefits of an inventory, be really the lawful heir and true successor of the deceased, the effect however of the benefit of inventory, is to make him appear in the eyes of the creditors and legatees of the succession, rather as administrator of the estate, than as the true heir and proprietor of it.
The heir under such benefit can therefore do all acts of administration, even those the object of which is the liquidation of the estate.

Art. 105. But he cannot sell the moveable nor the immoveable property of the succession without the authorisation of the judge, and such sale must be made at public auction, after the usual advertisements and publications.
If he represents the moveable estate in nature, he is answerable only for the deterioration caused by his neglect.

Art. 106. Good faith is required from the heir under benefit in his administration; but no other diligence is demanded of him than such as he is capable of, and is accustomed to make for his own business; wherefore he is responsible towards his creditors only for gross and weighty faults.

Art. 107. The beneficiary heir must, if the creditors and other persons interested require it, give good and sufficient security for the value of the property contained in the inventory.
In default of such security, they may compel him to deposit all sums which he may hold on any title belonging to the succession, as he will recover them, in one of the banks established under the authority of the territory; such sums to be afterwards applied to the payment of the charges of the succession.

Art. 108. If some creditor has formed any opposition in the hands of the heir under benefit, it shall not be lawful for the said heir to make any payment otherwise than in the order and manner which shall be settled by the judge.
Such oppositions are formed either by appearing at the inventory, and there making a convenient declaration, or by an extra-judicial act notified by means of a notary, wherein mention shall be made of the nature and amount of the debt, and of the privileges or mortgages attending it, if any.

Art. 109. On the expiration of the delays for deliberating, the creditors and legatees may demand of the beneficiary heir, an account of his administration and of the sums which he may have in his hands belonging to the succession.
Upon his failing to render such account, the beneficiary heir may be compelled to pay out of his own fund, the sums thus demanded.

Art. 110. If on the face of such account, the heir owes a balance and refuses to deliver it, he shall be compelled to pay it out of his own property.
If on the contrary he owes no balance, no other resource shall be left to the creditors and legatees, than that of seizing and selling such moveable and immoveable property of the succession as may exist in nature.

Art. 111. If on the expiration of the delays granted to the heir for making the inventory and deliberating, no creditors come forward, or no opposition is made in his hands, the said heir may then render his account of administration before the judge contradictorily with a counsel named to that effect by the judge; and upon the settlement of such account obtain the authorisation of the judge to apply the balance in his hands, to the liquidation of the estate.
And when such authorisation shall have been advertised three times from week to week, in english and in french, either by papers posted up in the usual places or by advices published in at least two of the news papers printed at the city of New-Orleans, if no creditor comes forward, the heir aforesaid shall be at liberty to pay the legataries of the succession.

Art. 112. If however any creditors should present their claims after such payment and there should not remain sufficient funds in the hands of the heir, to discharge their debts, they shall have a right to compel the legataries to bring back their legacies, either in all or in part up to the sum necessary to fill the deficiency; in such case the creditors have a direct action against the legataries, but cannot molest the beneficiary heir, if he has not paid in spite of their opposition.
Such action of the creditors against the legataries becomes barred by the lapse of three years from the date of the settling of the account of the beneficiary heir, on which the said legataries have been paid.

Art. 113. If after the presentation of his account and the advertisements given as explained in the foregoing 111th article, the beneficiary heir has paid any creditors, should then other creditors, who had omitted to present their claims, come forward, and not find sufficient funds to be paid in the whole or in part, such creditors shall have no action against the creditors paid as aforesaid, to make them to refund the same, though the creditors paid were mere chirographaries over whom the others might have had a preference by virtue of privileges or mortgages.

Art. 114. One of the effects which are produced by the benefit of inventory, is that if the heir was himself creditor of the deceased, he shall not mingle his quality of creditor with that of heir, which makes him debtor to himself, but shall conserve his right entire, like the other creditors, with such privileges or mortgages as he may hold.
Thus the beneficiary heir without renouncing to or abandoning the estate of the succession, can be paid by contribution, at so much per pound, with the other creditors who have seized or attached the unincumbered property of the succession, or come in according to the order of his privilege or mortgage, if he has any against such property of the successon, as if affected to such privilege or mortgage.
The beneficiary heir preserves also the privilege of the action of claim or others which he may have on real property sold by the deceased to third persons.

Art. 115. Another effect of the benefit of an inventory is that the heir with such benefit may, if he pleases, renounce the succession by abandoning the property to the creditors and legataries, and giving them an account of his administration until such abandonment.

Art. 116. The property of the beneficiary heir is tacitly mortgaged from the day of his acceptance under the inventory, for the administration for which he is accountable, to the creditors and legataries of the succession and for the deteriorations of which he might be the cause.
The beneficiary heir can claim no commission, nor any other salaries for his administration and management.

Art. 117. The heir who has made himself guilty of concealment, or who has knowingly and knavishly omitted to comprehend in the inventory some effects of the succession, loses his right to the benefit of an inventory.

< Previous | Next >© Manuscript notes copyright 1968 by Louis V. de la Vergne.
Paul M. Hebert Law Center   |    1 E. Campus Dr.   |    Louisiana State University   |    Baton Rouge, LA 70803   |   225/578-5292